Friday, May 28, 2010

MAGNOLIAS

Among my favorite trees! And who wouldn't like them being that they are among the first harbingers of spring!
Typically Magnolias are best pruned in April. Train to a single leader and feather when young. Gradually remove lower branches but be careful pruning - the bark is easily torn. Remove dead flowers by cutting not breaking.
They prefer moist, acidic, deep, rich, light, well drained soil in sun or partial shade though it really isn't terrible fussy. Magnolias grow best on a somewhat sheltered site and it is recommended to transplant them while they are small.





* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Wash. DC


Magnolia acuminata ( Cucumber Tree )
A large, very dense canopied tree native to rich woods in eastern North America ( from southern Missouri to southern Indiana to Grand Bend, Ontario to Niagara Falls, Ontario to central New York State; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Louisiana to central Georgia to southeast Pennsylvania ); that is pyramidal in its youth becoming widespread with age. It is critically endangered in Canada with all remaining populations in the Tillsonburg, Simcoe, Long Point areas as well as west of Welland, Ontario. It is recorded from Grand Bend area before 1964 ( site was cleared ) and likely before the 1890s was still rare but much more widespread along the entire north shore of Lake Erie. It is very rare in Ohio and extinct in Michigan in the wild where it was overcut in the 1800s and never replanted. In Ohio; it only occurs in the wild east of the Sandusky and the Vermillion River. Forest fragmentation prevents pollination and reproduction of this tree. In 1763 - many giants over 100 feet were known to grow in Harrisburg, PA; in 1802 it was reported as very common in Bedford, PA. Fast growing and reaching up to 80 feet or more. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 4 years - 25 feet; 10 years - 60 x 30 feet ( 30 x 20 more usual ); 20 years - trunk diameter of 15 inches; 30 years - 77 feet; largest ever recorded - 150 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. It is one of the worlds largest Magnolias not including the related Liriodendrons; has even been known to reach 100 feet in England. Large trees are noted at Waukon, IO ( 75 x 83 x 8 feet ) as well as Longwood Gardens, PA and Petersburg, VA. Uncommon in DC; it can be found at the U.S. Capitol. The Cucumber Tree is also very long lived, up to 500 years.
The large, oval leaves are frequently up to 12 x 7 inches and sometimes up to 16 x 10.5 inches on vigorous shoots. The tropical-looking foliage is bright green above and blue-green, hairy below. The leaves turn to brown during late fall.
The flowers are greenish yellow. The greenish-yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 5 inches across; are borne singly and the ends of the branches during late spring. Flowering typically begins in about 10 years from seed.
The cylindrical fruits clusters are up to 4 inches in length, are green at first then ripening to purplish red.
The bark is light brown and furrowed with straight flat top ridged.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. While it grows faster with warmer summers; it is known to grow in England where it has reached sizes up to 85 feet. A deep rooted tree, requires transplanting while small. The Cucumber Tree does not enjoy shade or pollution but does tolerate some flooding. It is almost never bothered by insects or disease.
As a landscape tree; it is truly spectacular and one of my favorites!

* photo of unknown origin; unbelievable huge!!!

* photos taken on July 4 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ Univ of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, Ontario


* photos taken on Aug 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY











* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co., MD


* photos taken on June 20 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Nov 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos


'Variegata'
Variety known from a single tree with variegated foliage in England that was 60 feet in height. This cultivar may no longer exist.

Magnolia acuminata subcordata ( Yellow Cucumber Tree )
Also called Magnolia cordata. It is native to the southeast U.S. generally further south than regular Magnolia acuminata. It grows with a rounded canopy to 50 feet or more. Some records include: 20 years - 40 x 30 feet; largest on record - 100 x 81 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. One of the largest ever recorded grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA.
The oblong leaves are up to 7 x 3.5 inches or sometimes more. The foliage is deep green.
The canary-yellow flowers, up to 3 inches wide, appear during summer , often repeating during early fall . Hardy zones 4 to 8 and tolerant of limey soils.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Black Beauty'
The deep purple outsides of the petals contrast starkly with the white insides on this late blooming rarity.
A moderately growing, small tree, reaching up to 12 x 6 feet in 10 years, eventually reaching up to 27 x 20 feet or possibly more.
Hardy zones 4b to 8, due to its late blooming, the flowers are rarely damaged by frost.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Butterflies'
Abundant deep yellow blooms, up to 6 inches across, before the foliage emerges during spring.
It becomes a small tree that is pyramidal in habit. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 20 x 15 feet; average maturity - 30 x 30 feet.
The leaves are up to 8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 9


* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


‘Coral Reef’
A hardy hybrid ( M. acuminata x M. sprengeri ‘Dark Diva’ )and moderate grower to 35 + x 20 feet.
In the sun these blooms glow like the corals on the reef. Shades of pink and salmon and yellow arrive with the spring, earlier in the season than most M. acuminata hybrids. Hardy zones 5 to 9.

'Elizabeth'
A hybrid between Magnolia acuminata & M. denundata.
A very fast growing ( up to 4.5 feet per year ), upright tree when young, reaching up to 30 x 20 feet in 10 years. It typically becomes broadly-pyramidal upright as it matures, reaching up to 60 x 35 feet in size.
The abundant, strongly fragrant, creamy yellow flowers, up to 8 inches across, appear during mid spring before the foliage.
The leaves, up to 9 x 5.5 inches in size, are coppery at first, turning to deep green.
Hardy north to zone 4.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Apr 7 2015 in Burtonsville, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


‘Goldfinch’
A hybrid between Magnolia acuminata subcordata and M. denudata. Typically a single-trunked, graceful, upright, tall tree, reaching up to 50 + x 20 feet.
It bears light yellow flowers during early spring before the foliage. From a distance it looks like M. acuminata while not in bloom.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

‘Gold Star’
A moderately fast growing hybrid between M. acuminata var. subcordata ‘Miss Honeybee’ x M. stellata, reaching an average mature size of 25 x 20 feet.
It has bright creamy yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, with 14 narrow tepals. The flowers open during early spring before the foliage.
The attractive young foliage is burgundy before turning deep green.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, tolerating -30 F.

'Judy Zuk'

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Skylands'
A repeat bloomer with bright yellow flowers during late spring, then again in late summer. The flowers are up to 6 inches across.
The attractive foliage is deep green.
Compact and pyramidal in habit; it is moderate growing and can reach 15 x 8 feet in 10 years, remaining a small tree at maturity.
It is hardy zones 5 to 9.

‘Sunburst’
A hybrid between M. x brooklynensis ‘Woodsman’ x M. ‘Gold Star’.
The very abundant deep canary-yellow flowers open just as the foliage emerges, making the tree look like it’s covered in glowing yellow candles.
The heavily-textured, leathery foliage is bronze-purple during spring before turning to deep green.
It forms a fast growing, upright tree, reaching 30 feet or more.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


‘Sundance’
A vigorous, broadly-pyramidal large tree, bearing yellow flowers up to 8 inches across, during mid-spring. It is partly fertile, sometimes producing seed from hand pollination but also easily propagated from cuttings. It flowers in as little as 4 years of age and can grow at a rate up to 3 feet yearly.

'Sunsation'
Narrowly-pyramidal in habit, reaching up to 25 x 8 feet in 10 years, eventually much taller. It makes a great tree for small urban spaces where height is desired.
It bears golden-yellow ( blushed purple ) flowers, up to 7 inches across, during late spring.
The blooms still appear before the deep green foliage.
Hardy zone 5 to 8.

'Ultimate Yellow'
A fast growing and upright tree, reaching up to 30 x 20 feet in 10 years, eventually much more.
It bears large, open cup yellow flowers up to 6 inches across.
The foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Woodsman'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 50 feet with pale purple flowers.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Yellow Bird'
Fast growing and conical in its youth, eventually becoming a spreading, large tree. It can reach up to 25 x 18 feet in 10 years; eventually to 40 x 35 feet or possibly more.
The ovate leaves are up to 10 inches in length. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green; turning attractive golden-brown during autumn. Intense bright yellow cup-shaped flowers, up to 5 inches across, open at the same time as the unfolding foliage during mid-spring. It flowers at a young age. Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Yellow Fever'
Vigorous and upright. A hybrid between Magnolia acuminata and M. denundata, reaching 33 feet or more in height.
It flowers during mid spring with large, soft yellow, fragrant blooms up to 8 inches across.
The foliage is glossy green.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Yellow Joy'
Similar to 'Butterfly', it is a very beautiful Magnolia with abundant light yellow flowers before the foliage in spring.
It can reach up to 15 x 10 feet in 10 years, becoming a small tree with an estimated eventual maximum size of 30 x 25 feet.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

'Yellow Lantern'
Upright with a single trunk, it is fast growing ( up to 4.5 feet per year ), reaching up to 15 feet in 10 years. A semi-dwarf, it quickly slows down and rarely exceeds 40 x 20 feet at maturity.
The leaves, up to 9 x 7 inches in size, are very lush deep green.
The large tulip shape flowers are pure lemon yellow and very long lasting.
Hardy north to zone 4.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Magnolia amoena ( Tienmu Magnolia )
A moderate growing ( 2 feet per year ), medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40 feet in height, that is native to the Tienmu Mountains in eastern China. This close relative of Magnolia denundata is threatened with extinction in the wild.
The narrow-obovate leaves are up to 7 x 3 inches in size.
The fragrant pink flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne during mid spring.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( possibly 6 with further testing ), it does not enjoy droughts, floods or extreme heat.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Magnolia ashei ( Ashe Magnolia )
Native to moist woods only in northwestern Florida though hardy over most of eastern North America. A moderate growing ( record of 7 feet per year though rarely over 2 ), broadly-columnar, deciduous tree that can reach a maximum size of 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet. A large tree is known to grow at the Henry Foundation in Gladwyn, PA
The huge, oval leaves are up to 30 x 16 ( rarely over 24 x 12 ) inches in size. The tropical looking foliage is deep green above and finely hairy, blue-white beneath. The foliage is typically bunched at the ends of the shoots and the leaves reach up to 24 x 12 or rarely 30 x 16 inches in size. The foliage is great for creating a tropical effect.
The very fragrant, large white flowers, up to 12 inches wide, are flushed purple at the base. They appear during late spring with the foliage.
They are followed by pink fruit clusters up to 5 inches in length.
The smooth bark is pale gray..
It is endangered despite being very easy to grow. Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( blooms even after temps below -20 F ) on acidic, well drained soil; it is moderate heat and drought tolerant as well as very shade tolerant.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photos taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Wash., DC

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Magnolia biondii ( Chinese Willow Leaf Magnolia )
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 60 x 35( rarely over 40 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet, that is native to central China.
The narrow leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches in size, resemble that of Magnolia salicifolia. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The fragrant, white ( flushed pink at the base ) flowers, up to 4 inches across are typically borne during early to mid spring. The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possibly even hardier )

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Magnolia 'Black Tulip'
A moderate growing, upright tree, reaching up to 20 x 10 feet.
The leaves are up to 6 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The deep reddish-purple, tulip-shaped flowers, up to 6 inches wide, appear during mid-spring before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Magnolia ‘Caerhays Belle’
The hybrid between M. sargentiana var. robusta x M. sprengeri ‘Diva’, it is a fast grower, reaching about 30 x 25 feet in 10 years, eventually growing very large. It can grow at rates up to 4 feet per year.
The attractive foliage is deep green.
At just 5 years of age; it blooms with massive, spectacular, 12 inch, intense pink blooms with wavy margins, during early spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it is best grown in maritime climates where extreme early spring temperature fluctuations won't damage the early flowers.

Magnolia campbellii ( Campbell Magnolia )
Native to forests of the Himalayas from central Nepal to southwest China.
The Campbell's Magnolia was once harvested for its lumber and is endangered in the wild.
It is a beautiful stately tree that can live up to 600 years and exceed 100 feet in height with a broad conical shape. Some records include: fastest recorded growth tate - 4 feet; 9 years - 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches; 20 years - 63 x 33 feet; 55 years - 100 feet; largest on record - 180 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. The trunk may reach a diameter of 32 inches in 45 years.
Large trees over 70 feet are known far outside its native range, in England and Seattle, WA.
The large, oval leaves are up to 14 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning smooth deep green above and bluish below. The foliage often turns back to bronze during autumn.
The flowers are saucer shaped and huge, up to 12 inches across. They open before the leaves in early spring and are light to dark pink. Seedlings take up to 20 years to flower.
They are followed by cylindrical red fruits, up to 8 inches in length.
The smooth bark is gray. The branches are NOT brittle.
hardy from zone 6 to 9 but thrives in North America only from British Columbia to northern California.

'Alba'
Huge white flowers up to 17 inches across.

'Charles Raffill'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 44 x 22 feet in just 15 years, eventually much more.
Rose pink buds open to flowers that are rose-purple outside and white flushed rose inside.

'Darjeeling'
Flowers are dark rose purple.

subsp 'mollicomata'
similar but flowers are slightly larger, earlier and it flowers at a younger age ( as early as 9 years )
Somewhat more cold hardy. One clone even tolerated -5 F on 8 straight nights with no damage.

'mollicomata Lanarth'
Very large red-purple flowers.

'Wakehurst'
Darkest flowers of all

Magnolia coco ( Night Closing Magnolia )
Native to southern China and Java; it is a small, slow growing shrub reaching a maximum size of 13 x 12 feet.
Its elliptic, leathery, evergreen foliage is up to 11 inches in length and shiny dark green above, paler below.
The nooding flowers are creamy white and extremely fragrant.
This Magnolia blooms sporadically throughout the summer. The flowers are more fragrant at night than during the day.
Hardy zone 9 to 10 and grows well in Florida.

Magnolia cylindrica ( Anhui Magnolia )
A deciduous, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40+ feet, that is native to southeastern China. Some records include: 3 years - 10 feet; 7 years - 18 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. It is endangered in the wild due to destruction of forest within its native range.
The oval leaves are up to 8.5 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, smooth to furry beneath.
The white flowers, up to 9 inches across, are fragrant at night. They appear during late spring.
They are followed by cylindrical fruits, up to 3 x 1 inches in size, during late summer. .
The smooth bark is beige to gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9; this lush foliaged tree grows very well in eastern North America.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Magnolia dawsoniana ( Dawsons Magnolia )
A broadly-conical, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native of central Sichuan Province in central China. Some records include; fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 75 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 56 inches; largest in England - 70 feet.
The obovate leaves are up to 7 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, slightly hairy and paler beneath; turning to bronze during autumn.
The slightly-fragrant flowers, up to 10 inches across, are tinted pink on the outside and white on the inside. They are among the earliest of all Magnolias, appearing before the leaves during early spring. Seed grown trees may take up to 20 years to bloom.
The cylindrical fruit clusters are red-green and up to 4 inches in length.
The young branches are yellowish.
The bark is smooth and gray with raised lenticles. At the base of the tree, the bark becomes fissured.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating -20 F ). A rare tree; many of the trees that are sold are grafted.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Clarks Variety'
Deep pink flowers.

'Ruby'
Flowers are larger at 11 inches across.

Magnolia 'Daybreak'
A fast growing, upright uniform branching tree reaching a maximum size of 30 x 20 feet in 10 years and eventually 45 x 20 feet.
The very attractive, wavy-margined, heavily-textured leaves are up to 10 x 6 inches in size. The deep green foliage is resistant to mildew and turns to golden-brown during autumn.
The extremely fragrant, intense rose pink, very large flowers are up to 12 inches across. It usually blooms during mid-spring with the emerging foliage, thus escaping late frost damage.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. It is urban tolerant and an excellent replacement for the Bradford Pear.

* photo taken on April 9 2010 in Clarksville, MD


* photos taken on Mar 22 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 24 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 7 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 21 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2017 in Columbia, MD


Magnolia dealbata
Very closely related to Magnolia macrophylla; this is a large tree, reaching up to 66 feet or more. It is endangered in the wild in its native Mexico, it is sometimes planted in California, Texas and on the east coast as far north as Maryland. Very vigorous, some records include: 6 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. One was noted as particularly vigorous at Chyverton, England proof of its adaptability far outside its native range.
The leaves are huge, up to 24 x 15 inches.
The flowers are white, up to 16 inches across.
Hardy north to zone 7 and is known to survive -5 F with no damage

Magnolia delavayi ( Delavay Magnolia )
A broadly spreading, evergreen tree, reaching around 40 feet, that is native to southern Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in southwestern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 20 years - 27 x 20 feet; largest on record - 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest in England - 50 feet in Cornwall. It can live up to 800 years. A very large tree is known to grow in Taranto, Italy.
The elliptical leaves are up to 20 x 8 ( rarely over 12 x 6.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is furry at first, later becoming smooth, glossy deep green above, pale green beneath. The fragrant, creamy-white, large flowers, up to 10 inches wide, are borne during late spring into early summer. Short lived; they often open at night and fade the following day. There is a new form that has red flowers. Grown from seed; the Delavay Magnolia will bloom in about 10 years.
The fruit clusters are cylindrical and up to 6 inches long. They are green and turn to pale brown as they ripen.
The vertically fissured bark is dark brown.
Hardy from zones 7 to 10 and is tolerant of both wind and limey soils.
Propagation is easy whether from cuttings or seed.

Magnolia denudata ( Yulan Magnolia )
A fast growing, rounded, medium-sized tree up to 60 feet or more, native to central China. Some records include: growth rate - 4 feet with reports of 5 and 6 feet; 18 years - 36 x 31 x 1 feet; largest on record - 100 x 52 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. It is commonly planted on the grounds of Buddhist temples in China. The largest Yulan Magnolia in Pennsylvania ( 68 x 52 feet ) grows at Tyler Arboretum near Philly.
The oval leaves are up to 9 x 6 ( rarely over 7 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, bright green beneath.
Blooming in around only 3 years from seed; this is one of the most beautiful of all Magnolias. The abundant, fragrant, white flowers, up to 9 inches wide, appear during early spring before the foliage emerges. The flowers are hardy to as cold as 26 F while open.
The smooth, medium gray bark resembles that of the Beech.
Though generally a very hardy tree; its very early bloom season requires some protection from wind and heavy late frosts which may spoil the blooms. I have personally seen this tree bloom in Maryland after 70 and 80 degree weather in March only to have the blooms frozen off and brown a few days later. Even if this happens in some years; in other years the sheer beauty of this tree makes planting it well worth it. Hardy from zone 4 to 9. It is known to grow in Las Angeles, north Florida, Seattle and Boston; very adaptable indeed.

* photo taken in March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photo

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* historic archive photos


'Forrest's Pink'
Pink flowers; otherwise identical to species.

Magnolia fordiana ( Tree Lotus )
Also called Manglietia fordiana. A moderate growing, evergreen, large tree native to southeastern China and Vietnam. Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk up to 5 feet across. It grows moderately fast at about 2 feet per year, averaging 13 feet in 10 years.
The narrowly-obovate leaves are up to 10 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is bronze-green at first, later turning mid-green.
The abundant, white flowers, up to 5 inches wide, are borne during late spring. The smooth bark is pale grayish-brown.
Hardy zone 7a to 9 ( tolerating -3 F ).

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Magnolia fraseri ( Fraser Magnolia )
An open, spreading, fast growing, medium size tree native to moist mounatin forests from Kentucky to West Virginia; south to Georgia. Typically reaching around 60 feet; some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 127 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.6 feet; largest in England - 80 feet. Other large trees include: Smoky Mtn. National Park, TN; Caroll Co. VA ( 86 x 60 x 3.5 feet ) and Baltimore, MD ( 70 x 45 x 2 feet )
The thin, tropical looking foliage is bronze at first becoming light green and smooth both sizes. The obovate leaves are up to 24 x 11 inches in size. The foliage turns to golden-yellow or bronze during autumn.
The fragrant, creamy-white, saucer-shaped flowers, up to 12 inches wide, appear during late spring. The blooms are borne singly at the ends of the shoots.
They are followed by red clustered fruits up to 5 x 2 inches in size.
The bark is brown and smooth or sometimes scaly with age. The wood weights about 31 pounds per square foot.
Hardy from zone 3 to 9 preferring rich, moist soil in partial shade.
Very adaptable; it grows well in England's cooler summers. It is more wind tolerant than most large leaf Magnolias.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Magnolia 'Galaxy'
The hybrids of Magnolia liliflora 'Nigra' x sprengeri 'Diva'
It is a moderate ( fast on ideal sites ) growing, strongly-upright, pyramidal, deciduous tree with excellent branching habit and a strong central leader. It can reach a maximum size of 60 x 25 feet. Some records include; fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 10 years - 20 x 15 ( avg ) feet; 14 years - 24 feet with trunk diameter of 7 inches.
The large leaves, up to 9 x 8 inches in size, are mid-green above and light blue-green beneath.
The abundant, red-purple outside, pale inside, lightly fragrant, long-persisting blooms are up to 10 inches across when fully open. They appear before the leaves and last up to 6 weeks and are partially sterile, occasionally producing fruit and viable seed. The Galaxy Magnolia can be expected to flower at 9 years from seed.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, prefers full sun and is very soil tolerant making it a decent shade tree. Roots easily from semi-hardwood cuttings after stem growth has ceased, under mist.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Magnolia globosa ( Globe Flower Magnolia )
A small tree native from eastern Nepal to western Yunnan in China. It can reach up to 20 feet in 20 years and it's maximum size is 33 x 32 feet.
The foliage when young is rusty furry as is the young shoots. The deciduous leaves which are up to 11.5 x 6 ( rarely over 8 ) inches in size, later turn deep green above but remain rusty furry below.
The fragrant, white flowers are nooding, rounded and up to 5 inches across.
Prefers moist soil on a shady site. Hardy zone 5 to 9

Magnolia grandiflora ( Southern Magnolia )
A large, evergreen tree that is native to the southeast U.S. on moist soils from Texas to North Carolina and south. It grows to 2 feet in the very first year, and can grow up to 4 feet per year thereafter reaching as much as 50 x 36 feet in 20 years with a very dense habit. It often matures at 80 feet though this tree can live to 300 years and grow as large as 150 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.4 feet. Indeed one tree of 135 x 50 x 7 ft grows in Jones County, Mississippi. Some additional records include: 16 years - 10 inch trunk diameter.
The elliptical leaves are up to 14.5 x 8 ( rarely over 12 x 7 ) inches in size. The attractive, very thick, leathery, foliage is very glossy deep green.
The very showy, very fragrant, creamy-white flowers, up to 14 inches wide, are borne during early summer. The flowers are borne single at the ends of the branches.
They are followed by oval, red fruit clusters, up to 4 x 2 inches in size.
The Southern Magnolia generally blooms at about age 15 from seed.
The brown-gray bark is scaly or with age cracks into small plates.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 with some cultivars hardy into zone 6. Growing best in moist rich soil, it is moderately salt, lime, flood, wind, storm and drought tolerant. The Southern Magnolia is rarely bothered by pests and diseases. It however can sometimes develop chlorosis ( yellowing leaves ) on alkaline soils.
Cultivated around the world from Italy to India, Singapore, China and Brazil. Propagation is from seed sown during autumn or cuttings taken during late summer. The seed coat contains a germination inhibitor so it is recommended to remove it by soaking the seeds in water for 36 hours before stratifying in moist potting soil at 40 t0 45 F ( such as in refridgerator ) for 3 months before sowing.





* photos taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC





* photo taken in Laurel, MD on April 2002

* photo of unknown internet origin


* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on July 4 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.



* photo taken on Sep 24 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society Tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on July 11 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 in Washington, DC

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos


'Alta'
Very dense and upright, reaching up to 23 feet in 10 years, eventually 50 x 20 feet. The foliage is luxuriant deep green. Somewhat resembling the Lombardy Poplar in habit, it makes a great tall screen.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Oct 11 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Bracken Beauty'
Very fast growing to 18 x 6 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches in 5 years, 25 x 18 feet in 15 years, 40 x 20 feet in 20 years, eventually very large.
The dense foliage is more fine- textured than regular Magnolia grandiflora. The leaves, only up to 6 inches in length, are very glossy deep green above, fuzzy brown beneath.
The very fragrant flowers are also only half average size, reaching up to 6 inches across.
Hardy zones 6 +; it is fully hardy to -24 F and even blooms in Detroit and survives in Chicago if planted on a protected site.

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor, Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 13 2015 in Pikesville, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Nov 13 2016 in Harford Co., MD


'DD Blanchard'
Very fast growing and not really much different than the species, reaching up to 50 x 25 feet in 20 years, eventually much more. Juvenile trees are upright to columnar, becoming more pyramidal later on.
The attractive, large leaves are glossy deep green above, orange-brown beneath.
Hardy north to zone 6.

* photo taken on June 21 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Edith Bogue'
A fast growing ( to 30 x 25 feet in 10 years ), large tree with an excellent pyramidal form and glossy deep green foliage and large white flowers. The foliage is pale brown downy beneath. It originates from a tree growing in Montclair, New Jersey.
Very hardy; it is evergreen to -10 F and hardy to -24 F.

* photos taken on April 15 2012 in Bethesda, MD


* photos taken on June 4 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 29 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Emory'
Very columnar and very dense, reaching up to 90 x 12 feet at maturity. Great for confined areas or between highrise buildings.

'Exmouth'
glossy green foliage is felted and rusty colored beneath.
The flowers are fragrant and huge.

'Goliath'
Abundant, huge, white flowers up to 12 inches across that are produced from mid summer onward.
The foliage is green on both sides and is shorter than average.
Fast growing, it can reach as much as 17 x 13 feet in just 5 years.
Fully hardy north to zone 6.

'Green Giant'
Rapid growing and dense in habit with a strong leader. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 18 x 8 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches from rooted cuttings.
The large leaves are green backed.

'Kay Parris'
Resembles its mother, 'Little Gem', but much more ornamental with extremely glossy, bright green leaves with orange-brown furry undersides. It blooms for many months, is more vigorous, upright in habit and does not fall apart like 'Little Gem'.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


'Little Gem'
A beautiful but smaller growing Southern Magnolia, reaching up to 16 feet tall in 10 years, 23 x 14 feet with trunk diameter of 7 inches in 15 years and to an eventual size of 40 x 35 feet. Tightly pyramidal when young, older trees are dense and domed in habit.
It has smaller leaves ( 7.5 x 2.5 inches ) and flowers ( 9 inches ) and flowers from a young age.

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on June 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 17 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Majestic Beauty'
Strong growing ( up to 22 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 inches in 15 years ) with foliage up to 15 inches in length.

'Opal Haws'
Parent tree in Boise, Idaho survived - 24 F.

'Pocono'
Reaching up to 20 x 12 feet in 10 years; it is very cold hardy with very sturdy branches that do not get damaged by heavy snows. The very fragrant mid-summer flowers are up to 8 inches across. Rarely gets winter burn even in the Pennsylvania Poconos foothills; it may be hardy north to zone 5.

'Russet'
Leaves are narrower than the species, glossy deep green above; russet-brown beneath; otherwise similar to the species.
Fast growing, dense and columnar; it can reach up to 10 feet tall in 4 years, eventually 80 feet or more.
The white flowers are up to 8 inches wide.
It is know to tolerate as low as -20 F.

'Samuel Sumner'
Rapid growing with very large leaves and huge flowers to 16 inches across. The glossy deep green foliage is rusty-brown downy beneath.
Hardy north to zone 6 ( Tolerating 5b ).

'Simpsons Hardy
Reliable cold hardiness to -25 F is about the only real difference. Another cultivar called 'Stephanie' is considered to be equally hardy.

'Teddy Bear'
Reaching a maximum size of 3o x 15 feet in 30 years, it is much denser and more pyramidal than the similar 'Little Gem'.
The broad foliage is glossy deep green above, rusty-brown beneath.
The white flowers appear sporadically all summer long.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

'Tulsa'
Reported to grow well in Boston.

'Victoria'
Semi dwarf to 10 x 8 feet n 5 years, eventually 20 x 15 feet or more.
The leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are glossy deep green above and brown felted below.
The very fragrant, creamy-white flowers, up to 12 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy north to zone 6, tolerating -12 F or even -20 on a protected site. It grows well is coastal B.C. with its cooler summers ( most Southern Magnolia need very hot humid summers ).

Magnolia griffithi
A large evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is native to Burma. The large leaves are up to 14 x 6 inches in size. It only grows in tropical climates and is not frost tolerant.

Magnolia 'Heaven Scent'
A hybrid between Magnolia veitchii and M. lilifolia 'Nigra' that is a broadly spreading, moderate growing tree reaching: 20 years - 31 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; maximum size - 33 x 33 feet. The fastest recorded growth rate is 3 feet.
The pointed, broadly-elliptical leaves are up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, paler beneath.
The strongly fragrant, upright, intense deep pink, vase-shaped flowers are up to 5 inches in length.
The fruits are your typical Magnolia clusters.
The bark is gray and smooth.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

Magnolia henryi ( Henry Magnolia )
A medium size tree reaching up to 66 feet, that is native to Yunnan Province in China; south to northern Burma and Thailand. It looks like a "Giant Leaved Southern Magnolia" with evergreen foliage up to 26 x 9 inches in size. The white flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring.
It is highly endangered in the wild.

Magnolia hodginsonii
Native to the Himalayas and reaches a maximum size of 40 x 40 feet.
The foliage is very large, tough and oval.
The flowers are pinkish-beige and up to 7 inches across

Magnolia hypoleuca ( Japanese White Magnolia )
Also called Magnolia obovata. A broadly-columnar, deciduous, large tree native to moist, mountain forests of Japan and the Kuril Islands reaching up to 50 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 x 24 feet; largest on record - 120 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 11.5 feet.
Cultivated for its timber in the past. Large trees grow in New York City, Arnold Arboretum and Fairfield, CT. This tree is mostly grown in North America for its very attractive tropical looking foliage. Very long-lived, it can persist as long as 600 years.
The waxy, pointed foliage is smooth, deep green above, furry blue green below. The leaves are up to 18 x 10 inches in size. On very vigorous shoots leaves have been reported up to 28 inches in length. The leaves are whorled at the ends of the branches. The leafstalks are purplish.
The very strongly fragrant, cup-shaped flowers, up to 10 inches across, are borne during summer. They are creamy white often flushed pink on the outside.
It typically begins to bloom at the age of 10.
Cylindrical red fruit clusters up to 8 inches in length with hanging red seeds follow the blooms.
The bark is whitish and smooth and the branches are purplish.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Prefers to be sheltered from wind.

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko of CalPhotos

* historic archive photo


Magnolia insignis (Red Lotus Tree)
Also called Manglietia insignis. A large, evergreen tree, that is native to from northeast India and Nepal to Yunnan Province in China; south to northern Burma and Thailand It is endangered in the wild. It grows large, the largest on record is 120 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet. Some records include: 15 years - 23 + feet.
Has already reached around 55 feet in England.
The narrowly ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 12 x 4 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The whitish-pink to red flowers, up to 5 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
The purple seedcones are up to 4 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as cold as -10 F ) in full sun to partial shade. Thrives in the hot humid southeast but has been grown in England as well.

'Grandis'
Exceptionally large foliage on this "Magnolia on Steroids" up to 18 x 6 inches in size. The beautiful scarlet flowers are up to 12 inches across

Magnolia kachira ( Taiwan Magnolia )
An endangered tree native to Taiwan that can reach a maximum size of 70 feet in height with a trunk up to 4 feet across.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The leathery foliage is mid-green.
Flowers are yellow. The smooth bark is brown. Not hardy in cool climates.

Magnolia x kewensis 'Wada's Memory' see Magnolia x proctoriana 'Wadas Memory'

Magnolia kobus ( Kobus Magnolia )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching around 60 feet, that is native to forests of Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 120 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.9 feet. It is the fastest growing Magnolia in New England.
The oval leaves are up to 8 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is smooth deep green above, paler and slightly hairy below.
The lightly-fragrant, white flowers, up to 5 inches wide, appear during early spring before the foliage. They are sometimes streaked pink at the base. The Kobus Magnolia usually begins to bloom around the age of 15
The red fruits are cylindrical and up to 4 inches in length.
The smooth bark is gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it is among the hardiest Magnolia's in Ottawa, Canada where it thrives. Storm and soil tolerant.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA




* photo taken on August 1 2010 in Leamington, Ontario


'Borealis'
more vigorous with larger leaves. It also begins to flower at a younger age. This cultivar is superior to regular Magnolia kobus if you are looking for a spectacular tree

* photos taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Magnolia liliflora ( Lily Flowered Magnolia )
A small tree, reaching about 20 feet on average, that is native to central China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 13 x 13 feet; largest size recorded - 34 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Its branches often reach the ground and layer causing it to form a thicket rather than a tree.
The oval leaves are up to 8 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is very deep green above, paler and downy beneath.
The slender buds are silvery and hairy. The flowers are lily like, up to 4 inches across and purple outside and white inside. The appear with the foliage during mid-spring, then randomly in late spring and summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on loamy soil. Tolerant of wet and heavy clay soil as well as temporary drought.
Propagation is from quick dipped semi-hardwood cuttings, under mist and 4000 ppm IBA, rooting in about 8 weeks.

* photos taken on Oct 9 2011 in Ellicott City, MD



* photo taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD


'Ann'
Actually a hybrid between Magnolia stellata 'Rosea' and M. lilifolia 'Nigra' ( as are most of the other Girl Magnolia series ); it is
Vigorous growing up to 25 x 24 feet with a pyramidal habit.
The leaves, up to 7 inches in length, are deep green.
The large flowers are pinkish-purple and up to 8 inches across and appear in early spring before the foliage.
Hardy to - 40 F

* photos taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010

* photos taken on Apr 20 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Betty'
Fast growing ( record growth rate - 5 feet ) but remaining a small tree, reaching up to 20 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches in 20 years.
The leaves, up to 7 x 5 inches in size, are deep green.
The flowers, up to 8 inches across are purple-red outside and white inside. They are borne during early spring.
Hardy north to zone 4b.

* photos taken on Apr 20 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Aug 16 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Jane'
Fast growing ( record growth rate - 6 feet ) but remaining a small tree, reaching up to 30 x 20 feet.
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are deep green.
While it typically flowers in early to mid spring before the foliage, the very fragrant, deep pink flowers ( up to 4 inches across ) sometimes repeat bloom in the summer.
Hardy north to zone 3.

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C. on April 2008

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on May 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 19 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Aug 30 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Nigra'
The flowers are wine-purple on the outside, lighter purple on the inside; it is otherwise identical.

* photos taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 26 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Pinkie'
A rounded, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 20 x 25 ( rarely over 18 x 17 ) feet.
It very abundantly bears very light pink flowers, up to 7 inches across, during spring before the foliage.
Hardy north to zone 4.

'Randy'
A spreading, domed, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 17 x 30 ( rarely over 15 x 17 ) feet.
The ovate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid-green.
It bears intense purplish-pink flowers, up to 5 inches across, during spring before the foliage.
Hardy north to zone 4.

'Ricki'
A vigorous, upright, large shrub to small tree,reaching up to 10 x 8 feet in 10 years with an eventual maximum size of 19 x 27 ( rarely over 15 x 16 ) feet.
The leaves are up to 6 inches in length.
It bears showy purple-red flowers, up to 6 inches across, during spring before the deep green foliage.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

'Susan'
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 25 feet.
it bears large deep pink to red-purple flowers up to 6 inches across in spring before the foliage and continuing over an extended period.
The ovate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are deep green and mildew resistant.
Hardy north to zone 4.

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010






* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD


Magnolia x loebneri ( Loebner Magnolia )
A hybrid between Magnolia kobus and M. stellata that is a medium size, very fast growing tree reaching around 50 feet in height. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet with reports of 6; 4 years - 20 feet; 20 years - 60 x 40 feet; largest on record - 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet.
The oval foliage is smooth and glossy dark green, up to 7 inches in length. The leaves turn to deep yellow during autumn.
It is a prolific bloomer with flowers up to 6 inches across ranging from white to pink. The flowers open in March or even Febuary in the far south of its range.
The fruit clusters are cylindrical and pinkish-red, up to 4 inches in length.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Easy to grow and very soil tolerant. Hardy zones 3 to 8 tolerating as low as -50 F.
It is also tolerant of urban conditions and wind.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


'Ballerina'
White flowers. It may flower at a very young age, as early as 3 years of age
Slower growing, up to 15 inches per year, reaching as much as 30 x 25 feet.
'Donna'
HUGE spectacular white flowers up to 8 inches across! The flowers are also flatter than most cultivars. Foliage is deep green. Reaches up to 15 x 12 feet in 10 years; eventually more.

'Encore'
Flowers open over a long period of time in spring instead of all at once. They are pure white with 20 to 25 petals. This cultivar flowers abundantly, even at a young age. Reaches 10 x 8 feet in 10 years; eventually 20 feet.

'Leonard Messel'
A spreading tree with deep pink buds that open up into abundant, pink, narrow petalled, very frost resistant flowers. Each flower has 12 petals. The flower buds are reported to tolerate -32 F at Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.
The foliage is more narrow than usual.
Moderate rather than fast growing.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum






'Maxine Merrill'
Upright pyramidal tree, reaching up to 12 x 10 feet in 10 years.
Abundant, fragrant, soft yellow flowers appear in early spring just before the blue-green foliage emerges. Hardy zones 4 to 8

'Merrill'
A vigorous, attractive form with abundant, large, white, fragrant flowers up to 3.5 inches across.
Very hardy and will still bloom after -45 F


* photo of unknown internet origin





* photo taken on Mar 23 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Apr 11 2013 in Ellicott City, MD
* photos taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor, Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 1 2017 in Howard Co., MD


'Super Star'
The "Loebner Magnolia on Steroids". I have not seen this one yet but hope to plant one and trial it. An excellent choice for fast landscaping. It is claimed to grow twice the average growth rate, to a maximum rate of 6 feet!
The flowers are large, up to 6 inches across.

'White Rose'
early spring flowers look like little white roses. Reaches up to 20 x 15 feet in 10 years. Upright growing with healthy deep green foliage that turns an attractive bronze color in the fall. Hardy zones 4 to 8

Magnolia lotungensis ( Joy Lotus Tree )
Also called Parakmeria lotungensis. A moderate growing, massive, evergreen, large tree, that is native to China. It is similar in appearance to Magnolia grandiflora. Some records include: 6 years - 12 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. It is critically endangered in the wild due to loss of its native forests.
The obovate or elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy bronze-green when young turning to glossy dark green above, pale blue-green below.
The pink flowers, up to 6 inches across, appear during late spring.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 9b; this tree grows well in the hot humid southeast U.S. and even tolerates full sun in southeast Texas. It can tolerate temperatures from 0 to 112 F with no stress.

Magnolia macrophylla ( Bigleaf Magnolia )
A rare, fast growing, deciduous tree native to moist forests in the eastern U.S. ( from northeast Arkansas to southern Ohio to northern Virginia; south to Louisiana to central Georgia; however hardy further north well into Canada ). It is usually broadly columnar in habit reaching around 50 feet. Some records include: growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 30 x 20 feet; 20 years - 40 x 33 feet; 34 years - 61 x 33 feet; largest on record - 110 x 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. A large tree of 72 x 64 x 2.5 feet grows at Easton, MD; other large ones are noted at Roswell, GA; Tight Hollow, KY and old trees are found far outside its native range in Milwaukee, WI. Bigeaf Magnolia is endangered in Arkansas, Ohio, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina.
The huge, thin-textured, oval leaves are up to 46 x 17 inches in size. The very tropical looking foliage is light green and smooth above, blue-green and downy below.
The leaves borne on 4 inch stalks turn golden in the fall.
The huge, creamy-yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 20 inches across, are borne during early summer at the ends of the shoots.
They are followed by rounded, pink fruit clusters up to 4 inches in length with red seeds. It generally begins to bloom at around age 12 from seed.
The bark is yellowish and smooth. The wood weighs 33 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 4 to 8; it is best on site sheltered from excessive wind as its leaves might be torn. Tolerant of occasional flooding. One of my favorite ornamental trees.

* photo taken in Silver Spring, MD on October 2002


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda MD




* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 @ Howard Comm. College, Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* historic archive photos


Magnolia megaphyllum
Similar to Magnolia sinicum with a maximum size of 133 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. The evergreen foliage is very large, up to 20 x 8 inches. Very endangered and hardy north to zone 9

Magnolia 'Nimbus'
A hybrid of M. hypoleuca x M. virginiana with spectacular creamy white, lemon scented flowers up to 6 inches across. The semi-evergreen foliage is dark green above and blue green below. It is partly evergreen and the growth habit is much like M. watsonii. It was introduced by the National Arboretum.
This vigorous tree with smooth gray bark is sterile, so no fruit is produced.
Reaches 25 x 15 feet in 10 years ;eventually up to 45 x 25 feet.
Hardy from zone 5 to 9 tolerating -20 F.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Magnolia nitida ( Glossy Magnolia )
A rare, small, evergreen tree, reaching 30 feet or more, that is native to mountain forests of southwest China and northern Burma. Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet.
The elliptic or oblong leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The very attractive, leathery foliage is glossy purple at first turning to very glossy green.
The fragrant, creamy-yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, appear late spring into early summer.
The fruits are light green with scarlet red seeds.
Thrives on moist soils in sun or shade. Hardy from zones 8 to 10. Hardy in England only in the mildest parts and Cornwall.

Magnolia officinalis ( Medicinal Magnolia )
Extinct in the woodlands of central China where it is native; it is now cultivated for its buds and bark which are harvested for medicinal use. It is a fast growing broadly columnar tree which can reach 50 feet or more. Some records include: growth rate - 40 inches; 20 years - 50 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.8 feet.
The large oval foliage is wavy margined, smooth light green above, white felted below and up to 21 x 10.5 inches in size. The leaves are typically whorled at the ends of the branches. They turn to bronze in the fall.
The late spring flowers are large up to 8 inches across, fragrant, cup shaped, and creamy white. They are followed by oblong fruits up to 6 inches in length that are pinkish red with scarlet red seeds. The flowers usually appear at 15 years of age on seed grown trees, however sometimes in just 5 years.
The bark is pale gray and smooth.
Hardy from zones 5 to 9 ( hardy in Michigan ); it prefers moist soil in partial shade on sites sheltered from wind.


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Biloba'
large notch at the tips of the leaves; otherwise identical

* photo courtesy of Chooch Westin in Dresden, Ontario

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Magnolia patungensis
Endangered in its native Hunan, Hubei and Sichuan Provinces of China; this is a very ornamental and fast growing landscape tree. It can reach a maximum size of 82 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The leaves resemble that of Magnolia grandiflora but it narrower reaching only 8 x 3 inches. The flowers are very fragrant.
Sometimes called Parakmeria patungensis

Magnolia 'Pegasus'
A hybrid between Magnolia cylindrica X denudata; it is an upright tree with a strong central leader. Very fast growing, it can reach 25 x 15 feet in only 10 years, and eventually much larger. It has early spring flowers up to 4 inches long that stand upright and candle like at the ends of the branches and resemble Magnolia denundata. On older trees, the flowers are so abundant that the tree looks like a blizzard of white. The fruits are long and red. The luxuriant foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Magnolia 'Phil's Masterpiece'
The hybrid between Magnolia acuminata & M. campbellii; forming an upright, large, deciduous tree.
The foliage is luxuriant deep green.
The very large flowers, up to 10 inches across, are deep rosy-pink outside, light pink on the inside.
This tree is self compatible and may have moderate seed production.
Hardy zones 5b to 8 ( tolerating -20 F ).

Magnolia portoricensis
Native to Puerto Rico and reaching up to 82 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.

Magnolia x proctoriana 'Wadas Memory'
A pyramidal, very fast growing hybrid between Magnolia salicifolia and M. stellata that can reach up to 50 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 7.5 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 inches; maximum size - 100 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. A very large tree grows at Winterthur in Delaware.
The abruptly-pointed, obovate leaves are up to 7 x 4 inches in size. They are red-purple during spring turning to shiny dark green above, blue-green below in summer then to deep-yellow during autumn.
The fragrant, white flowers, up to 7 inches across, appear during early spring. They have fewer petals that M. stellata. It typically begins to bloom around the age of 10.
The fruits are pinkish-red and up to 4 inches in length but are sparsely produced.
The smooth bark is gray
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Tolerant of -30 F but also grows well in mild south Cali. with summer irrigation.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Wadas Picture'
Flowers even bigger, up to 7 inches across.

Magnolia pyramidata ( Pyramid Magnolia )
Native to the southeast U.S. from eastern Texas to South Carolina and south to Tallahassee, FL. The Pyramid Magnolia is endangered. It is similar to Magnolia fraseri but with smaller leaves and reaches an average size of 50 feet though the record is 102 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. An especially large tree grows in Jones County, Mississippi. Moderate growing; the fastest growth rate recorded is 4 feet. As its name suggests, it is usually pyramidal in habit.
The leaves are up to 9 x 5 or rarely 12 x 6 inches in size. They are medium green above and gray-green below.
The flowers are creamy white and up to 8 inches across.
The oblong, rose colored fruit are up to 3 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy far north of its native range to zone 4 and prefers acid sandy soil.
It is also grown in Europe.

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Magnolia rostrata
An endangered native of China and Burma reaching 50 feet or more. Some records include: first year - 1 foot; 12 years - 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches; largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; largest in England - 66 feet.
The leaves are large; up to 20 x 12 inches
The fruits are up to 6 x 1.5 inches
Hardy north to zone 8b

Magnolia salicifolia ( Willowleaf Magnolia )
Also called Anise Magnolia. Native to Japan where it is found in mountainous Oak and Beech forests. It is a handsome, broadly-conical, deciduous tree typically reaching around 50 feet. Fast growing; some records include: growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 40 x 17 feet with trunk diameter of 10 inches; largest on record - 82 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The aromatic, willow like foliage is reddish at first turning mid-green above, bluish-white below. The smooth-edged, lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage may turn back to reddish in the fall.
The fragrant, white flowers, up to 5 inches wide, appear during spring before the foliage. The flower buds on the stems are up to an inch in length.
The fruit cluster is cylindrical and pink; up to 3 inches in length.
The attractive bark is smooth and silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( possibly 3 on protected sites ) requiring moist, acidic, well drained soil.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* historic archive photo

'Elsie Frye'
Larger flowers up to 6 inches across; otherwise identical to species.
'Miss Jack'
the fastest and largest growing cultivar, to 50 feet or more. Flowers are white blushed pink.

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Magnolia sargentiana ( Sargent's Magnolia )
Among the most beautiful of all Magnolias; the Sargent Magnolia is a fast growing, broadly-pyramdial, deciduous tree reaching around 60 feet, that is native to Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in China. It is endangered in the wild. Some records include: 20 years - 60 x 20 feet; 72 years - trunk diameter of 3.1 feet; largest on record - 82 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The oval leaves are up to 9 x 3 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, hairy beneath.
The large, rosy-pink, nodding flowers, up to 14 inches across, appear during mid to late spring.
It often blooms heavily in alternate years. Generally begins to bloom at 15 to 20 years of age from seed.
Prefers partial shade and moist, well drained soil.
Hardy zones 6 to 9
'Georgeous'
A hybrid between Magnolia acuminata X sargentiana var. robusta; with pink flowers like M. sargentiana but also much more cold hardy. The leaves which are bronze for most of the spring before turning green are fairly round and larger than average for either parent. Very vigorous, reaching 25 x 15 feet in 10 years
Possibly hardy north to zone 4

'Robusta'
The leaves are wider ( up to 3.5 inches across ) and the fruits are larger ( up to 8 inches in length ). Generally begins to bloom profusely at around age 12 from seed.

Magnolia ‘Sayonara’
A hybrid between Magnolia x soulangiana ‘Lennei Alba’ x M. veitchii ‘Rubra’
with very attractive, late spring, goblet-shaped, fragrant blooms up to 12 inches across that are pure white with a pink blush at the base of the tepals.
The foliage is deep green.
Fast growing and upright to 25 x 15 feet in 10 years and eventually to 30 x 35 feet or more. Hardy zones 5 to 9

Magnolia schiedeana
An extremely rare tree native to Mexico; that can reach a maximum height of 100 feet with a trunk up to 2 feet across.
The leaves are up to 9.5 x 4 inches in size. The flowers are up to 8 inches across.
Hardy north to zone 9.

Magnolia sharpii
Native to elevations above 6500 feet in the mountains of southern Mexico. Being that cool tropical alpine climates do not really exist in the U.S., most attempts of growing this tree in the U.S. have not been successful.
In its youth it is erect and narrow in habit and with great age can reach heights up to 100 feet.
The wide, glossy leaves are up to 10 inches in lenght and are white, felted below.
The late summer flowers closely resemble Magnolia grandiflora.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 where summers are cool.

Magnolia sieboldii ( Oyama Magnolia )
A rare, medium-size, deciduous tree native to southern China, Korea and Japan. It can reach up to 30 x 27 feet in 20 years and a maximum size of 50 x 40 feet.
The large leaves are up to 10 x 7 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and white, felted beneath.
The fragrant, nodding, white ( with crimson stamens ), cup-shaped flowers, up to 4 inches across, appear randomly from late April to September.
The small crimson fruits are very attractive.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( tolerates -40 F but there is variation in hardiness depending on seed source ). More wind and shade tolerant than most.

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* historic archive photo

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Colossus'
Huge leaves, up to 12 x 6 inches as well as gigantic, very fragrant flowers up to 6 inches across.
Fast growing, often 1.5 ( rarely 2 ) feet per year, reaching up to 7 x 5.3 feet in 3 years, 10 x 10 feet in 7 years.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Magnolia sinensis
Similar to Magnolia sieboldii but is a small tree native to forests of western China and only reaching a maximum size of 25 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches.
The broadly-oval, leaves, up to 11 x 5 inches in size, appear late in spring. The leathery foliage is felted below.
The strongly lemon-scented, white, cup-shaped flowers are up to 6 inches across. They appear during late spring with the leaves.
The pink fruit is large, up to 5.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Magnolia sinicum
An extremely endangered tree native to Yunnan. It is similar in appearance to Magnolia grandiflora ( Southern Magnolia ) and can also grow large with a maximum size of 133 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The evergreen foliage can reach up to 12 x 4 inches.

Magnolia x soulangiana ( Saucer Magnolia )
The results of a 1820s hybridizing of Magnolia denudata with M. liliflora, done by M. Soulange-Boudin in France.
A stocky, dense canopied, dome shaped tree reaching up to 35 feet or more. Records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 33 x 30 feet; largest ever recorded - 62 x 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. One tree of approx. 45 x 60 feet grows at Scott Arboretum in PA. Other very large trees grow at the Philly Zoo and in Greenwich, CT ( 45 x 50 x 3.5 feet ) as well as Chyverton, England.
The elliptic leaves are up to 9 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is smooth, deep green above, finely hairy and paler green beneath; turning to yellow during autumn.
The flowers appear in spring before the foliage, range from white to pink and are up to 10 inches across.
The cylindrical fruit clusters, up to 4 inches in length, are green ripening to pink.
The stout twigs are glossy brownish-purple.
The bark is light gray and smooth.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is hardy in Ottawa, Canada but trees may suffer tip damage during the first few winter before trees increase in hardiness. Very heat and storm tolerant; the Saucer Magnolia prefers moist, acidic, deep, rich, light, well drained soil in sun or partial shade though it really isn't terrible fussy. It does grow best on a somewhat sheltered site and it is recommended to transplant them while they are small.

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on April 2008

* photo of unknown source on internet

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on March 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 4 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photos taken on April 11 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co., MD

* photo taken on Mar 24 2012 in Baltimore Co., Maryland
* photos taken on Mar 24 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 13 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Sep 5 2013 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton National Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Mansion, Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Apr 13 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 2 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Alexandria'
Erect and vigorous in habit.
The fragrant, large flowers are reddish-purple on the outside, white on the inside. They appear a bit later than the species during spring.

* photo taken on Apr 11 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 18 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


'Atlas'
Large foliage up to 12 x 8 inches and flowers up to 15 inches across.

'Brozzonii'
flowers later than the other cultivars with very large white flowers, up to 10 inches across that are pink-purple veined at the base. Flowers are produced continuously over a long period from April to June. The tree is conical in habit.

'Burgundy'
purple-pink early flowers

'Lennei'
Vigorous, spreading plant. Huge flowers up to 14 inches across are mreddish-purple outside and creamy white inside.
The flowers appear mid spring and lasting into late spring, sometimes repeating during mid summer.
The leaves are deeper green and also much larger than usual, to 15 x 7 inches.

* photos taken on Sep 27 2013 in Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor in Columbia, MD


'Lennei Alba'
Similar to 'Lennei' except with pure white flowers.

* photo taken on Apr 18 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Picture'
A vigorous tree that is compact and upright in habit rather than spreading.
The flowers up to 12 inches across are purplish-pink outside, whitish inside. May repeat bloom.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Royal Crown'

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Rubra'
rosey red flowers

'Rustica Rubra'
Originated as a mutation of 'Lennei' but has flowers that are deeper rosy-pink on the outside and pink-white inside.
Vigorous.

* photos taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor, Columbia, MD


'Speciosa'
Very vigorous

'Verbanica'
Fast growing. Flowers are white tinged pink

Magnolia splendens ( Puerto Rican Magnolia )
A slow growing, evergreen tree reaching a maximum size of 100 ( rarely over 70 ) feet tall with a massive trunk reaching up to 5 feet across. It can live up to 500 years.
It is native to Puerto Rico.
The leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches, are glossy deep green.
The showy flowers are creamy-white.
The wood is fragrant.
Hardy zones 10 to 12. It does not grow in cold climates.

Magnolia sprengeri ( Sprengers Magnolia )
A deciduous spreading tree, reaching up to 60+ feet, that is native to China. Some records include: 10 years - 30 x 20 feet; largest on record - 92 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. Moderarely long-lived, it can exceed 140 years of age.
The oval leaves are up to 10 x 6 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, felted beneath.
The fragrant, pink flowers, to 8 inches across, appear during early spring before the foliage. The flowers closely resemble Magnolia campbellii.
The smooth bark is light gray and beech like.
Hardy from zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating -20 F )

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD




'Burncoose'
Huge, deep rich pink flowers up to 12 inches across!

'Diva'
Prolific fragrant blooms that are rosy pink outside and light pink inside.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Eric Savill'
Deep purple red flowers on a vigorous large tree

Magnolia stellata ( Star Magnolia )
A small tree native to mountain woodlands of Honshu, Japan where it is very endangered. It is a slow growing spreading crowned tree typically reaching only 20 feet. With correct pruning and on ideal sites it can sometimes grow faster. Some records include: growth rate - 2.5 feet, 20 years - 23 x 23 feet; largest on record - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet.
The entire, oblong leaves are up to 6 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
In very early spring before the foliage, the Star Magnolia puts on a spectacular show of clustered fragrant, pure white flowers, up to 5 inches across, with long curved petals.
It often flowers at a very young age; as little as 3 years from seed.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, preferring fertile, neutral to acidic soil in sun or shade. Wind tolerant. Can be propagated from either seed or semi-ripe cuttings.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 13 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 12 2014 in Catonsville, MD

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Alexeed'
Vigorous and grows with single leader to 10 x 8 feet in 6 years and eventually 25 feet. Flowers are large, up to 6 inches across. Hardy north to zone 4

'Centennial'
Vigorous and upright pyramidal reaching up to 25 feet in 10 years.
The very profuse, double white flowers with 28 to 32 petals are up to 5.5 inches across.

'Rosea'
identical to Magnolia stellata except the flowers petals are pale pink.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Apr 12 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 13 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Royal Star'
Fast growing with deep green foliage that turns to bronze during autumn.
The abundant, fragrant, double, pure white flowers up to 6 inches across, put on a spectacular display in early spring, often a few weeks later than regular Magnolia stellata.
Hardy to as cold as -40 F.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on Apr 13 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on Nov 10 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 13 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 10 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 23 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Rubra'
Pink flowers; otherwise identical to the species.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Waterlily'
Slow growing, compact and rounded; to 35 x 34 x 2 ( rarely over 20 x 20 ) feet.
The fragrant flowers with larger, more numerous ( up to 32 or more ) pale pink to white petals. The flowers are borne 2 weeks later than species, avoiding frost where late freezes may be a problem.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Magnolia x thompsoniana
A hybrid between Magnolia tripetala and M.virginiana that was developed at Thompson's Nursery in England in 1808 that can reach 60 feet or more. Vigorous growing, some records include: growth rate - 4.5 feet per year
100 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
Its semi-evergreen foliage ( up to 10 x 5 inches ) is larger than M. virginiana however lasts into early winter.
The large, creamy white, fragrant flowers ( up to 6 inches across ) appear sporadically throughout the summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

'Urbana'
Hardier, being fully hardy in zone 5 and very fast growing ( fastest rate recorded - 4.5 feet ).

* historic archive photo


Magnolia tripetala ( Umbrella Magnolia )
A broad spreading, fast growing tree native to mountain woods of the eastern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to southern Indiana to southern Ohio to eastern Pennsylvania south to southern Mississippi to central Georgia ) that can reach up to 50 feet in size or sometimes more. Records include: growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 30 x 20 feet; 15 years - 41 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; largest ever recorded - 100 x 42 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is rare in most of its native range. Endangered in Maryland. Very large trees are recorded in Bucks County, PA and Seattle, WA. This Magnolia is also fast growing in cool summer climates such as England. In Washington, D.C. it can be found at the National Zoo and around the U.S. Capital. Umbrella Magnolia is endangered in Oklahoma, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Mississippi.
The massive, obovate leaves are up to 30 x 12 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, gray-green and felted below. The leaves are often clustered at the ends of the shoots.
The fragrant, creamy-white flowers, up to 12 inches wide, are borne at the stem tips during late spring.
The attractive, purplish-red, cone-shaped fruit clusters are up to 8 inches long.
The smooth bark is pale gray. The wood weighs up to 28 ibs per square foot.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and prefers deep moist soil. This hardy Magnolia will grow as far west as Nebraska and despite being tropical in appearance; is cultivated in Ontario, Canada far north of its native range. It thrives in the Ottawa Valley and is even reported to withstand -40 F with no damage.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, D.C.



* historical archive photos

* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


'Bloomfield'
Huge tropical looking foliage reaches up to 36 x 12 inches in size.

Magnolia x veitchii ( Veitch's Magnolia )
A hybrid between Magnolia campbellii and M.denudata that originated in Veitch's nursery in England in 1907.
It forms a vigorous tree that is also Englands largest Magnolia ( 85 feet in 50 years ). Some records include: 8 years - 30 feet; 20 years - 50 x 27 feet; maximum size - 120 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The deciduous, obovate leaves are purple at first turning to deep green and smooth above. The leaves reach up to 10 inches or rarely 15 x 7 inches in size and turn to bronze in the fall.
The upright, vase shaped flowers are fragrant and up to 6 or sometimes 10 inches across. They appear in mid spring before the foliage and are pink at the base fading to white. The Veitch Magnolia generally begins to bloom at around age 10.
The fruit are cylindrical and up to 4 inches long.
The branchlets are brittle and the bark is gray and smooth.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

'Peter Veitch'
Flowers are produced even on young plants and are soft pink.

'Rubra'
the fruit are huge, up to 12 inches in length

Magnolia virginiana ( Sweet Bay )
A medium sized tree native to swampy coastal areas of the eastern U.S. ( from eastern Texas & Arkansas to New Jersey ) that can reach up to 50 feet or more. Records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 15 years - 30 x 20 feet; 20 years - 4o feet; largest ever recorded - 110 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.3 feet.
The foliage can be either evergreen or deciduous depending on cultivar and climate.
The oval leaves are up to 9 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is bright yellow-green at first, turning to glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath. The foliage turns bright yellow to red before falling late autumn into spring. The leaves have been known to be used for tea.
The lemon-scented, creamy-white, cup-shaped flowers are up to 3 inches across. Flowers may appear over the entire summer. The Sweet Bay usually begins to bloom in about 10 years from seed.
The bright red fruits clusters are up to 2 inches in length ( up to 4.5 inches in a rare cultivar called 'Hanover' )
The scaly bark is light brown. It is strong branches.
Native zones 5 to 9 and can be grown far outside its native range, thriving even in south and eastern England. In cold climates, it is recommended to wrap plants with burlap during the first few winters to protect from wind dessication until the roots can penetrate deep into the earth. Prefers sun to partial shade and is tolerant of lime. Tolerant of flooding and clay but is not salt tolerant and hates drought. It is not prone to verticillum wilt unlike most other Magnolias, allowing it to grow on swampy sites. Sweet Bay should be planted during early spring in climates where winter ground freeze occurs.
PHARMACOLOGY: There are reports of the bark and leaves being placed in cupped hands over the nose then inhaled as a mild ( or more likely very weak ) hallucinogen.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on June 5 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co., MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 in Washington, DC

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* historic archive photo


'Green Shadow'
Similar to 'Henry Hicks' but evergreen to even lower temperatures ( -20 F ) and easier to propagate.

* photo taken on Aug 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Henry Hicks'
Faster growing and columnar, reaching up to 20 x 12 feet in 10 years then eventually 60 x 25 feet or rarely 100 feet.
The foliage is deep green above, silvery beneath. The highly fragrant, creamy-white flowers are larger than the species, up to 4 inches across.
This cultivar originated at Scott Arboretum @ Swarthmore College near Philly.
Evergreen to as low as -17 F and tolerates as low as -23 F.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


ludoviciana
Strongly tree-like, reaching 40 feet or more, it is evergreen north to zone 7a, with huge leaves that are glossy green above, white below. It is very similar to a cultivar named 'Green Shadow'.
The flowers are very fragrant.

* photos taken on Sep 23 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Mardigras'
Attractive foliage is mid-green with a bold broad irregular golden-yellow border. It is not evergreen north of zone 7.

'Mattie Mae'
The deep green foliage is boldly margined golden-yellow.

'Milton'
Is hardy north to zone 5. Evergreen as far north as Boston.

'Moonglow'
Extremely fast growing ( 3 years - 12 feet ) and cold hardy; tolerating as low as -33 F.
The foliage is deep green above, silvery beneath.

* photos taken on Aug 24 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Mar 30 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 19 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Northern Belle'
The hardiest Sweetbay of all tolerates as low as -40 F and in Ohio only lost its leaves a few times when the temperature went as low as -35 F. This form is rapid growing with a strong central leader and can reach 25 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually 50 x 25 feet or more.
The early to mid summer fragrant flowers are larger than average for Magnolia virginiana.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

'Variegata'

* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA



Magnolia ‘Vulcan’
A hybrid of M. cambellii var. mollicomata ‘Lanarth’ x M. liliiflora. A truly spectacular Magnolia with deep rose-red, cup-shaped flowers up to 10 inches wide. The rich red color is on both surfaces of the large number of tepals. Though it blooms at an early age, flowers on young plants show lighter coloration.
The tree is deciduous, erect in habit, open branched, and narrowly rounded, growing to a height of about 20 feet.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -10 F ).

Magnolia wilsonii ( Wilson's Magnolia )
A spreading, deciduous, small tree, reaching around 25 feet, that is native to southwestern China where it is endangered. Some records include: 6 years - 8 feet from seed; 10 years - 20 x 27 feet; largest on record - 40 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The elliptical leaves are up to 10.5 x 5 ( rarely over 9 x 3 ) inches in size. The foliage is very deep green above, hairy pale-brown beneath.
The pendent, white ( with red-stamens ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 5 inches wide, appear during spring.
The dark brown to almost black stems provide winter interest.
Hardy from zones 3 to 9 and prefers moist soil and partial shade. Tolerant of alkaline soils.

Magnolia yunnanensis
Also called Michelia yunnanensis. An endangered very ornamental tree native to southwest China. It can grow large with the record recorded size being 133 x 80 feet ( rarely planted in U.S. though one 34 x 32 feet is noted in Virginia ). The evergreen foliage is up to 6 x 1 inch in size.

Magnolia zenii ( Zen Magnolia )
Extremely endangered with only 18 plants left in the wild in its native Jiangsu Province in China. A straight-trunked, upright, deciduous tree, it is moderate growing to 40 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. Some records include: 5 years - 10 x 6 feet; 10 years - 24 x 10 feet.
The oblong leaves are up to 8 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green, turning to yellowish-brown during autumn. The very fragrant flowers, up to 6 inches wide, appear during late winter. The flowers are pink in bud, opening to nearly white. Trees may thrive yet bloom poorly in regions with frequent late spring frosts. The fruits are up to 6 inches in length.
The attractive, smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( should be tested in 5 ).

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Chollipo'
Hardy north to zone 6

'Pink Parchment'
Vigorous and pyramidal in habit, reaching up to 25 x 10 feet in 10 years, 40 x 18 feet in 20 years. The foliage is bronze-purple during spring, turning to mid-green in summer. It turns to yellow in fall.
Blooms early in the spring with the Forsythia and is flower bud hardy to as cold as - 28 F. More drought tolerant and is hardy zones 5 to 9 and possibly 4 if sheltered.

RELATED TREES

MICHELIA

A genus of 45 species of trees that are closely related to the Magnolias but are nearly entirely evergreen. They all have smooth-edged leaves and are all native to Asia. The oils from the blooms on some species are used to make perfume.
They prefer full sun on fertile, acidic, well drained soil on a site protected from excessive wind. Pruning is rarely needed other than training when young to ensure a central leader ( other than on Michelia figo which is often a shrub ).
They are rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.
Propagation is form seed sown immediately upon ripening in a warm, humid environment.

Michelia x alba ( White Champak )
A vigorous, large evergreen tree that is the hybrid between Michelia champaca & M. montana. Some records include: 15 years - 27 feet; largest on record - 133 ( averaging 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. This tree is a common landscape tree in Bali and Java.
The large, elliptical leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches in size, are bright green.
The leaves are usually smooth textured.
The highly-fragrant, white flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during mid-summer to mid-autumn. The petals typically number 8 to 11. The flowers are somewhat similar to that of Michelia champaca.
Hardy zones 9a to 11 ( reports further north to 7 are unconfirmed ).

Michelia baillonii ( Paramichelia )
A moderate to fast growing, large evergreen tree that is native to western Yunnan Province in China as well as Assam province in India, Cambodia, Burma, Thailand and Vietnam.
Some records include: largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. It is often used for its timber in its native range.
The elliptic leaves, up to 10 x 5 inches in size, are green.
The highly fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by elliptic fruits, up to 4 x 1.5 inches.
It is used for timber in its native range.
Hardy zone 9 to 11, it thrives in hot humid climates.

Michelia champaca ( Joy Perfume Tree )
A fast growing, erect, conical, large evergreen tree that is native lower slopes of the eastern Himalayas. Some records include: 2 years - 7.5 feet; 5 years - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 inches; largest on record - 170 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. It grows with a strong central leader.
Very fast growing, the average growth rate of trees 10 to 27 years of age are 6 feet with a trunk increase of 1 inch with ideal growing conditions.
The alternately-arranged leaves, up to 11 x 4.5 inches in size, are glossy bright green above, dull green beneath.
The highly-fragrant, deep creamy-yellow flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during mid-summer to mid-autumn ( sporadically all year in very mild climates ). The petals typically number 8 to 11.
The trees begin to bloom at about 8 years of age.
A massive tree over 500 years of age in India produces so much fragrance while in bloom that it spreads out covering several square kilometers.
The fruits are bright yellow-green with brown spots.
The smooth bark is grayish-white.
Hardy zones 10 to 11. Moderately drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Jan 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida

Michelia chapensis ( Prosperity Lily Tree )
A vigorous, upright, bushy tree, reaching a maximum height of 50 feet.
Some records include: 15 years - 27 feet.
The foliage is bright green.
The silvery-white flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

Michelia compressa
A moderate growing, large evergreen tree that is native southern Japan, Taiwan and the Phillipines. Some records include: largest on record - 70 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.7 feet. It is very long-lived, persisting as long as 1000 years. It is sometimes used for its timber.
The leathery, narrowly-elliptical leaves, up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The fragrant, creamy-white ( with a purplish-red center ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during late spring.
The bark is smooth and grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 preferring partial shade in a protected location against a wall. Hardy north to Philly.
It prefers hot humid summers but does grow at Kew, England.

* historic archive photo


Michelia doltsopa ( Sweet Michelia )
Also called Michelia excelsa. A moderate growing, broad-spreading, large evergreen tree that is native from the eastern Himalayas to western China. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 12 years - 27 x 25 feet; 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 64 inches; largest in British Isles - 52 feet in Cornwall.
Young tree are conical, old trees are more rounded in habit.
The alternately-arranged, pendulous, leathery, oval leaves, up to 12 x 4 ( rarely over 7 ) inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The highly-fragrant, white, cup-shaped flowers, up to 8 ( averaging 4 ) inches across, are borne during mid winter into early spring. The flowers are often partially hidden by the foliage.
The small fruits are bright green.
The bark is light brown.
It is a valuable timber tree in its native range.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. It prefers hot humid summers and grows slowly where summers are cool.

'Silver Cloud'
Abundant white flowers.

Michelia figo ( Port-Wine Magnolia )
Also called Banana Shrub. It is a fast growing, very dense, large evergreen shrub, that is native to southeast China. Some records include: 2 years - 8 feet; 10 years - 15 x 7 feet; largest on record - 40 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches. It is used as a hedge in China.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 7 x 2.5 ( rarely over 4 x 2 ) inches, are very glossy rich deep green.
The extremely fragrant, small, creamy-yellow to purplish-brown, cup-shaped flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, aren't very showy as they are often hidden within the foliage. The are borne in succession over a long season during spring and summer.
The bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 2 F ) in full sun to partial shade. It is very drought tolerant, heat tolerant and thrives on both acidic and alkaline soil.
It loves hot humid summers and thrives especially well in the southeast including Georgia. It also thrives on the west coast from Vancouver to Los Angeles.
It is commonly sold in Florida. Prone to black spot and scale in some regions, it rarely has any other problems.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Griffith'
Hardier, to zone 7.

'Port Wine'
Deep red flowers, otherwise similar.

Michelia foveolata ( Golden Lily Tree )
A medium-sized, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 32 inches. It is native to southern China and Vietnam.
Some records include: 10 years - 20 feet.
The thick, leathery leaves, up to 9 x 4.3 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, orange-brown felted beneath.
The fragrant, pale yellow-green flowers are borne during early spring.
The bark is pale gray.
Hardiness has not been fully tested in the U.S.

Michelia fulgens
A medium-sized, evergreen tree, reaching around 33 feet, that is native to China. It resembles Magnolia virginiana in appearance. Some records include: 15 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 82 feet.
The leathery leaves are up to 8 x 2.5 inches in size.
The fragrant, white flowers are borne during early spring.
Hardy zones 7b to 9, tolerating as low as 0 F.

Michelia gracilipes
The leaves, up to 11 x 3 inches in size, are green.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Michelia ingrata
Also called Michelia calcicola & M. fulva. An extremely rare evergreen tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to Yunnan province in China.
The thick, leathery leaves are up to 9.5 x 5 inches in size.
The flowers are bright golden-yellow.
Hardy zones 10 ( possibly 9 ), it is a great Magnolia for limestone soils in southern Florida.

Michelia lanuginosa
Also called Michelia velutina. A small to medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum size of 80 x 30 ( rarely over 50 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. It is native to the Himalayas.
The leaves, up to 10 x 2.3 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are mid-green above, paler green beneath.
The flowers, up to 4 inches across, are white.
The bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 9 ( hardiness has not been fully tested in the U.S. )
It prefers hot humid summers and grows slowly in the British Isles.

Michelia maudiae
A small to medium-sized, evergreen tree, reaching up to 30 feet or more.
Some records include: 6 years - 11 feet; 15 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 66 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 7 x 3.5 inches, are glossy deep green above, white beneath.
The foliage appears silvery-green from a distance.
The white flowers are up 8 inches across.
The bark is pale gray-brown.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 ( tolerating 10 F, possibly colder ).

Michelia platypetala
A small to medium-sized, pyramidal, evergreen tree, that is native to China.
Some records include: 10 years - 15 x 9 feet ( average ); 15 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches.
The thick, leathery leaves, up to 8.5 x 2 inches, are green.
The fragrant, white flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne during spring, sometimes repeating during autumn with some trees even blooming as much as 7 months straight.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating 0 F ), it is similar to M. yunnanensis but somewhat hardier.

Michelia skinneriana
Also called Michelia amoena. A vigorous, small evergreen tree, reaching up to 20 x 12 ( 5o feet according to Flora of China ) feet, that is similar to Michelia figo, except hardier and with flowers that are pure pale pink. Some records include: 5 years - 7 x 7 feet; 10 years - 11 x 8 feet, eventually larger. It is native to China.
The foliage is mid-green and healthy. The very fragrant creamy-white flowers, up to 0.7 inches, are borne during mid spring, then sporadically until mid autumn. The twigs are covered in dense brown felt. Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating -4 F ) in full sun to partial shade, thriving where summers are hot and humid, including most of the southeastern U.S from Arkansas eastward.

Michelia wilsonii
Also called Magnolia ernestii. A very fast growing, small to medium-sized, pyramidal, evergreen tree that is endangered in its native range in China due to habitat loss.
Some records include: 11 years - 53 feet; largest on record - 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The handsome leathery leaves, up to 6 x 2.8 inches, are glossy green above, glaucous-blue below.
The yellow flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during mid-spring.
The smooth bark is grayish-green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ). It prefers hot humid summers and grows slowly in the British Isles.

Michelia yunnanensis ( Yunnan Michelia )
A vigorous, small evergreen tree that is native to mountains of southwestern China. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 13 feet; 25 years - 25 x 10 feet. It is a popular street tree in Yunnan.
The obovate leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is brown velvety at first, turning to very glossy, mid-green.
The abundant, unscented, yellowish-white flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during early to mid spring.
The flower buds are brown velvety.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( possibly zone 6 tolerating lower than 0 F ). It is hardier than Michela figo.

6 comments:

  1. I just chanced upon your blog and I am totally impressed. I was looking for a variety description for Ilex vomitoria 'Tannenbaum'. Didn't find it but was totally distracted by the magnolia post. I just saw M. ashei in the wild in the Florida panhandle for the first time. Check out my blog at www.yardflower.com if you have a chance. - Gail Barton

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  2. Really like your blog too, actually one of my favorites. If you see a "Randy" commenting; that is me.
    I'm surprised how restricted Magnolia ashe is with it's native range being that it seems so easy to grow far north of its native range.
    Wouold love to see it in the wild. Would also like to see some wild Illiciums in the Florida panhandle

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  3. I had come across this old blog post while looking for Magnolia acuminata accounts in the US. I am an MSc. student from Trent U in Ontario and I am currently doing genetic work on this species and am looking to expand my samples to include individuals in the states. I am particularly interested in the trees you have posted in NY and PA, I am assuming they are easily found in the park and Arboretum? Do you know of other accounts of natural stands and/or individuals in these areas??? Any information would be of great help!...

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  4. I have seen Magnolia acuminata in New York State...Franklin D Roosevelt Presidential Museum
    on the Hudson River in New York. What I'm not sure is if the large trees on the grounds were planted or native seeded trees that ended up incorporated into the landscaping. The Vanderbilt Mansion nearby has large mature trees of a wide selection though I did not have enough time to tour the entire grounds there nor did I see the Cucumber Tree Magnolia.
    I do frequently visit the Wilkes-Barre area in Northeast Pennsylvania as I have family there....I have never come across this tree there. There is a large M. acuminata here in my neighborhood Columbia, MD however it is likely that it was planted around 1967 when the homes were build and the manmade lake that it grows by was created. The tallest Cucumber Magnolia I've ever seen was on a native plant hike that I took at the Audubon Sanctuary in Bethesda, Maryland ( photos above ). It was as lush as could be after Maryland's hottest month on record. This was the straight Acuminata and not the subspecies subcordata which can also occur around here.

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  5. Amazing blog! Wonderfully informative. Thank you very much, I've been able to make my choice at last! Been hunting for this level of information for some time.

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