Sunday, May 23, 2010

The Dogwoods

Cornus

A family of 40ish trees and shrubs for temperate climates that prefer sun to partial shade and well drained, fertile, acidic to neutral soil.
The bracted Dogwoods are grown from seed as well as semi-hardened cuttings.
The other Dogwoods are grown from either seed or hardwood cuttings in late summer or autumn.
The seed on all Dogwoods should be cleaned of flesh, soaked for 24 hours and cold treated for 3 months before sowing for best results.

Cornus alba ( Tatarian Dogwood )
A very vigorous, shrub Dogwood that spreads to form dense thickets in the wild. The Tatarian Dogwood is native to eastern Asia ( Siberia, Manchuria and Korea ) and can reach 8 feet or more or more rarely on wet sites to 17 x 20 feet.
The dark green foliage turns to orange and red during autumn. The oval leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size.
The tiny, creamy-white flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters over a period lasting up to 3 weeks at the beginning of summer.
They are followed by small blue tinged white fruits.
The young stems are intense red and look great against a snowy background.
Hardy from zones 1 to 7 in full sun; even grows well in Alberta, Canada.
Propagation is from hardwood cuttings taken during fall or winter as well as softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 in Ottawa, ON


'Argenteo-Marginata'
Reaches up to 6 x 8 feet in 5 years, 9 x 11 feet in 10 years, eventually more.
The foliage is boldly edged in creamy-white. The foliage is generally disease resistant except where summers are excessively hot and humid.
The stems are deep red.

'Aurea'
Light golden-green foliage contrasting with red stems.
Reaches up to 6 x 8 feet in 5 years, eventually more.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Behnschii'
Foliage is variegated white and red

'Cream Cracker'
Identical to 'Gouchaltii' except that it is resistant to leaf spot.

'Elegantissima'
Vigorously reaches up to 6 x 8 feet in 5 years, 9 x 11 feet in 10 years, eventually more.
The gray-green foliage is boldly edged in creamy-white. The foliage is generally disease resistant except where summers are excessively hot and humid.
Stems are deep red.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on May 21 2014 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


'Gouchaltii'
Fast growing and large with foliage that is green and boldly edged in yellow. The variegation often turns to rose-pink as autumn approaches.
The stems are intense deep red.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Hessei'
Upright and columnar in habit, reaching up to 11 x 3 feet.
The crinkled foliage is deep green.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Ivory Halo'
Foliage is mid-green with creamy-white borders.
Reaches up to 5 x 8 feet in 5 years, 6 x 9 feet in 10 years, eventually 6.5 feet in height.
The stems are scarlet-red.

* photo taken on June 20 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 23 2017 in Elkridge, MD


'Kesselringii'
Foliage is reddish-bronze during spring, turning to deep green in summer then crimson in fall.
Vigorous, with stems that are black-purple.

'Prairie Fire'
Reaches up to 8 x 8 feet, with foliage that is bright golden-yellow at first, fading to soft yellow. The foliage then turns intense deep red during autumn.
The stems are glowing orange-red.
Hardy zones 2 to 7.

'Sibirica'
Glowing scarlet-red stems and does not sucker as heavily as the species. Often cut to ground in early spring and grown almost as a perennial since the first year stems are the most intense in color.
The foliage often colors nicely to red during autumn.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Sibirica Variegata'
Glowing red stems and deep green foliage with creamy white borders.
Reaches up to 6 x 9 feet in 5 years, eventually more.

'Spaethii'
Very vigorous with bright green leaves that are boldly variegated golden-yellow.
Intense red winter stems.

Cornus alternifolia ( Pagoda Dogwood )
Native to dry slope woodlands in eastern North America ( from southern Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to Gaspe and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia as well as Newfoundland; south to Arkansas to Tennessee and Virginia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is a small tree with horizontal tiered branches and can reach up to 25 feet in height or more. The largest on record is 50 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet. Moderate to fast growing; it can reach up to 20 x 20 feet in 10 years. It is generally a short-lived tree, rarely exceeding 60 years.
The alternate, oval, taper pointed foliage is up to 6 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is smooth mid-green above, bluish and hairy below, turning to red & purplish-red during autumn.
The creamy-white early summer flowers are followed by round blue-black berries up to 0.5 inches across. Berry crops tend to be sparse where summers are not hot.
The bark is red-brown and ridged with age. The wood is about 41 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in sun or shade. Likes cool, deep, rich, acid well drained soil. Even grows well in Winnipeg's harsh climate. It dislikes being transplanted so only small containerized plants should be used. Best time to transplant is early April.

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ Univ of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken July 16 2016 of unusual form with red new foliage along Bayfield River in Ontario

* historic archive photo


'Argentea'
Delicate apprearance on this small tiered branched tree, that reaches up to 15 x 20 feet. The foliage is edged white.
Purchase trees grown on own roots, grafted trees may show poor vigor.

'Golden Shadows'
Exceptionally vigorous for a variegated Dogwood; this cultivar can reach up to 20 x 15 feet in 10 years.
It has very attractive deep green foliage with a bold, bright yellow margin.
The flowers are white.
Purchase trees grown on own roots, grafted trees may show poor vigor.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Cornus ammomum ( Silky Dogwood )
A vigorous, dense, large, deciduous shrub reaching up to 13 feet, that is native to eastern North America ( from central Iowa to northern Michigan to Maine; south to Missouri to central Mississippi to far northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands, the Ohio shore as well as at Detroit during the 1800s. Some records include: largest on record - 17 x 28 feet; first year - 18 inches; 10 years - 10 x 17 feet.
The oppositely-arranged, smooth-edged, oval leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, reddish-brown beneath; turning to red during autumn. The leaves hang from purple stems.
The white flowers are borne on clusters, up to 2.5 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by dark blue fruits, up to 0.25 inches wide, during autumn.
The young shoots are downy purplish.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any permanently moist to wet soil. Flood tolerant.

* photos taken on June 17 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 4 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 21 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 30 2017 in Columbia, MD


'ECOS'
Much more drought tolerant

'Indigo'
Fast growing to 10 x 16 feet in 10 years eventually reaching up to 17 feet in width. Foliage remains on plant late into autumn.
Purplish flowers.
Hardy north to zone 3.

* Photos courtesy of USDA NRCS.


'Virescens'
branches are lime green in winter

Cornus angustata ( Omei Dogwood )
A vigorous, dense, small to medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 33 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet. It basically looks like an evergreen Kousa Dogwood.
The foliage resembles that of the Kousa Dogwood. The oval leaves are up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is polished mid-green, turning to reddish-purple on some trees during winter.
The white flowers are followed by fruits, up to 1 inch in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil, enjoying hot humid summers and thriving as far south as Savannah, Georgia. It is not generally bothered by insect pests or disease but prefers a site that is somewhat protected from wind. Any semi wooded area is perfect for this tree. The Omei Dogwood is best pruned to a main leader and limbed up when young

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Cornus australis ( Black Sea Dogwood )
A moderate growing, deciduous, small tree native to Asia Minor reaching up to 26 x 42 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.2 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet. Extremely rare in the U.S., a large tree grows at Brooklyn Botanical Gardens. It is a beautiful small tree for a town house or patio garden.
The ovate leaves are up to 5 inches long. The foliage is deep green above, silvery-white beneath; turning to intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The tiny white flowers are in clusters up to 2 inches across.
They are followed by showy dark purple fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide, that are carried in flattened clusters.
The twigs are deep red.
Hardy zones 4b to 8, it is hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario.

Cornus bretschneideri ( Bretschneider Dogwood )
A suckering, deciduous, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 20 feet in height, that is native to China.
The ovate, elliptic or oblong leaves are up to 3.5 x 2.5 inches in size. The papery foliage is dull green above, bluish-white beneath; turning to purplish-red during autumn.
The tiny creamy-white flowers are borne on dense clusters, up to 2.5 inches wide, during early to mid-summer.
They are followed by bluish-black berries, up to 0.2 inches wide, ripening during late summer.
The bark is purplish-red. The younger branches are also reddish.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on moist, well drained soil.

Cornus canadensis ( Bunchberry )
A moderate growing, rhizomatous spreading, low, deciduous shrubby perennial native to much of Canada, Greenland and Alaska as well as eastern Asia ( eastern Siberia; south to Korea and Japan ). In America, it is found as far south as Oregon to Colorado ( in mountains ) to North Dakota to northern Illinois to northern Indiana to northwest Ohio to West Virginia to northern New Jersey. In Ontario it is found throughout the entire province. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Windsor during the 1800s. It is usually found in coniferous forests in the wild. It can carpet quite an extensive area and reach up to 1 x 13 feet in size.
The broadly-ovate leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size. The mid-green foliage turns to brilliant scarlet-red during fall. The leaves are usually in groups of 4 ( rarely up to 6 ) whorled at the tops of the stems.
The white bracted ( early summer ) flowers are large considering the size of the plant. The early summer flowers persist up to 3 weeks.
They are followed by bunches of scarlet red edible fruit, up to 0.3 inches wide, during late summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 ( tolerating -50 F ) prefers partial to full shade on cool, moist, fertile, humus-rich, acidic soil. Pine needles is an excellent mulch for Bunchberry. Propagation is from seed or division done during autumn or early spring. It is usually slow to establish but often quickly gains vigor during the second season.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Jul 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by H.L. Shantz @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA NRCS. 1995. Northeast wetland flora

* historic archive photos


Cornus capitata ( Himalayan Dogwood )
A bushy, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree native from the Himalayas to China. Moderate growing to 40 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 27 x 20 feet; largest on record - 80 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 27 inches. The Himalayan Dogwood grows very well in western Europe and has reached up to 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet in Ireland.
The oval, foliage is downy at first, turning leathery, gray green above and paler below. The leaves are up to 5.3 x 2 inches in size.
The flowers are tiny and surrounded by much larger, showy, light yellow bracts in late spring. The entire flower structure is up to 6 inches across.
The flowers are followed by rose colored decorative fruits.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 and tolerant of coastal conditions.
Do not transplant at sizes above 5 feet.

'Mountain Moon'
Vigorous ( avg 17 feet in 15 years ) with large yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across. The edible, crimson red fruits to 2 inches in length.

Cornus chinensis
A vigorous, upright, open tree reaching around 30 feet or more, with a maximum size of 66 x 60 feet.
The elliptic, deciduous leaves are conspicuously veined, pale green above, downy below and up to 6 inches in length.
In late winter, the yellow flowers appear on bare branches before the leaves.
This tree resembles Cornus mas in appearance, except the fruits are black instead of red.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Cornus controversa ( Giant Dogwood )
A fast growing, large tree native to northern India, most of China, Korea and most of Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 2 years - 8 feet; 20 years - 54 x 54 feet; largest on record - 100 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet. The Giant Dogwood has an interesting tiered spreading branching habit. It makes a great street tree.
The large, pointed, oval leaves, up to 8 x 4 inches in size, are carried on leafstalks up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is glossy dark green above & downy below; turning to red & purple during autumn.
The tiny white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, occur in flattened clusters up to 7 inches across during late spring.
They are followed by small, round, blue-black fruits ripening Sep. to October.
The smooth bark is gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, north of zone 5b seed source from colder parts of its natural range is important in determining actual hardiness of tree. The Giant Dogwood is moderately salt, chalk & lime tolerant and also free of diseases except for a canker which may strike on drought stressed trees. Young tree should be pruned to a single leader and feathered.

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.







* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Janine'
Much faster growing than 'Variegata' and has gold edge foliar variegation. Outstanding!

'Pagoda'
abundant white flowers

'Variegata'
drooping foliage with broad creamy white margins.
maximum size of 30 x 30 feet in 10 years; eventually more.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD




* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Cornus coreana ( Korean Dogwood )
An attractive, small tree that is native to Korea and Liaoning Province in Manchuria. Reaches up to 20 feet or more with a trunk diameter around 9 inches in 20 years; eventually to 66 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is closely related to Cornus walteri and Cornus sanguinea. The papery, oval to narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.6 inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep green above, silvery-white beneath. The tiny white flowers that are packed into dense, 3 inch wide clusters, during late spring into early summer.
They are followed by a round, red-purple to black berry, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid-autumn.
The flaking bark is light brown.
Hardy zones 4b to 8, it is fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photos


Cornus drummondii ( Drummond Dogwood )
Native to central North America ( from South Dakota to southern Michigan to Long Point, Ontario; south to central Texas to Alabama ); this is a large shrub or small tree similar to C. racemosa but with a strong central leader and minimal suckering. It is endangered in Ontario and New York State where it is found locally near Buffalo. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern Essex County including Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Fast growing and reaching up to 15 feet tall and wide on average though the largest on record is 50 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. They are rough textured and deep green above, pale grayish below. The foliage often turns to red and purple during autumn.
The small white flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters during early summer.
They are later replaced by 0.25 inch round, white berries during late summer.
Hardy zone 4 to 8 and very drought tolerant. It is reported to thrive in the Ottawa Valley of Canada, far north of where it naturally grows.


* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photos


Cornus 'Eddies White Wonder'
A deciduous upright tree with somewhat pendulous outer branches that is the hybrid between Cornus florida & C. nuttallii. It can reach 13 feet in 5 years and eventually to 50 feet. The maximum size is probably around 70 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Moderate growing, the maximum growth rate is 3 feet per year.
It is typically faster growing and larger than the Flowering Dogwood. Easier to grow and more adaptable than the other parent Cornus nuttallii.
Its broadly elliptic pointed tip foliage reaches up to 7 inches in length. The foliage is glossy dark green above & gray hairy beneath. In autumn it turns brilliant purple, red and orange often with all colors on the same plant.
In mid to late spring it provides an excellent display of large white blooms that are much larger than that of the Flowering Dogwood though still including 4 white bracts surrounding a dense cluster of tiny green flowers.
The fruits are small & red.
The bark is generally gray and smooth
Hardy zones 5 to 8 tolerating as low as -20 F

Cornus florida ( Flowering Dogwood )
A highly ornamental tree native to eastern North America ( from central Michigan to Grand Bend, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to New Hampshire; south to east Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Canada though was previously widespread along the north shore of Lake Erie before forest clearing and dogwood anthracnose. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley and from Amherstburg to Leamington as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time. The Flowering Dogwood can reach up to 40 feet. Some records include: 11 years - trunk diameter of 5 inches; largest on record is 70 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Some very large Flowering Dogwoods grow at Glenwood Park in Norfolk, VA & north cemetary in Morenci, MI & ne of Thamesville in Kent County, Ontario ( 43 feet -Canada record ). Usually moderate growing, the maximum growth rate is 3 feet per year. The Flowering Dogwood can live up to 150 years.
The oval pointed leaves up to 7 x 4 inches are smooth dark green above and whitish & softly hairy below. They turn brilliant crimson often mixed with orange & purple in autumn. The leaves typically appear somewhat early in spring.
The late spring flowers are tiny and green in clusters but are surrounded by 4 large petal like bracts ( to 2 inches in length ) that are typically white ( or sometimes pink in subsp. 'Rubrum' ).
The clustered berries are red, oval and sometimes remain on the tree through the winter.
The bark is deeply cracked in to small squarish plates and is red-brown in color. The wood is heavy around 50 ibs. per square foot.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 but requires cool, acidic, well drained soil. Trees from the southern part of the range will dieback in winters in the north so it is recommended to buy trees at a local nursery run by professional horticulturalists. The Flowering Dogwood prefers hot summers and does not grow nearly so well in the cool summers of western Europe.
Since 1992 90% of trees in wild in Tennessee & southeast U.S. have died as is the case at Catoctin Mountain Park in Maryland. In areas where anthracnose is causing the wholesale destruction of native Cornus florida, the only solution is planting resistant varieties which luckily do exist. Unfortunately that is little consolation to our native woodlands are loosing their biodiversity tree by tree due to exotic insects & disease. Besides the main killer Anthracnose; other problems of Flowering Dogwood can be borer, pollution & drought. The Flowering Dogwood also doesn't like compaction, clay and excessive wind. Flowering Dogwood can be propagated from planting the seed outdoors after removing the fleshy coat. The cultivars can also be reproduced from cuttings taken during late spring.

* photo taken October 1996 in Leamington, Ontario

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD


* photos taken in Columbia, MD





* photos from morguefile.com





'Rubra'



* photos taken on October 24 2010 in Ellicott City, MD





* photos taken on April 20 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 27 2013 in Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD


* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 6 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 26 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Apr 26 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


'Appalachian Spring'
Vigorous growing up to 20 feet in 10 years. The deep green foliage is larger than species and is disease resistant. The entire blooms including the bracts are up to 5 inches across. The flowers are white.
This cultivar was discovered in Catoctin Mountain Park in Maryland and after repeated testing has been proven to be resistant to anthracnose making it extremely valuable for both cultivation and restoring native forests. The cultivar 'Appalatian Blush' is similar, except with flowers that are white and deepening to pink at the edges.
* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD





* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Oct 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Apple Blossum'
Pale pink in bloom.

'Cherokee Brave'
A very vigorous new variety with deep red flowers. The foliage that is deep red at first turning to rich glossy deep green then to scarlet-red during autumn.
It is also more anthracnose and mildew resistant than most cultivars.

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Cherokee Chief'
Vigorous with deep pink flower bracts.
The foliage is reddish at first, turning to deep green.

* photos taken on Apr 15 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Cherokee Princess'
Upright & vigorous; Anthracnose & Canker resistant! The foliage is large and glossy green during summer, turning intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The abundant flowers are pure white.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanic Gardens, Wash., DC


'Cherokee Sunset'
Vigorous with light red flowers. It is mildew & anthracnose resistant. The lush green leaves are variegated with yellow edges and the foliage turns to red in the fall.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Cloud Nine'

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Dixie Columnnade'
fast growing with a narrow, very upright, columnar habit and white flowers. It can reach 20 feet in as little as 10 years and is excellent used against buildings or as a tall screen. Very rare.

'First Lady'
Yellow edges foliage and white flowers. Otherwise similar to regular Cornus florida.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum




* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Oct 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Gigantea'
Entire blooms including bracts up to 6 inches in width.

'Pluribracteata'
More anthracnose and mildew resistant than the species, with double white flowers that open later and last longer than the species.
The large leaves are glossy deep green, turning to red-purple during autumn.

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Purple Glory'
Rapid growing with red flowers and foliage that is purple all season.

'Spring Grove'
Anthracnose resistant with large white flower bracts up to 2.5 inches in length. The abundant flower strctures are up to 5 inches across in their entirety.
They are followed by abundant red fruits.
Hardy to -25 F and possibly colder.

'Spring Song'
Deep green foliage often has bronze tinge in full sun and turns to red & purple in fall.
The blooms are intense pink.


* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD






* photo taken on Apr 24 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Urbaniana'
Reaching up to 60 feet in height. The large blue-green foliage to 8.5 x 4 inches is retained later in the fall. It is native to a disjunct natural range in the mountains of Mexico.
Hardy zones 6 +, it is tolerant of temperatures as high as 115 F.
The flowers are unique with the white petals fused at the tips creating a lantern shape.

'Welchii'
dark green leaves edged white & pink; turn to scarlet red & purple in fall. Flowers are white.

'White Cloud'
dark green foliage sometimes with a bronze tinge in full sun turns to red & purple in fall. The blooms are white.


Cornus foemina ( Swamp dogwood )
A large deciduous shrub, reaching around 12 feet or sometimes more, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southeast Missouri to central Illinois to southern Indiana to northeast Kentucky to New Jersey; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is endangered in New Jersey, Delaware and Oklahoma. The largest on record 27 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.8 feet. It is found in swamps in the wild. It is a beautiful small tree that has for some unknown reason been mostly ignored by the landscape industry.
The ovate leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath; turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The creamy-white flowers are followed by clusters of deep blue berries up to 0.25 inches wide.
The twigs are deep red.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on wet, fertile soil.

Cornus glabrata ( Brown Dogwood )
Native from southwest Oregon to southern California, it is fast growing large shrub that can be a small umbrella-shaped tree to 20 x 20 feet if trained. The largest on record is 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The elliptical leaves are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage is glossy bright green, turning to red during autumn.
The white flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters.
The bark is whitish.
Hardy zones 4b to 9, it proved surprisingly fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario. Reported to reach 5 feet in 2 years in North Carolina.

Cornus hongkongensis
A large evergreen Dogwood native to Hong Kong that can reach up to 82 feet in height.
The elliptical leaves can reach up to 7 x 3 inches in size.
The mid-spring flowers are white.
The fruits are red.
The bark is gray.
This tree is only hardy north to zone 9

Cornus kousa ( Kousa Dogwood )
A medium-size, vase-shape tree native to Korea & Japan. It can reach up to 50 x 30 feet in 20 years and rarely grows larger. The largest on record is 50 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.7 ( rarely over 2 ) feet. Some very large trees grow in Longwood Gardens, PA; Calvert Co., MD and even a tree of 30 x 30 feet in the much more harsh climate of Denver, Colorado. Usually moderate growing, the maximum recorded growth rate is 3 feet. Very long-lived, Kousa Dogwoods as old as 1300 years are known.
The wavy-edged, pointed oval leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. The glossy dark green and smooth foliage turns to scarlet & crimson red in fall.
The tiny green clustered flowers are surrounded by large showy creamy white bracts appearing during early summer after the tree is in full leaf lasting up to 6 weeks.
The pendant fruits are rounded, red, strawberry-like, fleshy and up to an inch across.
The very attractive bark is red-brown and exfoliating.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 but grows poorly on shallow alkaline soils or hard clay.
The Kousa Dogwood is heat tolerant and rarely bothered by pests or diseases incl. borers.

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.









* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD


* photos taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA



* photo taken on Sep 10 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 28 2015 in Dauphin, PA

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken by Nick Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


* historic archive photo


'Avalanche'
flower bud hardy to -30 F.

'Blue Shadow'
Fast growing and extremely attractive with glossy blue-green foliage all season.
The flowers are white.

'China Girl'
Fast growing and mildew resistant with massive blooms up to 8 inches across lasting up to 8 weeks.
Orange to red fall color can be very intense.

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City


'Galilean'
Rapid growing with a strongly vase shape habit, eventually becomming rounded. Reaches up to 25 x 20 feet in only 10 years. The huge deep green leaves are double the average size of the species and the flowers are also larger.
The fruits look like large Strawberries.
Fully hardy north to zone 4.

'Gold Star'
Golden-yellow centered foliage that colors intensely red during autumn.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA


* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Heart Throb'
Vigorous, large tree with deep green foliage and deep rose red blooms up to 4 inches across lasting up to 2 months.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo taken on May 25 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jun 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Milky Way'
Mildew resistant

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on June 5 2015 in Howard Co., MD


'Moonbeam'
Huge blooms are white and up to 8 inches in width. tolerating as low as -20 F.

'Raulston'
a good evergreen form for the south.

'Red Select'
Red tinged new foliage that turns to deep green then to spectacular red in autumn.
The large red fruit look like cherries.

'Samaritan'
Fast growing being much more vigorous than 'Wolf Eyes' becomming a tree up to 20 x 15 feet in 10 years; eventually 25 x 20 feet or more.
The foliage is green variegated creamy white all summer and turns to burgundy variegated pink in autumn. This cultivar originated from 'Milky Way'

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Satomi'
Fast growing, reaching up to 15 feet in 6 years. The flowers are deep pink fading to creamy-white towards the center. The glossy deep green foliage turns rich purplish-red during autumn.

* photos taken on June 2 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Snowboy'
Compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 15 feet.
The foliage is broader than 'Wolf Eyes' and the branching habit is more tiered. The foliage is bright green with a very bold broad creamy-white border. The foliage turns to deep red with pale pink variegation during autumn.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Summer Stars'
Flower season lasts up to 6 weeks or more

'Wolf Eyes'
Slow growing, often only reaching 6 x 6 feet in 10 years; eventually reaching up to 10 feet.
The very attractive foliage is deep green with a bold white border. The foliage colors to red, often with pink border, during autumn.
The flowers are white.
very hardy north to zone 4

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photos taken on Sep 14 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 21 2014 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photo taken on June 2015 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on June 18 2016 in Harford Co., MD

Cornus macrophylla ( Bigleaf Dogwood )
A very attractive, medium-size, deciduous tree native to the Himalayas, China & Japan; reaching up to 50 feet with the largest on record being 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.1 feet. Moderate growing; the fastest growth rate on record is 4.5 feet.
The strongly-veined, slender-tipped, wavy-margined, broadly-elliptic leaves are the largest of the Dogwoods; up to 11 x 5 ( rarely over 7 x 3.5 ) inches in size. The leaves are smooth, glossy deep green above and thinly hairy light blue-green below, turning to red during fall. It also leafs out late in spring.
The tiny creamy white flowers are borne in loose flattened clusters up to 6 inches across during mid-summers.
They are followed by clusters of 0.25 inch rounded fruits that ripen from green to red purple to blue-black.
Even its light green stems are very attractive.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 preferring full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is very tolerant of hot humid summers and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic region of the U.S. Very easy to grow from seed or cuttings.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum @ Swarthmore College, PA





* photos taken on Oct 6 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 24 2017 in Columbia, MD


Cornus mas ( Cornelian Cherry )
Native from central & southern Europe to western Asia, the Cornelian Cherry is a moderate growing, small sturdy tree reaching up to 25 feet. The largest on record is 60 x 40 feet with a diameter up to 4 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 23 feet; fastest growth rate - 4 feet. Moderately long-lived, it can persist up to 200 years.
The short-stalked, deeply-veined, pointed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 3.5 inches in size. They are deep green during summer turning to red-purple in fall.
The small but abundant, yellow, long-lasting flowers are clustered. They appear for up to 3 weeks during late winter into very early spring. The flower clusters, up to 0.8 inches wide, are amazingly cold tolerant, undamaged by frost.
The bright red berries, up to 0.5 inches in length, appear late summer to mid-autumn.
They are used for jams, jellies, wine, juices and baking. Fruit on ornamental or seedling Cornus mas is often small and very tart. Some improved varieties taste awesome just like Sweet Cherry and are very high in vitamin C. They yield in 3 years and eventually up to 40 pounds per plant. Multiple trees are not needed for fruit production to occur.
The bark is light beige, very rough and peeling. The twigs are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 tolerating as low as -30 F. Prefers sun and is tolerant of wind, drought, urban conditions, clay and alkaline soil. The Cornelian Cherry is not prone to pests or disease. Clones from the Ukraine tend to be more drought tolerant.
Cornelian Cherries look best trained to a single stem tree and limbed up.
Propagate from softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum





* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Oct 26 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 13 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Mar 1 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photo


'Aurea'
Foliage is yellow during spring, turning to lime-green during summer.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Elegantissima'
The leaves are deep green with yellow and pink margins.

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Golden Glory'
Larger leaves, reaching up to 8 x 3 inches, are glossy deep green, turning to red in fall.
The abundant yellow flowers are followed by scarlet-red fruits similar to that of the species.
Pest free.

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Jolico'
Very large fruits that are 3 times larger than the classic wild form.

'Macrocarpa'
bears glossy red fruit up to 1.5 inches in size.

'Pioneer'
Sweet dark red fruit up to 1.5 inches

'Pyramidalis'
Upright, broadly-columnar habit.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Red Dawn'
from the Ukraine has large sweet bright red fruit and is especially vigorous and disease resistant.

'Red Star'
Sweet-tasting, juicy, oval fruits, up to 1.3 inches in length, are dark red.

'Redstone'
text coming soon

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


'Spring Grove'
A vigorous tree bearing few or no suckers.
The very attractive foliage is leathery and glossy deep green.
The abundant flowers are bright yellow.

'Ukraine'
Large, bright red, often pear-shaped fruits; otherwise similar to species.
It is reported to be the hardiest cultivar of Cornus mas, tolerating below -30 F.

'Violacea'.
fruits are violet purple.

Cornus monbeigii
Also called Cornus schindleri; is closely related to Cornus macrophylla.
It is native to mixed montane and cloud forests in northwest Yunnan Province of China and is rapidly declining and endangered due to destruction of forests.
It can reach a maximum size 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 22 inches in 30 years however rarely gets much larger even with great age. Some records include: largest trunk diameter - 26 inches. Succeeds in sun or light shade and is very tolerant of heavy clay. Hardy north to zone 7

Cornus 'Norman Hadden'
A large, spreading tree that is the hybrid between Cornus capitata & C. kousa.
It becomes a tree to 40 feet or more; with the record being 70 x 50 feet.
The semi-evergreen foliage is deep green in color turning to deep red in the fall. The abundant early summer flowers are tiny and surrounded by large bracts that are creamy white later turning to deep pink.
The flowers are followed by a heavy crop of edible, pendant, pink-orange fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Cornus nuttallii
Native to the Pacific Northwest ( from southwest British Columbia to California...separate inland population in north-central Idaho ); this Dogwood becomes a moderate growing, rounded, medium-size tree to 60 feet or sometimes larger. Records include: growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 40 x 20 feet; largest ever recorded - 120 x 50 feet with trunk diameter of 4.5 feet.
The short-stemmed, smooth-edged, oval leaves are up to 8 x 3.5 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns to glowing red during autumn.
The small, late spring flowers are surrounded by 4 to 8 large white bracts.
Including the bracts; the flowers are up to 6 inches across.
This Dogwood sometimes repeat blooms in early autumn.
They are followed by attractive, small, orange-red fruits.
The bark is generally red-brown and smooth unlike that of Cornus florida.

Hardy zones 6 to 9. This Dogwood is not recommended for the humid summer eastern U.S. ( prone to anthracnose ) and also does poorly on shallow, chalky soils. It prefers deep, cool, light, acidic, well drained soils and dry summers. This beautiful tree is unfortunately threatened by the introduced anthracnose fungus in much of its native range.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com
* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


'Barrick'
Extremely fast growing with consistant repeat blooming in the fall.
Growth rates as much as 5 feet are possible on ideal sites.
The flowers are very large, up to 8 inches across.

'Boyds Hardy'
Hardier and known to have survived -19 F in Tennessee.

'Colrigo Giant'
Very vigorous with huge, heavy textured leaves up to 8.7 x 5 inches in size.
The flowers including the bracts are also massive, up to 8 inches across.

'Gold Spot'
foliage is splashed and spotted in yellow.

'North Star'
Strong and vigorous with purple stems. The foliage is purplish in spring before turning deep green towards summer.

Cornus obliqua ( Silky Dogwood )
Also called Cornus amomum var obliqua and Cornus purpusii. A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 15 feet, that is native to lakeshores and ditches in eastern North America ( from eastern North Dakota to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Manitoulin Island to Tobermory, Ontario to Huntsville, Ontario to Chalk River, Ontario to southeast Quebec to New Brunswick; south to central Kansas to southeast Oklahoma to Kentucky to Maryland ). It often forms suckering, large and dense colonies in the wild.
The pointed-oval leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, grayish-white beneath; sometimes turning to red during autumn.
The creamy-white flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters during mid-summer.
They are followed by bright blue berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, during early autumn.
The branches are purple in winter.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and prefers wet soil. An excellent choice for swampy sites.

Cornus occidentalis ( Western Dogwood )
A fast growing, large spreading shrub similar to C. sericea; that is native to western North America ( from coastal Alaska to northern Idaho; south to southern California to western Nevada ). It is moderate growing and reaches about 15 feet though the record is larger at 26 x 44 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. Western Dogwood is closely related and similar in appearance to Cornus sericea but does not spread by underground rhizomes.
The oval leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The glossy deep green above; grayish-white beneath; turning intense orange and red during autumn.
The white flowers clusters are up to 3 inches wide, appear during late spring.
They are followed by bluish-white berries during autumn.
The purplish-red twigs are attractive during winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Cornus officinalis ( Japanese Cornel )
A spreading deciduous tree that is very similar to Cornus mas - Cornelian Cherry, that is native to central and eastern China, Korea and Japan. Typically growing around 25 feet; it can become larger on ideal sites. Some records include: growth rate - 3.5 feet; largest ever recorded - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. Large trees grow at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA.
The oval leaves are up to 5.5 x 3 inches in size. The glossy bright green foliage turns to glowing red during autumn.
Brilliant displays of yellow flowers appear on the bare stems during late winter. The flowers typically appear 2 weeks before that of Cornus mas.
They are followed by showy displays of edible, bright red fruits up to 0.7 inches long.
The attractive bark is brown and flaking.
Hardy from zones 4 to 8 and is an excellent landscape tree for the Midwest and Eastern North America. Very tolerant of heat and humidity.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.






* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on Mar 30 2016 in Damascus, MD

* photo taken on Nov 12 2016 in Damascus, MD


'Kinkoki'
An exceptionally heavy flowering form; otherwise identical to species.

* photo taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Morton'
Thick, glossy, dark green leaves.

Cornus omeiensis ( Mount Omei Dogwood )
Also called Cornus capitata subsp. emeiensis. A small evergreen tree native to China. Some records include: 15 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 33 x 30 feet. It can be found at Norfolk Botanical Garden in Virginia.
The elliptical or oval foliage is coppery at first, turning to glossy green.
The flowers are creamy yellow.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Cornus paucinervis
Also called Cornus quinquenervis. A semi-evergreen, large shrub to small tree, that is a widespread native to southeastern China. It reaches a maximum size of 13 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
The deeply-veined foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath. The narrowly-ovate leaves up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
The white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne on clusters up to 3.5 inches across, during early summer.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.2 inches wide, during mid to late autumn.
The very attractive exfoliating bark is olive-green.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Cornus poliophylla ( Schindler's Dogwood )
Also called Cornus schindleri subsp. poliophylla. This very rare, very fast growing, deciduous shrub or small tree, reaches a maximum size of 33 ( rarey over 15 ) feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet. It is native from Tibet to central China.
The broadly-ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, pale gray-green beneath; turning to red during autumn.
The tiny white flowers are borne in clusters, up to 4 inches wide, during early summer.
The deep blue berries during late summer to mid-autumn contrast nicely with the red stems.
The bark is brown. The red twigs are very showy.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist soil.

Cornus 'Porlock' ( Mrs. Satomi Dogwood )
An extremely vigorous Dogwood that forms a broadly spreading, medium sized tree to 35 feet or more; that is the hybrid of Cornus kousa 'chinensis' and C. capitata. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; maximum size - 50 x 60 feet.
The elliptical foliage is up to 3 inches in length and red-green in spring turning to deep green above, gray-green below in summer. The foliage turns to red in autumn and sometimes persists over the winter.
The early summer flowers are tiny in dense, rounded clusters; however they are surrounded by 4 large, taper pointed bracts that are creamy white turning to deep pink as the season progresses. The tips of the bracts typically color first.
The abundant, red, hanging fruits resemble Strawberries in appearance and are edible.
The bark is gray with shallow orange fissures.
Hardy north to zone 5 tolerating -20 F

Cornus pumila
A dense, suckering, mound forming, slow growing Dogwood that reaches around 3 feet or very rarely as much as 8 x 7 feet.
The attractive leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are glossy mid-green, turning to bronze-yellow during autumn. Red new foliage gives this shrub Dogwood a Photinia effect all summer long.
The white flowers are are borne on long stemmed clusters, up to 3 inches wide, during early summer.
The stems are red in the winter.
Hardy from zone 2 to 8 and flood tolerant and highly disease resistant.

Cornus racemosa ( Gray Dogwood )
A large suckering shrub native to eastern North America ( from southern Manitoba to International Falls to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Southampton, Ontario to Midland, Ontario to Chalk River, Ontario to southeast Quebec and Maine; south to Missouri to Virginia...it is mostly absent from the Haliburton highlands in Ontario ) reaching up to 15 feet. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. On ideal sites it can sometimes become a small tree; some records include: 1st year - 18 inches; fastest growth rate - 5 feet; largest ever recorded - 40 x 25 feet with trunk diameter of 0.9 feet.
The pointed, oval leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is mid-green above, grayish below.
The abundant white flowers are borne in loose, red-stemmed panicles in early summer, and are followed by white berries, up to 0.2 inches wide, that contrast well with the reddish autumn foliage.
The stems are gray.
hardy zones 3 to 8, it is tolerant of moderate drought and temporary flooding. Older plants can be cut to ground during late winter to renovate.

* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Cayahoga'
A pyramidal small street tree

Cornus rugosa ( Roundleaf Dogwood )
A moderate growing, large shrub to 15 feet or very rarely a small tree that is native to central & eastern North America ( from North Dakota & southern Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Beardmore, Ontario around the north shore of Lake Superior to Espanola, Ontario to Temagami, Ontario to Gaspe and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to northeast Iowa to northern Kentucky to Virginia ). It is endangered in Maryland. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant on the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore; uncommon at Point Pelee during the 1800s. It is very abundant on Manitoulin Island, the Bruce Peninsula and Gray County in Ontario. The largest on record is 40 x 16 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.6 feet. In 10 years, Roundleaf Dogwood averages around 10 feet in height. It is usually found on rocky or sandy open woods or woodland edge in the wild.
The broadly-oval, somewhat rounded leaves are up to 6 x 5 inches in size. They are deep green above and whitish below; turning to deep red during autumn.
The tiny, creamy-white flowers are borne in clusters, up to 3 inches across, during early summer.
They are followed by bright blue fruits, up to 0.2 inches wide, during late summer.
The younger stems are purple-tinted.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil. It is drought and alkaline soil tolerant.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Cornus x rutgan ( Rutgar hybrid Dogwoods )
Exceptionally vigorous, disease and borer resistant hybrids between Cornus florida & C. kousa
Fast growing with fastest recorded rate of 4 feet and eventual sizes exceeding 20 feet.
Foliage is deep green and mildew resistant, and turn to red in the fall. The leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
They typically flower 15 days later than Cornus florida - Flowering Dogwood.
Red fruits follow the flowers.
Very easy to grow; the Rutgar Hybrids are very low maintenance and are NOT prone to anthracnose, borers or mildew.
Hardy zones 4 to 9


* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville


'Aurora'
Upright in habit and extremely vigorous.
The deep green leaves turn to red during autumn.
The flower bracts are large and white.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Celestial Shadow'
The deep green leaves have a bold yellow border. Flowers are white.

'Constellation'
Extremely vigorous bearing white flower bracts

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Apr 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Sep 1 2017 in Howard Co., MD


'Ruth Ellen'
Vigorous, with pure white flowers slightly earlier than the other Rutgar Hybrids.

* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

'Starlight'
A vigorous, upright hybrid between Cornus kousa & C. nuttallii; bearing huge white flowers, up to 5 inches across.

'Stellar Pink'
Very vigorous growing with light pink flowers.

* photo taken on May 6 2011 in Bel Air, MD





* photo taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 23 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on May 21 2014 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 19 2014 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 13 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on June 1 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 30 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Venus'
Averaging around 20 x 20 feet in 10 years; this "Dogwood on Steroids" has huge bracts with the profuse "flowers" reaching up to 8 inches across.
The deep green leaves are also very large, up to 7 x 3.5 inches! A hybrid between Cornus kousa and Cornus nuttallii; it is among the fastest growing and most disease resistant of all Dogwoods.

* photos taken on May 11 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


Cornus sanguinea ( European Dogwood )
A moderate growing, upright to rounded, deciduous shrub that is a widespread native to northern and central Europe. It reaches around 10 feet or very rarely as much as 20 x 17 feet ( record size is 30 feet with trunk diameter of 9 inches ).
The oval leaves, up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in length, are luxuriant deep green, turning to deep red or purple during autumn.
The fragrant, small, creamy-white flowers are borne in clusters during early summer.
They are followed by small, deep blue berries up to 0.3 inches in length.
The bark is deep brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating down to -30 F and thrives in the Ottawa Valley of Canada ).

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Arctic Sun'
intense yellow winter stems. Dwarf, only reaching 4 x 4 feet in 10 years.
Plants grown for their colorful winter stems should be cut back to 4 inches in height during early spring.

* photo taken on Jul 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON


'Midwinter Fire'
Glowing bright reddish-orange winter stems. Often cut to the ground in early March since the new stems are typically the most intense in color. It resprouts easily and vigorously from the ground and may reach 6 feet by summers end. Unpruned, it can reach up to 10 x 10 feet in 10 years, eventually 15 feet or more.
The mid-green foliage turns to golden-yellow or orange during autumn.
Plants grown for their colorful winter stems should be cut back to 4 inches in height during early spring.

* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Winter Flame'
Reaching up to 7 x 7 feet in 10 years, eventually 10 x 8 feet or broader; this Dogwood has intense yellow winter stems deepening to orange and red at the tips. Extremely attractive in winter.
The foliage turns to yellow and orange, persisting late during autumn.
Plants grown for their colorful winter stems should be cut back to 4 inches in height during early spring.

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


Cornus sericea ( Red Osier Dogwood )
Also called Cornus stolonifera. A vigorous, suckering shrub native to floodplains & swamps in northern North America ( from central Alaska to far northwestern Northwest Territories to Yellowknife, N.W.T. to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to southern California to southern New Mexico to central Nebraska to central Indiana to far northern Virginia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was sporadic in southern Essex County including Point Pelee as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Trained as a tree, it has been known to reach as large as 26 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.9 feet but it is generally found as a massive colony in the wild spreading by creeping underground stem. The Red Osier can reach up to 2 feet in its first year and 6 feet in the 3rd. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet; 5 years - 8 x 10 feet.
The smooth-edged oval leaves are up to 6 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, downy white beneath; turning to orange and red during autumn.
The tiny, white, star-shaped flowers are borne on flat-topped clusters, up to 3 inches wide, during early summer.
They are followed by bluish-white berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during late summer into mid-autumn. The berries are an important food source for many songbirds.
Hardy zones 1 to 5; the Red Osier Dogwoods is resistant to deer, flood, heat, fire ( resprouts from roots ), ice, salt, and wind. Insect pests and disease problems are rare, though canker may sometimes follow drought and leafspot may occur during very wet summers. It thrives in harsh climates including the Canadian Prairies. Excellent choice for use in hedgerows and for riverbank erosion control. It will grow on swampy sites. Older plants can be cut to near ground during late winter for renovation. The Red Osier Dogwood can be grown from seed sown during autumn or cuttings taken during the middle of summer.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photo taken on June 1 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* historic archive photo


'Arctic Fire'
Compact with no suckers, reaching only 3 x 3 feet in 10 years and eventually 4 feet.
The stems are deep red in winter.

* photo taken on Dec 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Baileyi'
Reaches up to 10 x 10 ( rarely over 8 ) feet, it is more compact in habit than the species tending not to be stoloniferous.
The deep green foliage is woolly underneath unlike that of regular Cornus sericea. The leaves turn to purplish-red during autumn.
The stems are red.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC

* photo taken on Mar 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* historic archive photo


'Cardinal'
Vigorous and upright in habit, reaching up to 11 x 15 feet in 10 years; eventually more.
The deep green foliage turns to reddish-purple during autumn.
The winter stems are intense scarlet-red.
It is moderately leaf spot resistant.

* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Oct 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 23 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Flaviramea'
Grown for its bright greenish-yellow shoots that are especially ornamental in winter against a dark background.
The oval leaves are larger ( up to 8 x 4.7 inches on vigorous shoots ). The deep green foliage turns to purplish-red during autumn.


* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Apr 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Dec 6 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 30 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 23 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Hedgerow Gold'
Luxuriant mid-green foliage that is boldly golden-yellow margined; it is otherwise similar to the species.
The winter stems are deep red.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Isanti'
Compact and dense in habit with scarlet-red stems, reaching up to 6 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually to 6 x 10 feet.
The deep green foliage turns to reddish-purple during autumn.

'Nitida'
Green winter stems; it is otherwise similar to species.

'Ruby'
Vigorous but compact, upright and rounded in habit; reaching a maximum height of 10 feet. It can reach as much as 6 feet in a single growing season after being cut back to ground level. It was originally developed for use for screening and erosion control in northern New England through has much wider adaptability.
The mid-green foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The stems are glowing deep red.

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.

'Summer Dreams'
Compact and rounded in habit reaching up to 6 x 8 feet in size, with leaves boldly variegated with a white edge.
Highly resistant to leafspot.

Cornus sessilis ( Blackfruit Dogwood )
A fast growing, deciduous, large shrub native to the western U.S. ( from southwest Oregon to the Sierra Nevada's of California ), that can reach a maximum size of 20 x 16 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 inches. It is very rare and possibly endangered in the wild.
The flowers are small and yellow ( similar to Cornus mas ) .
They are followed by glossy, purple-black berries contrasting well with the tapered leaves that are up to 4 inches in length.
The young shoots are vivid green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist, acidic, well drained soil.

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Cornus stricta ( Stiff Dogwood )
Also called Cornus foemina. A fast growing, suckering, large shrub to 15 feet, native to the southeastern U.S. Rarely on ideal sites it can become a tree and the largest on record is 25 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is found on riverbottoms and edges of marshland in the wild. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
The ovate leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath; turning to deep red and purple during autumn.
The tiny white flowers are borne on flattened clusters, up to 3 inches wide, lasting about 3 weeks from late spring into early summer.
They are followed by bright blue fruits that are each up to 0.25 inches wide.
The twigs are red.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet, humus-rich soil.

Cornus walteri ( Walter Dogwood )
A broadly-conical, moderate growing, medium-sized tree native to Korea and much of China; that can reach up to 50 feet or sometimes more in height. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest ever recorded - 70 x 41 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.3 feet. It is a close relative of C. sanguinea. It is among the few Dogwoods that makes a fine street tree. Endangered in the wild; it is also very rare in cultivation and some of the very few known planted specimums in the U.S. include Arnold Arboretum in Boston, MA and Secrest Arbroretum.
The oval, non toothed but wavy margined, taper pointed foliage is somewhat glossy deep green in color and thinly hairy below. The leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size and turn red during autumn.
The small, creamy white flowers are borne in flattened clusters, up to 3 inches across, during early summer.
They are followed by rounded black berries up to 0.3 inches across.
The pale gray-brown bark is very rough in texture, resembling alligator hide.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. It should be planted much more being that it makes an great street and shade tree and is also tolerant of drought, storms and pollution. It does have a preference for acidic soil.



* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Cornus wilsonii ( Wilsons Dogwood )
Among the tallest of all Dogwoods; this species is close in appearance to Cornus walteri. It is native to eastern China and can reach up to 60 x 28 feet though record sizes of 133 feet have been reported in the wild. It is among the few Dogwoods that make a fine street tree.
The oval, deciduous leaves are up to 6 x 3 ( rarely over 5 x 2.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is bright green above, silvery-white beneath.
The fragrant, small white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by small, black, clustered berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, from September to November.
The flaky bark is reddish in color and resembles that of the Crape Myrtle.
This rare tree is hardy zones 6 to 8

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