Saturday, May 1, 2010

Lavendula

A genus of 28 species of aromatic evergreen shrubs mostly native to dry regions of Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. The Lavenders are part of the larger Mint family. Lavenders grown commercial for perfume production are generally planted in fields in rows 40 inches apart.
In landscaping Lavenders look great in the landscape border, especially when planted with shrub Roses and Autumn Joy Sedum. They also look great when masses or used in rock gardens. The Lavender attract butterflies and hummingbirds. They tolerate heat, drought, salt, excessive wind and even fire, and are not eaten by deer.
All Lavender prefer full sun and soils that are well drained ( especially in winter - sloped site with sandy soil with a coarse sand mulch of 2 inches is recommended in wet climates ). Generally easy to grow, however root rot can kill plants on excessively wet sites, also some of the woolly leafed types have a strong preference to dry or Mediterranean climates. In cold climates, use a mulch that doesn't trap too much moisture during winter to protect the roots from freeze/thaw. Stone mulch rather than organic mulch is recommended for Lavender species.
Water regularly during the first year, water deeply but not too frequent after.
Pruning generally consists of nothing other than shearing after flowering. Straggly plants can be cut back hard during spring. Some species can be cut back to around 8 inches in height every 3 years during early spring to encourage fresh vigorous new growth.
Propagation is from half-hardened cuttings taken during autumn and stem tip cuttings 3 to 4 inches long taken during summer. Use a soil-less mix and do not mist the cuttings as that would encourage rot. Removing lower leaves and dipping in rooting hormone is recommended. Propagation can also be done from seed though natural hybridizing is common. Seed germinates in about 15 days.
Initial growth is very fast; plugs can produce saleable plants in just 8 weeks.
In zones 5 and 6 Lavender should be planted during spring only. In warmer climates, they can be planted during both spring and fall.
PHARMACOLOGY: Lavender Tea promotes relaxation and helps treat insomnia. It may calm anxiety and also migrane headaches. To make lavender tea, infuse a handful of dried lavender blossoms in a pot of boiling water. Let the tea steep for 8 to 10 minutes.
Lavender is frequently used in the making of perfumes. Lavender fragrance is known to relax and soothe the body and mind. Lavender oil is also used for aromatherapy.
Lavender Oil is also a antimicrobial. It kills fungal cells by damaging the cell membrane. Just like Tea Tree oil, lavender oil can be used for treatment of skin infectons however also follow doctors orders as individual cases may vary.

* photo of unknown internet source



* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 21 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Aug 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Jun 24 2016 in Ellicott City, MD


Lavendula x allardii
A vigorous small shrub that is the hybrid between Lavendula dentata and L. latifolia.
Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 4 ( averaging 3 x 3 ) feet.
The rounded-toothed, gray leaves are wider than that of most Lavender.
The deep purple flowers are borne on long narrow spikes held well above the foliage throughout the summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Lavendula angustifolia ( English Lavender )
Also called Lavendula spica. A fast growing, evergreen shrub reaching up to 5 x 6 feet with aromatic, gray leaves, up to 2.8 x 0.25 inches in size.
The lavender color flowers are borne in dense spikes late spring and summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( 5 on protected sites )in full sun and preferring slightly alkaline soil. Drought tolerant and also thrives in moister temperate climates such as the eastern U.S.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 9 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* historic archive photo


'Alba'
Vigorous growing with very fragrant, pinkish-white flowers

'Atropurpurea'
Very deep purple flowers.

'Blue River'
Dense and mounding in habit, reaching up to 20 x 20 inches in size.
The foliage is silvery-green.
The very fragrant, intensely purple flowers are borne mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Buena Vista'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 2.5 ( averaging 2 x 2 ) feet, with highly fragrant, light blue and very deep blue flower spikes borne continuously during late spring and early fall.
The foliage is gray-green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Coconut Ice'
Compact and very dense, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet.
The foliage is silver and the flowers are white.

'Cynthia Johnson'
Reaches up to 2 x 3 feet.
The flowers are dark blue-purple.
Hardy to -30 F

'Hidcote'
Dense and bushy, reaching a maximum size of 40 inches x 6 feet ( rarely over 3 x 3.5 feet ) with very fragrant, purple flowers borne in dense spikes.
The aromatic, lance-shaped leaves are silvery-gray.
Excellent for use as a low hedge.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4 on protected site with winter mulch ).

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Lions Head, ON


'Hidcote Blue'
Compact and dense, reaching up to 3.5 x 3 feet, with blue flowers that are borne in dense spikes over a long season.
Hardy north to zone 5 ( even reported hardy in zone 4 in parts of Alberta on protected sites ).

'Hidcote Giant'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet and can form an awesome upright hedge. The sterile flowers are borne on large fat spikes.

'Hidecote Superior'
Similar to 'Hidcote', except more compact with whitish-gray leaves and deep violet-blue flowers.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Jean Davis'
Also called 'Rosea'. Compact and oval in shape, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.
The flowers are pale pink.
Hardy north to zone 5 ( even reported hardy in zone 4 Alberta on protected sites ).

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Lady'
Vigorous but compact in habit, reaching only 2.2 x 2 feet, flowering during first season.
The flower are lavender-blue.
Hardy zones 5 +.

'Lavender Petite'
Dwarf, compact and very dense, reaching up to 14 x 15 inches. Blooms early and is covered in masses of short stemmed blooms that are intense purple.
Responds well to pruning and makes an excellent low hedge or plant for decorative pots.

'Mitcham Gray'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with gray-blue foliage and deep violet-blue flowers.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Munstead'
A compact, vigorous grower, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, with aromatic green leaves.
The fragrant, lavender-blue flowers are borne over a season lasting up to 4 months from June to September. It is often used for edging.
Hardy north to zone 5 ( 4 on protected site with winter mulch, even reported in parts of Alberta, Canada ).

* photos taken on Oct 2 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on June 15 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Pastor's Pride'
Reaches up to 2 x 2.5 feet, with highly fragrant bicolored flowers that are lavender-blue with deep blue calyxes. The flowers appear during early summer with repeat bloom during early autumn if deadheaded.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

'Pink Perfume'
Reaches up to 2 feet, with pink flowers.

'Platinum Blonde'
A compact, mounded shrub, reaching up to 2 x 1.7 feet.
The foliage is gray-green and boldly-edged creamy-yellow.
The lavender-blue flowers appear during summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

'Royal Velvet'
Fast growing, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, with gray-green leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length.
The very showy, bicolored lavender and deep blue flowers are borne on spikes up to 5 inches in length, during late spring to early summer then again in early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, extremely heat tolerant ( even in Las Vegas ) and also tolerates moist winter conditions better than most Lavender.

'Sawyers'
Very dense and compact, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet.
Foliage is very silvery-gray to almost white.
The flower spikes are pale blue.
Tolerates as low as -15 F.

'Sharon Roberts'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet, with abundant, very fragrant, deep lavender flowers.
It blooms heavily from late spring to early summer, sporadically during mid summer then heavily again late summer into early autumn.
The gray-green leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Silver Frost'
Reaches up to 4 x 3 feet with ghostly silvery white foliage. It is the hybrid between Lavendula angustifolia and L. latifolia.
The lavender flower spikes contrasts well with the foliage.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on May 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Silver Mist'
Dense and rounded in habit, reaching up to 20 x 16 inches in size, with intensely silvery-white foliage.
The lavender-purple flowers are borne mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on Nov 1 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Thumbelina Leigh'
A very vigorous but very compact dwarf Lavender, reaching a maximum size of only 2 x 2.5 ( averaging 1 x 1.5 ) feet. The very showy, are deep blue and lavender bicolor flowerheads are borne on short stems during early summer and repeating up to 2 more times if deadheaded.
It is highly recommended for containers, edging and rock gardens.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Lavendula canariensis ( Canary Island Lavender )
A small shrub that is native to the Canary Islands. Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 4 feet.
The aromatic, feathery leaves are bright green.
The violet flowers are borne on long stalked, narrow spikes, up to 4 inches in length over a very long season. In mild climates, it may bloom the entire year.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

'Blue Canaries'
Vigorous growing with intense blue-purple flowers.

'Silver Feather'
Silvery foliage and very profuse, violet flowers borne over a very long season.

Lavendula dentata ( Toothed Lavender )
A fast growing, small to medium-sized shrub, closely related to Lavendula stoechas, that is native the Mediterranean region as well as the Cape Verde Islands and Madiera.
Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 6 feet.
The bluntly-toothed, narrow leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are slightly downy, gray-green.
The fragrant, pale purple flowers are borne on long stemmed spikes, up to 2 inches in length, during most to all of the year but peaking during mid summer in colder climates.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. Very heat tolerant, even thriving in Phoenix, Arizona.

'Candicans' ( Fringed Lavender )
Forms a dense shrub, up to 5 x 6 feet with grayish-white foliage. The leaves are woolly and deeply indented.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( zones 5 & 6 with winter protection ).

'Variegata'
Reaches a maximum size of 5 x 6 feet ( typically half that ) with foliage that is bright green with splashes of creamy-white. The fragrant flowers are blue.

Lavendula 'Goodwin Creek Gray'
A fast growing, small shrub, that is the hybrid between Lavendula heterophylla and L. lanata. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 5 x 5 feet.
The finely-toothed leaves are bright silvery-gray felted.
The deep purple flowers are borne on long spikes all summer long.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( 7 on protected site ). This is one of the very few woolly leafed Lavenders that can tolerate a wet humid summer.

Lavendula x heterophylla
A very fast growing, small shrub that is the hybrid between Lavendula angustifolia & L. dentata. Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 5 feet. It makes an excellent low hedge.
The narrow leaves are silvery-gray.
The very abundant, violet-blue flowers are borne on upright spikes held well above the foliage.
The flowers are produced over a very long season, sometimes all year in mild climates.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Lavendula x intermedia
The hybrids between Lavendula angustifolia and L. latifolia. Typically reaching up to 2 feet with lavender blooms all summer long. They are often grown for oil production and cut flowers.
Hardy zones 5 to 10. Drought tolerant and also thrives in moister temperate climates such as the eastern U.S.
* photo of unknown internet source


'Eidelweiss'
Reaches up to 3 x 5 feet with white flowers.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Fat Spike Grosso'
Similar to 'Grosso' but only reaching up to 3.5 x 3.5 feet, with wider light purple flower spikes.

'Fred Boutin'
Long lived and fast growing, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet. The silvery-gray foliage is very attractive. The blue flowers are borne late spring and early summer. It makes a great low hedge.

'Grappenhall,
Reaches a maximum size of 5 x 5 feet ( typically under 4 feet ) with blue-purple flowers. The foliage is gray-green. It makes a great low hedge. Hardy north to zone 5

'Gray Hedge'
Reaches up to 4 feet with silvery-gray foliage contrasting with purple flowers.
Very attractive used as a low hedge.

'Gros Bleu'
Similar to 'Grosso' but smaller, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 4 ( averaging 2.5 x 3 ) feet, with very sweetly fragrant, deep blue flowers borne over summer. Hardy zones 6 to 10

'Grosso'
Reaches up to 4 x 7 ( typically half that ) feet. It is a heavy bloomer through summer bearing extremely fragrant, deep violet flowers contrasting with aromatic silvery-gray foliage. The flowers are borne over a season lasting up to 3 months.
Excellent for attracting butterflies and bees.
Also frequently cultivated in Europe for oil production.
Hardy zones 5 to 10. Very disease resistant.

* photos taken on June 1 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Grosso White'
The white flowers are borne mid summer into early autumn. It looks great mixed with the regular blue 'Grosso'.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

'Nana Alba'
A dwarf, only reaching a maximum size of 16 x 16 inches, with very fragrant, white flowers.

'Phenomenal'
Reaches up to 3 x 5 feet, with intensely silvery foliage and abundant violet-purple flower spikes up to 5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possibly 4 on protected sites ), it is among the most cold tolerant and heat / humidity tolerant of all cultivars. It also has superior resistance to root rot.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


'Provence'
Vigorous and exceptionally rot resistant, reaching up to 4.5 x 6.5 feet ( typically under 3 x 4 feet ). It was originally developed in France for the perfume industry but also has attractive bright purple flowers borne over a season lasting up to 3 months beginning during early summer. The aromatic foliage is silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4 on protected sites ). More tolerant of moist conditions than many Lavender but still prefers somewhat dry.

* photos taken on Jan 24 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on June 22 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 8 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 15 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Seal'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet. The very abundant, very silvery foliage contrasted with fragrant, pale purple flower spikes.
Hardy zones 5 to 10.

'Silver Edge'
Vigorous, reaching up to 3.3 x 3.5 feet, with foliage that is light green with a creamy-white border. The light purple flower spikes are borne during early summer.

'Super'
Reaches up to 4.3 x 6 feet with pale silvery, large wide foliage and spikes up to 12 inches long of pale lavender flowers borne late spring through summer.
Hardy north to zone 5



'Tuscan Blue'
Reaches up to 3.3 x 4 feet, with gray-green foliage and mid-blue flowers borne during early summer.

'Vera' ( Dutch Lavender )
Very vigorous reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 feet ( typically about half that ).
The bicolor lavender and dark blue flowers tend to appear later in the season and are sweetly fragrant.

'White Grosso'
A clone originating with the cold hardy, vigorous 'Grosso', reaches up to 3 x 3 feet.
The white flowers are borne mid summer into early autumn. It looks great mixed with the regular blue 'Grosso'.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Lavendula lanata ( Woolly Lavender )
A rare, small shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3.5 feet, that is native to the mountains of southern Spain.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are wider than that of most Lavenders.
The foliage is downy whitish-gray.
The very fragrant, purple flowers are borne on spikes, up to 4 inches in length, held well above the foliage during summer.
The stems are woolly and white.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, it prefers dry climates with low humidity. Woolly Lavender actually grows poorly in the wet humid eastern U.S.

Lavendula latifolia
A small shrub, similar to Lavendula angustifolia except with more compact, grayer foliage. Some records include: largest on record - 4 x 4 feet. It is native to the western Mediterranean.
The leaves, broader than that of L. angustifolia, are up to 2.5 inches in length, are grayish-green.
The purple flowers are borne on spikes up to 8 inches in length, held on long stalks well above the foliage during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Lavendula multifida ( Fernleaf Lavender )
A fast growing, small shrub, closely related to Lavendula stoechas, that is native to southern Europe and northern Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 3.5 x 5 ( averaging about half that ) feet.
The ferny, finely-divided leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are gray-green.
The soft purple flowers are borne on spikes atop long stems during summer.
The flowers borne on often branched spikes are not fragrant.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, a great container plant, it can be used in containers and brought into a cool garage during winter.

Lavendula pinnata
A fast growing, small shrub, closely related to Lavendula stoechas, that is native to the Canary Islands. Some records include: largest on record - 3.5 x 3.5 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are intensely gray and have a covering of short fine hairs.
The soft purple flowerheads ( typically branched into 3 ) are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

'Sidonie'
A hybrid with Lavendula pinnata as the other parent, blooms very profusely with branching long stalks topped with spikes of deep purple flowers. The flowers are borne beginning late winter lasting for most of the year.

Lavendula stoechas ( Spanish Lavender )
A fast growing, dense, bushy, low growing shrub, rarely over 3.5 feet in height, that is native to the Mediterranean region. Some records include: largest on record - 7 x 4 feet. Spanish Lavender makes excellent low hedging.
The very aromatic, finely-textured, linear leaves, up to 1.6 inches, is downy, gray-green.
The very fragrant, deep purple flowers are borne in thick spikes from late spring to mid autumn. The flowers are attractive to butterflies.
Hardy zones 8 to 10, tolerating as low as 5 F ( it may survive in zone 7 but will need winter protection ). Very drought resistant, deer and rabbit resistant. Great in the coastal Southern U.S.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on May 5 2013 in Baltimore, MD

'Alba'
White flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Anouk'
Compact but spreading in habit, reaching up to 2 x 4 feet in size.
The aromatic foliage is intensely silvery-gray.
The intense bright purple flowers are borne atop short stems during late spring into mid-summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9...this is the hardiest Lavendula stoechas cultivar. It is both very tolerant of hot humid summers and extreme drought.

* photo taken on June 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Avonview'
Reaches up to 28 inches x 4 feet, with large pink flowers during summer.
Hardy north to zone 7.

'Ballerina'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with bright green foliage and deep purple flowerheads bearing pure white bracts. It is a hybrids with Lavender viridis.
Hardy zones 7 to 10.

'Blue Star'
Reaches up to 30 x 45 inches, with bright green foliage and red-purple flowers. It is a hybrid with Lavender viridis. Hardy zones 7 to 9.

'Helmsdale'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 4 feet, with fine textured green foliage and red-purple flowers. It is a hybrid with Lavender viridis..
Hardy zones 7 to 9

'Major'
Profuse deep purple flower spikes.

'Madrid Blue'
Fast growing and compact in habit, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet, with white bracted, deep lavender blue flowers borne as early as mid-spring, lasting into summer.
The foliage is bright green.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( colder climates if grown in a pot that is brought indoors during winter ).

'Madrid Purple'
Fast growing and compact in habit, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet, with red-purple ( including the bracts ) flowers borne as early as mid-spring, lasting into summer.
The foliage is bright green.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( colder climates if grown in a pot that is brought indoors during winter ).

'Marshwood'
Reaches a maximum height of 4 feet with dense, thick, large, purple flower spikes that are topped with very long, pinkish-purple bracts.

subsp. pedunculata
Thicker, rounder flower spikes with longer bracts.

'Portugese Giant'
Reaches only 2.5 x 4 feet, with huge reddish-purple flowerheads.
The foliage is mid-green.

'Purple Ribbon'
Vigorous, sturdy and upright in habit, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 1.5 feet, with very fragrant, deep purple flowers borne over a long season. The attractive, narrow foliage is gray-green. Hardy zones 7 to 10.

'Willowbrige Calico'
Reaches up to 2 x 4 feet, with crispy green foliage. The pineapple-like green flowers have creamy-white calico ears.

'Willowbridge Snow'
Reaches up to 44 inches x 4 feet, with pure white flowers.

'Wine Red'
Reaches up to 2 x 4 feet, with wine red flowers during the summer.
Hardy north of zone 7 but only marginally and requiring a protected site.

Lavendula viridis ( Green Lavender )
A small shrub, related to Lavendula stoechas, that is native to Madiera and southern Portugal and Spain. Some records include: largest on record - 4 x 3.3 feet.
The strongly aromatic, finely hairy leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are green.
The whitish-green flowers are borne in spikes during summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 11.

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