Saturday, May 1, 2010

Lysimachia

A genus of attractive and fast spreading perennials, careful siting may be required. They are best used where they have ample room to spread. Most prefer full sun to partial shade on moist soil. Propagation is from division.
Though many Lysimachia are called "Loosetrife" - the noxious weed "Purple Loosetrife" is NOT part of the Lysimachia family.

Lysimachia atropurpurea
A short-lived ( avg 3 years ), non-invasive, clumping perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet.
The attractive lance-shaped foliage is silvery-green to blue-green.
The deep purplish-red flowers are borne on tall spikes, up to 24 inches in length, lasting over a very long season from early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. Allow it to self-seed, it is not invasive.

Lysimachia barystachys
An erect perennial, reaching up to 3.5 feet in height, that spreads widely due to rhizomes. It is very similar to Lysimachia clethroides expect for the leaves which are oblong, up to 4.5 inches in length. It is also a widespread native to eastern Asia.
The small white flowers are borne in racemes during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Lysimachia ciliata ( Fringed Loosetrife )
A fast growing to very invasive, rhizome-spreading perennial, forming a clump up to 4.5 x 7 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to moist woodlands and river banks in eastern North America ( from British Columbia to Edmonton, Alberta to central Saskatchewan to Dryden, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Nova Scotia; south to Oregon to northern New Mexico to far northern Florida ).
The whorled, lance-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 2.5 inches in size, are mid-green.
The small, nodding, bright yellow flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne from the leaf axils, all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist fertile soil. Tolerant of wet swampy sites.

* Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1989. Midwest wetland flora

* historic archive photo

'Firecracker'
A very attractive form with deep purple-red foliage; otherwise identical to species.

* photo taken on June 2006 in Olney, MD



Lysimachia clethroides ( Gooseneck Loosetrife )
A fast to very invasive, rhizome-spreading perennial, reaching up to 3.5 feet in height, that is a widespread native of eastern Siberia, eastern China, Korea and most of Japan. It is found in ditches and wet woodland edges in the wild. It can form a large colony in a singe season. Unrestricted colonies have been known to reach as wide as 20 feet. Looks great planted along the waters edge.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 2 inches, are luxuriant deep green, turning to red in autumn. The foliage is finely downy.
The small, starry white flowers, up to 0.3 inches, are borne in long, narrow lance-shaped, densely-packed racemes, up to 18 inches in length, during mid summer into early autumn.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, fertile soil. Tolerant of wet swampy sites. Clumps can be divided during early spring if more of these plants are desired. Gooseneck Loosetrife is cut back to the ground during late autumn.

* photos taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co., PA


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on June 26 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Dec 3 2016 in Columbia, MD


Lysimachia congestiflora
A dense, low groundcover perennial, forming a spreading mat, up to 6 x 16 inches, that is native to China. It is similar to Lysimachia japonica except that the leaves are opposite or whorled.
The pointed oval leaves, up to 2 inch in length, are deep green with red tints.
The foliage is evergreen until the temperature reaches 15 F.
The small, starry, golden-yellow flowers are borne in clusters early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( 3 to 5 with winter snowcover only ) in partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

'Eco Dark Satin'
Very deep green leaves and flowers that are yellow with a red throat.

'Outback Sunset'
Foliage is mid-green and variegated with a margin that is reddish during spring later turning to yellow. The yellow flowers are red throated.

Lysimachia ephemerum ( Milky Loosetrife )
A fast growing but non-invasive, very attractive, erect, clumping perennial, forming a neat clump up to 5 x 3 feet, that is native to southwest Europe.
The narrow, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 1.3 inches, are gray-green.
The leaves are borne in opposite pairs.
The small, starry, silvery-white flowers are borne in dense narrow spires, up to 12 inches in length, during early to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, fertile soil. Does not enjoy hot dry conditions.

Lysimachia japonica
A low, trailing, stoloniferous, mat-forming groundcover perennial, reaching up to 2 inches x 2 feet, that is native from Kashmir to southeast China and Japan; south into Indonesia.
The small, rounded leaves are up to 1 x 0.8 inch in size. The slightly hairy foliage is bright green. The foliage is evergreen until the temperature reaches 15 F.
The small, starry, yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( prefers winter snowcover north of zone 6 ) in partial to full shade on moist well drained soil.

var 'minutissima'
Forms a fast growing, very low growing mat of foliage, up to 2 inches x 2+ feet.
The leaves are smaller than that of the species.
An excellent groundcover to used between stones on shady sites. It can even tolerate some foot traffic.

Lysimachia nummularia ( Creeping Jenny )
Also called Moneywort. A fast growing to invasive, very low, spreading, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 4 inches x 6 feet, that is native to the majority of Europe to Russia, the Caucasus and Turkey. It has naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Tobermory, Ontario. The trailing stems self root as they spread. It makes an excellent groundcover for expansive shady areas and even tolerates foot traffic. The lush green foliage is very attractive carpeting a woodland floor. This very versitile and useful plant can even be used to trail over the sides of planters and window boxes.
The wavy-edged, rounded leaves, up to 1 x 1.2 inch, are bright green later turning deep green.
The yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils late spring into autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. Tolerates moderate drought, heavy shade as well as swampy conditions.

* photo taken on May 27 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Aurea' ( Yellow Moneywort )
A very attractive form with glowing yellow foliage. Excellent for use as a groundcover in shady areas, mixes especially well with Black Mondo Grass and Blue Flowering Pulmonaria. Use in shade only, as its foliage will scorch in hot intense sun.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on April 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


Lysimachia punctata ( Yellow Loosetrife )
An aggressive to very invasive, rhizome-spreading ( more tame on drier sites ) perennial reaching up to 5.5 x 6 ( averaging 3 ) feet, that is native to wetlands from the British Isles to western Asia. It has naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Lion's Head and Haliburton, Ontario as well as Quebec City. The variegated forms are great for use next to water or under high canopy trees. Lysimachia vulgaris is closely related and similar ( except for larger leaves to 5 x 1.5 inches ) in appearance.
The lance-shaped or elliptic leaves, up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size, are deep green.
The leaves are opposite to whorled along the stems.
The yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne early to mid summer. The flowers are borne in whorls along the stems.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, moist soil.
Tolerant of flooding and swampy conditions.

* photos taken on June 1 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on June 3 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 20 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Alexander'
Similar except for the very attractive mid-green foliage which is boldly edged in creamy-white. Fresh new growth during spring is also tinted pink.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Oct 30 2014 in Olney, MD


'Golden Alexander'
The foliage is edged in deep golden-yellow.

Lysimachia quadrifolia ( Whorled Yellow Loosetrife )
An erect, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3.2 feet in height, that is native to eastern North America ( from eastern Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Tobermory, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to New Brunswick; south to central Mississippi to South Carolina ). It is now critically endangered in New York State despite once being common along Lake Erie and the Niagara River. In the Windsor-Detroit region; it was only noted as being rare at Detroit during the 1800s. It was abundant on the Ohio shore during that time.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 1.8 inches in size, are arranged in whorls of 4 to 6. The foliage is smooth, glossy bright green.
The bright yellow starry flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne all summer long.
The stems are 4-angled.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on wet soil.

* photos taken on July 7 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Lysimachia terrestris ( Swamp Candles )
A vigorous, rhizomatous, erect perrennial, reaching up to 4 feet, that is native to marshes and swamps in eastern North America ( from Manitoba to Dryden, Ontario to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to central Quebec to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Iowa to Kentucky to North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was sporadic at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is also now naturalized in the Pacific Northwest.
The oppositely-arranged, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 0.8 inches in size, are mid-green
The bright yellow flowers, up to 0.7 inches long, are borne on showy spikes throughout summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on wet soil.

* historic archive photo

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