Saturday, May 1, 2010

Garden Sage

A genus of mainly dry climate perennials and shrubs native to the southwest U.S., also harboring very popular herbs and perennial garden plants. Here are just a few. I'll be adding more at a later time.
* photos taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC




Salvia africana
A moderately fast-growing, long-lived, bushy, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 4 feet, that is native to South Africa.
The leathery leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are gray-green.
The profuse, pale blue flowers, are borne in whorls over a long season during summer into late autumn.
The stems are hairy.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 20 F ) in full sun on fertile, well drained soil. Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during spring.

Salvia apiana ( California White Sage )
Also called Bee Sage. A handsome, fast growing, rounded, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6.5 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to southwestern California.
The elliptical leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are silvery-white and covered in soft down.
The foliage is very aromatic.
The white to pale lavender flowers, are borne on loose whorls during mid to late spring.
The deep red stems are covered in fine white hairs.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, tolerating as low as 12 F ( 0 F as a perennial if the ground does not freeze ). California White Sage is extremely drought tolerant. It is more deer resistant than most species. Shear lightly after finished blooming, cut back old flower stalks to a set of buds.

Salvia argentea ( Silver Sage )
A short lived perennial forming a clump up to 5 x 3.5 feet that lives up to 4 years.
It is native to southern Europe.
The very large, toothed leaves, up to 10 x 6 inches, are woolly silvery-gray and the flowers are white with golden centers. This plant is generally grow for its impressive foliage and the white late summer flower spikes are removed. This coarse textured plant makes an excellent focal point.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. Do not deadhead all flower spikes as self sowing will assure a continuing supply of this plant.

* photo taken on July 10 2013 in Howard Co., MD


Salvia arizonica ( Arizona Blue Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2.5 feet, that is native to coniferous mountain forests of Arizona.
The foliage is luxuriant glossy deep green.
The very abundant, small, purplish-blue flowers are borne during late spring into early summer, repeating during early autumn with sufficient soil moisture. The flowers are a magnet for hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( possibly 5 on very protected sites ) in partial shade on light, well drained soil. Arizona Blue Sage is a great option for dry shade.. It is drought tolerant and resistant to rabbit and deer. It is also tolerant of the humid southeast.

Salvia atrocyanea
A thick-stemmed, tuberous, herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 10 x 3.5 feet, that is native to Bolivia. It may spread aggressively in mild climates.
The leaves are heart-shaped.
The intense bright blue ( bright green bracted ) flowers are borne on drooping spikes up to 8 inches in length, summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 in full sun, Propagation is from cuttings or seed.

Salvia aurea ( Golden Sage )
Also called Beach Sage and Salvia africana-lutea. A stiff, dense, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6 feet, that is native to coastal parts of South Africa.
The aromatic leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are gray-green.
The yellow ( fading to orange-brown ) flowers, are borne in whorls from early summer through late autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Salvia azurea ( Blue Sage )
A upright, large perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to the central U.S. ( Nebraska to Minnesota; south to Arkansas to Tennessee ).
The ovate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are gray-green.
The clear blue flowers are borne from late summer until autumn frosts.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Heat and humidity tolerant.
Pinch during spring or cut back during early summer to encourage a sturdier, bushier plant or it may become floppy later during summer. Deer and rabbit resistant. Propagation is from seed, cuttings or division.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


subsp. pitcheri
Also called subsp. grandiflora. Reaches up to 6.5 feet, with more densely-arranged, brighter blue flowers.

Salvia 'Bee's Bliss'
The hybrid of Salvia leucophylla & sonomensis. It is a fast growing, spreading, mounded, evergreen shrub reaching up to 2 x 8 feet.
The ovate leaves are rich gray-green.
The abundant, lavender-blue flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 9 tp 10 ( est. ) in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

Salvia blancoana
A small, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum height of 3.5 feet, that is native to Gibraltar in southern Europe.
The downy leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are green.
The violet-blue or lavender flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne in heads of up to 6 during summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Salvia blepharophylla
A somewhat invasive spreading, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 4 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The scarlet red flowers are borne during the summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

Salvia brandegeei
A long-lived, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 6 x 7 feet, that is native to the Channel Islands in southern California as well as northern parts of the Baja Peninsula.
The narrow leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are deep green above, downy white beneath.
The flowers are light lavender-blue
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on very well drained soil in Mediterranean climates only.

'Pacific Blue'
Deep lavender-blue flowers; otherwise identical to species.

Salvia buchananii
A low growing perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1.5 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet in size. It is assumed to have already been extinct in the wild by the time it was discovered growing in gardens in Mexico City.
The small, ovate leaves, up to 2 inch in length, are leathery, glossy deep green.
The woolly deep red-purple flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Salvia bulleyana
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to high mountain meadows in Yunnan Province in western China. It is closely related to Salvia glutinosa.
The corrugated, cordate-oblong leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are mid-green.
The velvety yellow and brown flowers, up to 1 inch long, are borne on spikes up to 12 inches long, during early summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil.

Salvia campanulata
A tuberous, clumping perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to mountain meadows in the Himalayas ( from northern India to Yunnan & Zizang Provinces in western China; south to northern Burma ). It looks stunning planted in open woodland.
The cordate, broadly-ovate leaves, up to 7 x 5.5 inches in size, are bright green.
The pale yellow ( rarely pink or purplish-blue ) flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne on panicles up to 12 inches in length, during late spring to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil that is moist during summer, dryish during winter.

Salvia canariensis ( Canary Island Sage )
A vigorous, upright, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 10 feet, that is native to the Canary Islands.
The arrowhead-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are soft hairy and gray-green.
The lilac-pink ( with purple-red calyces ) flowers, are borne during spring and summer, or in cooler climates all summer long.
The stems are densely covered in white hairs.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( dies back to roots at 15 F but will return in spring ) in full sun on very well drained soil. A deep watering every 2 or 3 weeks during summer is recommended to keep it growing luxuriantly. Mulch with straw to protect roots where temperatures may go below freezing in winter. Growing in a humid climate or a location with no air flow may result in fungal disease. Propagation is from cuttings which can be taken any time except winter or from seed.

Salvia castanea ( Chestnut-Leaved Sage )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2 feet, that is native to Tibet, Nepal and Yunnan Province in western China.
The toothed, corate, ovate or oblong leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are soft-hairy, glossy mid-green.
The purplish-red flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne on spikes up to 12 inches in length, during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil with abundant moisture during summer but is dryish during winter

Salvia chamaedryoides ( Germander Sage )
A fast growing, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 5 feet, that is native to mountain ranges in eastern Mexico.
The elliptical leaves do not exceed 0.3 inches in length. It is evergreen in mild climates.
The small, mid-blue flowers are mostly borne during early summer and early to mid autumn however may also occur mid to late summer if nights are not too warm.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( possibly 7 on protected sites ) in full sun on dry, well drained soil. Drought tolerant. Deadhead old blooms to extend flowering season.

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Salvia chamelaegnea
A dense, small, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to South Africa.
The leathery leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are bright green.
The foliage is aromatic.
The very abundant, bicolor, bright blue and white flowers, are borne on crowded whorls from early summer to late autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerating as low as 15 F

Salvia chiapensis ( Chiapas Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 4 x 4 ( rarely over 2 x 2 ) feet, that is native to cloudforests in Chiapas Province in Mexico.
The elliptical leaves, up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size, are glossy olive-green.
The reddish-pink flowers are borne over a long season ( almost all year in mild climates ) .
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade.

Salvia clevelandii ( Cleveland Sage )
A fast growing, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 8 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet, that is native to dry brushland in California and the Baja Peninsula.
The wrinkled, toothed, oval leaves, up to 3 x 0.5 inches, are gray-green. The aromatic foliage is great for seasoning and making tea.
The whorled, fragrant, bright blue ( rarely white ) flowers, are borne on erect spikes during most of the summer ( sometimes extending into autumn ).
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. Cut back by at least 1/3 after blooming during late summer to encourage a denser, sturdier habit.

* excellent video found on Youtube


'Pozo Blue'
Hardiest clone, hardy north to zone 7.

'Winifred Gilman'
Fast growing and compact in habit, reaching up to 6 x 5 ( rarely over 4 x 4 ) feet, with very deep blue flowers.
More drought tolerant.

Salvia coahuilensis ( Saltillo Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 2.5 feet in height.
The abundant, deep reddish-purple flowers are borne early summer until autumn frost.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun on well drained soil.

Salvia coccinea ( Texas Sage )
A shrubby perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet, that is native to the southeast U.S. ( from Texas to South Carolina; south to Mexico, Texas to Florida ).
The scallop-edged, triangular leaves, up to 2.5 inches long, are hairy, mid-green.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne all summer long. There exist cultivars with white or pink flowers.
The flowers are loved by hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Very heat and drought tolerant. Can be grown as an annual in zones 5 to 7.

* photos of unknown internet source



'Cherry Blossom'
Shorter and more compact, with pink and white flowers.

'Lady in Red'
Shorter and more compact, with scarlet-red flowers borne on spikes up to 16 inches high over a long season.

* photo taken on Oct 25 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 2 2016 in Harford Co., MD


Salvia concolor
A huge, woody-based, tuberous perennial, reaching up to 20 x 3 feet, that is native to Mexico.
The toothed leaves are downy.
The intense mid-blue flowers are borne on spikes up to 20 inches in length, during late summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun to partial shade. Propagation is usually from cuttings. Can be prone to spider mites.

Salvia confertiflora ( Sabra Spike Sage )
A woody-based perennial, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 12 feet, that is native to Brazil. In very mild climates, it is sometimes a shrub.
The attractive, wrinkled, scalloped, ovate leaves, up to 8 x 8 inches, are deep red at first, turning to deep green. The leaves are woolly beneath.
The bicolor red and orange-brown flowers, are borne on dense, long spikes, up to 12 inches in length, during late summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Salvia daghestanica ( Daghestan Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1.5 feet in size, that is native to the Caucasus Mountains near the Black Sea.
The nearly white leaves form tight rosettes topped by showy, clear blue flowers borne on abundant spikes up to 1.5 feet high, during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil, including clay. Drought tolerant. It prefers a mulch of pea gravel rather than organic matter. It also thrives in containers. Resistant to deer and rabbits.

Salvia darcyi ( Darcy's Mexican Sage )
A stoloniferous, slow spreading, tuberous, semi-woody based, herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 4 x 7 feet in height, that is native to around 9000 feet elevation in a tiny part of the Sierra Madre Mountains of northeastern Mexico.
The aromatic, triangular leaves are up to 2 inches in length. The foliage is hairy deep green.
The intense deep red flowers, up to 1.5 inch long, are borne on tall spikes, up to 1 ( rarely 2 ) feet in length, mid-summer to late fall.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( winter wetness rather than cold often kills in zone 6 to 8 ) in full sun. It prefers moderately moist, fertile, well drained soil, a deep weekly watering during summer is recommended. New shoots may be damaged by late spring frosts. It can be propagated from cuttings or separating offshoots from the parent plant.

Salvia desoleana ( Sardinian Sage )
An attractive, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 4 feet, that is native to the island of Sardinia in the Mediterranean Sea. It is critically endangered in the wild due to its extremely limited natural range of just a few populations.
The aromatic, large, ovate leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches in size, are hairy, mid-green. The white to pale lavender flowers are borne on an inflorescence up to 12 inches long. It blooms nearly all year in mild climates.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil.

Salvia discolor ( Andean Silver Sage )
A sprawling, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native to Peru. It is best used in a container or old whiskey barrel where its stems can trail over the side.
The aromatic foliage is gray-green above, silvery-white beneath.
The deep blue to deep purple flowers with silver bracts are borne late summer into early autumn.
The wiry stems are white.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 25 F ) in full sun to partial shade on consistantly moist, well drained soil.

Salvia divinorum
A psychoactive plant reaching up to 3.5 feet that is native to the cloud forest regions of Mexico preferring moist shady locations and is intolerant of frosts.
Popular within Psychedelic Communities ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_divinorum )

Salvia dorisiana ( Peach Sage )
A densely branched perennial, reaching up to 5 x 5 ( rarely over 4 x 3 ) feet, that is native to Honduras.
The long, scented leaves are velvety.
The bright pink, tubular flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne during winter.
The flowers are loved by hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun.

Salvia dorrii ( Desert Purple Sage )
Also called Great Basin Blue Sage. A fast growing, woody-based, dense, small, semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 4 x 4 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native to dry areas of the western U.S.
The attractive, finely hairy leaves, up to 0.7 x 0.4 inches in size, are silvery. The foliage is very aromatic.
The very showy, abundant, bicolor blue and purple flower spikes are borne during late spring into early summer. The flowers are very attractive to hummingbirds.
The stems are covered in fine hairs.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on very well drained soil or sand. Very drought resistant, tolerating as little as 10 inches of average yearly precip. Prune lightly after flowering.

Salvia elegans ( Pineapple Sage )
A shrubby perennial, reaching up to 7 x 5 ( rarely over 6 x 3 ) feet, that is native to mountains of Mexico and Guatemala.
The finely-serrated, soft downy, ovate leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are light green.
The foliage has a pineapple scent when crushed.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne on whorls from spring through autumn ( summer until autumn frosts in cooler parts of its range ). The flowers are loved by hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 8 to 10. Drought tolerant yet also tolerant of hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S.. Propagation is from cuttings or division.

'Golden Delicious'
Intense golden-yellow foliage.

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.



'Scarlet Pineapple'
Larger flowers and more aromatic foliage.
The foliage is sometimes edged in red.

Salvia farinacea ( Mealycup Sage )
A fast growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet ( smaller when grown as annual ), that is native to New Mexico and Texas as well as northern Mexico.
The narrow oval leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are silvery-green to glossy green.
The deep blue flowers, up to 0.5 inches long, are borne early summer until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on dry, fertile, well drained soil. Can be grown as an annual in zones 5 to 7.

* photo taken on July 13 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 2 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photo taken on Jul 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON


'Blue Spike'
Very deep blue flowers.

'Victoria'
Intense mid-blue flowers.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Victoria Blue'
Shorter with dark blue flowers.

'Victoria White'
White flowers.

Salvia forsskaohlii
A woody-based perennial, reaching up to 4.5 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to grasslands and deciduous forests in the Black Sea region in southeast Europe.
The large, hairy, cordate-ovate, gray-green leaves, up to 12 x 9 inches in size, form a low rosette.
The intense violet-blue flowers are borne on bold dense spikes early summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Cut back during late summer. Propagation is from seed sown during spring.

Salvia fulgens ( Cardinal Sage )
An evergreen shrubby perennial, reaching around 4 x 2.5 feet, that is native to pine-oak mountain woods in Mexico. In the tropics, it may become a woody shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 10 feet.
The toothed, ovate to triangular leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are hairy mid-green above, downy white beneath.
The soft hairy, scarlet-red, tubular flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne in whorls on spikes up to 10 inches in length, during summer into autumn. Each spike may bear 2 to 6 flowers.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in full sun on fertile, light, very well drained soil.
It prefers a warm site protected from excessive wind. Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during mid summer or seed during spring.

Salvia gesneriiflora
A shrubby perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 foot, that is native from Mexico to Columbia. In the tropics, it may become a large woody shrub or even a small tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 8 feet!
The wrinkled, toothed, ovate leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are hairy and green.
The orange-red flowers, up to 2 inches in length, are borne on spikes up to 8 inches in length, from summer through autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in full sun.

'Tequila'
Large shrub with scarlet-red ( with black calyx ) flowers.

Salvia glutinosa
A perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to moist, deciduous woodlands from the European Alps to the Caucasus; south to Turkey to northern Iran. Salvia nubicola is very similar but is native to central Asia.
The leaves are toothed and narrowly heart-shaped.
The bright yellow flowers are borne late summer to autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Propagation is from seed sown during spring.

Salvia greggii ( Autumn Sage )
A fast growing, perennial to shrub, reaching up to 6 x 6 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native to mountains from southwest Texas to San Luis Potosi in Mexico. It frequently hybridized with Salvia microphylla where both are present.
The leathery, narrow-elliptic, small leaves are aromatic. The foliage is deep green. In mild climates it is evergreen.
The scarlet-red flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne late spring until autumn frosts. As an annual, it blooms late summer through autumn. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on humus-rich, very well drained soil. It prefers regions with low humidity but will survive in the more humid eastern U.S. It can be grown as an annual in zone 6. Drought, rabbit and deer resistant. Propagation is from cuttings and plants may become woody and need to be replaced after 5 years.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 28 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014




* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC


* photo taken on Oct 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 2 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Alba'
White flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Big Pink'

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Cold Hardy Pink'
A shrubby perennial, reaching up to 20 inches x 2 feet, with intense pink flowers borne over a long season lasting from late spring into autumn.
It is hardier than regular Salvia greggii, established plants are hardy north into zone 6 ( tolerating -10 F ).

'Dark Dancer'

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Furmans Red'
Fast growing and upright with scarlet-red flowers; it is otherwise identical to the species.
Hardy north to zone 6 as a perennial on protected sites.

* photo taken on Aug 4 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on June 6 2017 in Elkridge, MD


'Heatwave Blaze'
Compact in habit, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet.

* photo taken on 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Heatwave Surprise'
Compact in habit, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet.

* photo taken on 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Purple Haze'
Intense violet-purple flowers.

'Raspberry Delight'
Fast growing, reaching up to 3 x 4 feet, with deep green foliage and profuse, raspberry-red flowers.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( plant during spring only in cooler zones )

* photo taken on Aug 1 2014 in Elkridge, MD


'Raspberry Royale'
Raspberry-pink flowers.

'Ultra Violet'
Is actually a fast growing cross between Salvia greggii & S. lycioides, reaching up to 20 inches x 2.5 feet.
The aromatic, finely cut foliage is deep green.
The profuse, vivid violet-pink flowers are borne on spikes from mid summer until autumn frosts.
Do not cut back until early spring or you may compromise cold hardiness.
Hardy zones 5b to 9 in full sun on very well drained soil.

'Wild Thing'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 3.3 x 3 feet, with aromatic, deep green, semi-evergreen foliage and spectacular intense rosy-pink flowers borne early summer thru mid autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, it even tolerates winters in milder parts of the midwest.
Very drought tolerant and rarely bothered by pests or disease.

* photo taken on Sep 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


Salvia guaranitica ( Anise-Scented Sage )
A suckering, clumping perennial, reaching up to 8 x 5 ( typically half that ) feet, that is native to South America from Brazil; south to Paraguay to Argentina. It is completely herbaceous or deciduous during winter in cooler climates. Fast growing, it can reach up to 5 feet in a single year. In mild climates, it can spread aggressively.
The aromatic, hairy heart-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are deep green.
The intense mid-blue flowers, up to 2 inches long, are borne on branched spikes up to 10 inches in length, from early summer until autumn frost.
Hardy zones 8b to 11 ( 7 & 8a on very protected sites with pine needle or straw mulching during winter ) in full sun on humus-rich, very well drained soil. A deep weekly watering is recommended during summer to keep plants growing luxuriantly. Pinch in early summer to encourage dense habit. Propagation is from cuttings taken during autumn or division.

* photo taken on Sep 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 10 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Black and Blue'
Very large, reaching up to 10 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, with large, blue ( with black calyx ) flowers.
The foliage is very hairy.
May be slightly hardier than species.

* photos taken on July 13 2014 in Elkridge, MD


* photo taken on July 11 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash., DC

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, MD


* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on June 29 2016 in Columbia, MD



'Blue Enigma'
Shorter in height ( rarely 5.5 feet ) but still forming a large clump, with deep blue ( with green calyces ) flowers borne earlier. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
Hardier than species, tolerating as low as low 10 F.

'Costa Rica Blue'
Evergreen, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 7 feet. It can reach up to 5 feet during the first season.
Intense violet-blue ( with yellowish-green calyces ) flowers are borne spring through autumn.
The heart-shaped leaves are luxuriant green.
Hardy north to zone 7 as a perennial.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014



'Omaha Gold'
Reaches up to 7 feet in height, with attractive foliage that is boldly margined golden-yellow.
The flowers are purple.

* photo taken on Oct 2 2014 in Elkridge, MD


Salvia hians ( Himalayan Sage )
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2 feet, that is native to the western Himalayas in Pakistan and Bhutan.
The cordate, broad-ovate leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are luxuriant mid-green.
The deep blue or violet flowers, up to 1.2 inches long, are borne on spikes during early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, humus-rich, fertile, well drained soil. It is very heat and humidity tolerant.

Salvia hydrangea ( Hydrangea Sage )
A rhizomatous, densely-clumping perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 feet, that is native to dry grasslands from northeastern Turkey to Armenia; south to Iran.
The attractive pinnately-lobed leaves are silvery gray. The 4 or 6 pairs of lobes are lance-shaped.
The purplish-pink flowers, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on dry, very well drained soil. It does not enjoy winter wetness and will often rot under such conditions.

Salvia indica
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 2 feet, that is native to the Middle East. It often dies down during hot summer droughts to reappear during autumn.
The scallop-edged leaves are hairy gray. The foliage forms a mound of basal foliage.
The purple flowers are borne on tall spikes during spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Salvia 'Indigo Spires'
A fast growing shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 ( rarely over 4 x 4 ) feet, believed to have Salvia farinacea & S. longispicata parentage. It originated in 1979 and the Huntington Botanical Garden.
The ovate leaves are mid-green.
The deep violet flowers are borne on spikes up to 15 inches in length, from early summer until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 9a to 11 ( 8b on protected sites ) in full sun on humus-rich, well drained soil with a weekly deep watering during summer. In zone 7 & 8 it can be grown as a perennial on a very protected site with a winter mulch of straw or in a large container that can be moved to a cool garage or protected site during winter where the roots won't freeze. Deadhead old flower spikes to encourage repeat blooming. Cut back hard to near base during late winter before new growth begins.

Salvia involucrata ( Roseleaf Sage )
A fast growing, upright, woody based perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 7 ( rarely over 6 x 5 ) feet, that is native to Mexico.
The fleshy, ovate leaves are hairy purplish-green. The foliage is aromatic.
The purplish-pink or deep red flowers, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne on terminal racemes during mid-summer to late fall.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on humus-rich, well drained soil preferring a weekly deep watering during summer. A mulch to retain soil moisture is recommended. Propagation is from seed, cuttings or division.

'Bethelli
Suckering and more compact with large, cordate leaves and pink flowers.

Salvia x jamensis
A group of hybrids between Salvia greggii & S. microphylla, oringinating in the high Sierra Madre Mountains in the province of Coahuila in Mexico. It is a rounded shrub, usually reaching 3 x 3 feet.
The small, ovate leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are glossy deep green.
The flower color can be found in scarlet-red but less often white, yellow, salmon-pink, deep pink and orange. The flowers appear early summer until autumn frosts, if plants are deadheaded.
Hardy at least north to zone 9a ( reports of 7b ) in full sun on a humus-rich, very well drained soil. A deep watering is recommended weekly during summer to keep plants growing luxuriantly.

'Fuego' Fiery scarlet-red flowers.

Salvia jurisicii 'Blue' ( European Cutleaf Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1.5 feet, that is native to high mountains in Bulgaria, Macedonia, Yugoslavia and Greece. It makes for an excellent container plant.
The very attractive, pinnate foliage is divided into narrow leaflets.
The foliage is gray-green to blue-green.
The blue ( white or violet on regular S. jurisicii ) flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne on abundant, plume-like flower spikes during late spring.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in FULL sun on very well drained soil or sand.
During dry summers it can be watered deeply once a week or otherwise it goes dormant to reappear the following spring. Rabbit and deer resistant.

Salvia koyamae ( Japanese Yellow Sage )
A vigorous, spreading perennial, reaching up to 2.7 x 6 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in size, that is native to mountain woodlands and meadows of Honshu Island of Japan where it is rare.
The toothed leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches in size, are luxuriant bright green.
The pale yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne mid-summer through mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in moderate to dense shade on fertile, humus-rich soil. It thrives in the hot humid summers of eastern North America including the southeast, it also thrives in the Pacific Northwest but grows slower.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014



Salvia lavendulifolia ( Spanish Sage )
A low growing, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 15 inches x 3 feet in size. It is clippable and can be used for edging.
The narrow, silvery foliage is aromatic. The leaves can be used in cooking in the same way as Salvia officinalis.
The flowers are violet-blue.
Hardy zones 8b to 10.

Salvia leucantha ( Mexican Bush Sage )
Also called Velvet Sage. A fast growing, perennial to spreading shrub, reaching up to 6 x 8 ( averaging 3 x 4 ) feet, that is native to montane conifer forests in central and eastern Mexico as well as Central America. Some records include: 1 year - 3 x 3 feet; 2 years - x 4 feet. The purple blooming cultivars combine well with sunflowers.
The wrinkled, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches long, are borne on woolly stems. The foliage is dull green above, thickly felted white beneath.
The purple or white ( with purple calyces ) flowers are borne on woolly spikes, up to 10 inches long, during late summer and early autumn.
The stems are soft hairy white.
Hardy zones 6 to 11 ( 9 to 11 as a shrub - freezes to ground at 25 F ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. In zone 6 and 7 it should be planted against a south facing wall with a deep winter mulch of straw. Drought tolerant yet also tolerant of hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S.. Pest and disease resistant.

* photo taken on Aug 27 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on Aug 30 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'All Purple'
Slightly more wood hardy than species, with purple flowers; otherwise similar.

'Midnight'
Fast growing, reaching up to 5.5 x 7.5 + feet, with deep purple flowers.
Prune hard yearly for better blooming.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC








Salvia leucophylla ( Chaparrel Sage )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 15 ( rarely over 6 x 10 ) feet, that is native to dry hillsides in California. In colder climates, it may be a woody based perennial, reaching up to 3 x 5 feet.
The handsome, hairy, whitish-gray leaves, are up to 3 inches in length.
The pinkish-purple flowers, are borne in whorled clusters up to 8 inches long, during late spring to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It requires 12 + inches of yearly rainfall. Tolerant of clay and salt spray.

'Point Sal'
Fast growing, reaching up to 6 x 12 feet though usually under 3 feet in height.
The aromatic foliage is bright green at first, later turning to silvery-white.
Cut back every 2 years.

Salvia lyrata ( Lyreleaf Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 1.5 feet, that is native to open upland woods in the eastern U.S. ( eastern Kansas to central Indiana to Connecticut; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ).
The leaves are up to 8 inches in length.
The violet flowers are borne late spring to early summer.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Deer resistant.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Purple Knockout'
A moderate growing perennial reaching up to 24 x 16 inches with leaves, up to 8 inches that are very glossy black-purple all season long.
White flowers.
Hardy north to zone 5 in sun to partial shade. Drought tolerant

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


* photo taken on May 17 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 8 2014 in Columbia, MD





* photos taken on on Sep 1 2014 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA



Salvia madrensis ( Forsythia Sage )
A vigorous, spreading, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6.5 ( rarely over 5 x 5 north of zone 10 ) feet, that is native to Mexico. It is known to reach up to 7 feet in one season.
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are bright green.
The large, yellow flowers are borne on spikes up to 12 inches in length, from early autumn until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade, it is tolerant of heat and humidity in the southeastern U.S.

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.



'Dunham'
Reported to be hardy north to zone 8; otherwise very similar.

'Red Neck Girl'
Deep yellow flowers borne on large panicles atop deep reddish-purple stems, appear slightly earlier than the species.
The fuzzy foliage is silvery-green.

Salvia 'Maraschino' ( Maraschino Bush Salvia )
A fast growing, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 20+ ( usually 3 x 3 ) feet, that is the hybrid between Salvia grahamii and S. microphylla.
The narrow leaves are mid-green. The foliage is evergreen to about 15 F.
The intense scarlet-red flowers are produced heavily during late spring, sporadically during summer then profusely throughout autumn.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade ( partial shade preferred where very hot ) on humus-rich, very well drained soil. A weekly deep watering is recommended in dry summer climates. Thrives in both the eastern and western U.S. and is both deer and rabbit resistant.

Salvia melissodora ( Grape Scented Sage )
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6 feet, that is native to
The wrinkled, heart-shaped leaves are gray-green. They resemble that of Salvia officinalis. The foliage is aromatic.
The purple-blue flowers, are borne on spikes over a long season lasting from mid spring through mid autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerating as low as 20 F.

Salvia mellifera ( Black Sage )
Also called Honey Sage. A fast growing, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6.5 ( rarely over 4.5 ) feet, that is native to coastal California.
The wrinkled leaves are mid-green. The foliage is very aromatic.
The small, pale lavender ( sometimes white ) flowers, are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 in full sun to partial shade, thriving in Mediterranean climates with as little as 10 inches of yearly rainfall. Stem tips can be pinched to encourage denser habit.

'Tera Seca'
A fast growing, low, spreading form, reaching up to 2 x 8 feet. It makes a great groundcover.
The foliage is rich green.
The flowers are white.

Salvia mexicana ( Mexican Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 5 feet in height, that is native to southern Mexico.
The flowers are borne during late summer to late autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating 10 F ) in full sun on moist, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil. Stem tips should be pinched early in the season for a compact plant.

'Limelight'
Reaches up to 8 x 6 feet in size.
It features intense violet-blue flowers that contrast nicely with the yellow-green calyces.

Salvia microphylla ( Little-Leafed Sage )
Also called Salvia grahamii. A moderate growing, dense, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 8 ( rarely over 4 x 3 ) feet, that is native to pine-oak mountain woods in the southern U.S. and Mexico. Some records include: 10 years - 5 x 8 feet. It is a close relative of Salvia greggii.
The aromatic, toothed, triangular leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are lightly hairy. The deep green foliage is evergreen in mild climates.
The abundant, scarlet-red ( fading to purplish-pink with age ), tubular flowers, up to 1.5 inches, are borne on racemes during summer through autumn. They may flower over as season lasting up to 6 months.
The young stems are soft and reddish.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on light, very well drained soil. It prefers a site protected from excessive wind. Very drought tolerant and does not enjoy winter wetness. Propagate from softwood cuttings during mid summer.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photos



'Belize Form'
Reaches up to 5 x 8 feet with bright green leaves borne on black stems.
The flowers are intense red.
Tolerates as low as 15 F.

'Coral'
Flowers are deep salmon-pink.

'Hot Lips'
Fast growing, reaching up to 3 feet, with very showy red and white flowers.
Possibly hardier, north to zone 7.

'Huntington Red'
Intense scarlet-red flowers.

'Kew Red'
Deep red flowers.

'La Foux'
Shrubby with oval, glossy green foliage borne on purple stems. The flowers are intense deep pink.

'La Trinidad Pink'
Intense purplish-pink flowers.

var neurepia
Larger in size, reaching a maximum height of 7 feet, with larger, aromatic, thin, glossy mid-green leaves.
The flowers are red.
Hardy north to zone 7.

'Newby Hall'
Fast growing, reaching a maximum height of 7 feet, and living up to 30 years or more.
The leaves are also larger, up to 3 inches in length.
Intense red flowers.

'Pink Blush'
Large purplish-pink flowers.

'San Carlos Festival'
Deep red flowers borne over a very long season.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Salvia muelleri ( Royal Purple Autumn Sage )
A moderate growing, dense, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet. It is a close relative of Salvia greggii.
The aromatic, toothed, triangular leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are lightly hairy. The deep green foliage is evergreen in mild climates.
The abundant, intense rich purple, tubular flowers, up to 1.5 inches, are borne on racemes during summer through autumn. They may flower over as season lasting up to 6 months.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( 7 as perennial ) in full sun on light, very well drained soil. It prefers a site protected from excessive wind. Very drought tolerant and does not enjoy winter wetness. Propagate from softwood cuttings during mid summer.

Salvia multcaulis
A mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 6 inches x 3 feet, that is native to Turkey,western Syria and Iran. It makes a great groundcover for dry climates.
The attractive, broad-oblong leaves, up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size, are gray-green. The foliage can be used for cooking as is Salvia officinalis.
The violet-pink flowers are surrounded by large reddish-purple calyces during mid-spring to mid-summer. The flowers appear above the foliage on stems up to 1.5 feet.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on dry, very well drained soil.

Salvia munzii ( San Miguel Mountain Sage )
A fast growing, upright, semi-evergreen, subshrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4 feet, that is native to San Diego county in California. It is threatened with extinction in the wild due to habitat loss but makes a great landscape plant.
The obovate gray-green.
The bright blue flowers are borne in whorls at the stem tips late winter to mid-spring.
Hardy zones 9b to 11 ( tolerates 20 F ) in full sun on very well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant but only remains green in summer with the occasional or monthly deep watering.

Salvia nemerosa ( Meadow Sage )
A fast growing, rhizome-spreading perennial, native from central Europe to the Caucasus; south to Turkey to Afghanistan.
The aromatic, obovate leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are gray-green to mid-green,.
They bear upright spikes of flowers during early summer then often repeating later if deadheaded. Some plants may bloom on and off from June until October if old flower spikes are removed. The flowers on the species is violet-blue with red-purple bracts however the cultivars some in a wide range of colors.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zone 3 to 7 in sun on well drained soil. It is tolerant of harsh climates, including Alberta, Canada. Clay tolerant and moderately drought tolerant. Deer and rabbit resistant.
DO NOT USE ON WET SHADY SITES ( where they grow lanky, flop over and look horrible ).
These are truly perennials for FULL SUN!!! If they look worn in mid summer, cut them back hard and fertilize to induce a new flush of growth and re-bloom. Deadheading helps encourage continuous bloom. Deer and rabbit resistant. Division can be done during early spring.

* photos of unknown internet source





'Adrian'
Reaches up to 2 feet in height with white flowers.
Drought tolerant.

'Amethyst'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 4 feet with lilac-pink flowers all summer long.

'Blue Hill'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet with very profuse, pure blue flowers throughout the summer, repeating during autumn if deadheaded.
The rough textured foliage is mid-green.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD


'Blue Queen'
Reaches up to 2.3 x 3 feet with violet-blue flowers late spring, repeating into early autumn if deadheaded.
Heat and drought tolerant.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )



'Carradonna'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet with stunning, very dark bluish-purple flowers borne on purplish-black stems over a long season lasting from late spring to mid summer.

* photos taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 18 2013 in Columbia, MD


'Chardonnay'

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Crystal Blue'
Reaches up to 1.8 x 2.2 feet with bright blue flowers during late spring into early summer.

'Dear Anja'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with medium blue flowers edged in white.

'East Friesland'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with purple-violet flower spikes during late spring to early summer, repeating during early autumn if deadheaded.
It looks great combined with silvery foliaged Artemisia.


* photo taken on May 10 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


* photo taken on Jun 2 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON




'Lubeca'
Reaches up to 32 inches x 3 feet with abundant violet blooms during early to mid summer repeating in fall.

'Lyrical Blues'

* photo taken on May 8 2015 in Elkridge, MD


'Marcus'
Fast growing but dwarf and compact, reaching a maximum size of only 1 x 1.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are gray-green.
The abundant, deep violet-purple flowers are borne early summer to mid autumn if deadheaded.
It is great for containers, edging and fronts of borders.

* photo taken on May 3 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on May 21 2014 in Harford Co., MD









'May Night'
Also called Salvia nemerosa 'Mainacht'. Vigorous and compact, up to 2.6 x 3 feet with abundant, deep violet-purple flower spikes, up to 18 inches in length, during late spring into early summer often repeating in autumn.
The large foliage is gray-green.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 28 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




* photo taken on May 15 2011 in Odenton, MD


'Merlaeu Blue'
Compact, dense and upright in habit, with upright spikes of deep violet-blue flowers borne late spring into early summer ( persisting much longer into early autumn if deadheaded ).

* photos taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )


'New Dimension Blue'
Compact in habit, reaching only 1.5 x 2 feet in size. The attractive deep purple stems are an added ornamental feature. It is great as a bedding plant, in the flower border, rock garden and in containers.
The ovate leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are mid-green.
The deep violet-blue flowers are borne over a very long season lasting late spring to late summer. 'New Dimension Deep Rose' is similar except it bears intense rosy-pink flowers. If sown early, it may even bloom the first year from seed.
It is more heat tolerant than many Salvia x nemerosa cultivars.

'Plumosa'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet with deep rose-purple flowers borne on thick plume-like panicles early summer to early autumn if deadheaded.

'Rose Queen'
Reaches up to 2.8 x 4.5 feet with rose-violet flowers often over an exceptionally long season from late spring until early fall if deadheaded.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


'Rose Wine'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with rose-pink flowers late spring til early summer.

'Royal Distinction'
Reaches up to 16 inches with deep reddish-purple flowers over a long season lasting early to mid summer.

'Sensation Rose'
A compact, dwarf form, reaching up to 1 x 1.5 foot, with rosy pink flowers borne on short spikes late spring through late summer. Looks great with the blue form 'Marcus'.
The ovate leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are mid-green.

* photo taken on May 8 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on Jul 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON


'Snow Hill'
A mutation of Salvia nem. 'Blue Hill' with pure white flowers early summer then repeating late summer if deadheaded. A compact grower reaching up to 2.3 x 3.2 feet.

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 26 2017 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD



'Superba'
A vigorous rhizome spreading perennial reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet.
The leaves are up to 4 inches in length and the flowers are violet.

'Tesquicola'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet with large bright violet flower spikes.

'Viola Klose'
Reaches up to 1.5 feet with very deep bluish-purple flowers late spring to late summer.

Salvia nipponica ( Japanese Woodland Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 2.5 feet in size, that is native to woodland edge in much of Japan.
The triangular leaves are up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 1.2 inch in length, are borne on spikes, up to 8 inches in length, during late summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade, preferring well drained limey soil.

'Fuji Snow'
White-tipped variegated foliage.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Salvia nubicola ( Himalayan Cloud Sage )
An upright herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 4.3 x 3 feet, that is a widespread native of central Asia. It is closely related to Salvia glutinosa.
The very attractive, arrow-shaped leaves are bright green.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 1.5 inches long, are borne on an inflorescence up to 12 inches in length during spring.
Hardy zones 6b to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Salvia officinalis ( Common Sage )
This is the old fashioned Sage native to southern Europe & northern Africa that is used in cooking. It is a perennial typically reaching about 2.5 x 3 feet though rarely to as much as 7 x 5 feet on old plants that sometimes become almost shrub-like.
The wrinkled, oblong, semi-evergreen leaves, up to 3.5 x 1 inches are leathery and sage-green above, white hairy beneath. The foliage is very aromatic.
The fragrant, blue-purple ( rarely pink or white ) flowers are borne in whorls all summer long.
the stems are hairy and white.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 ( protected sites in 4 & 5 ) in full sun on well drained soil. Very drought tolerant. It prefers a warm site protected from excessive wind.
It is recommended to cut back the Common Sage to 4 inches in height during early spring to keep them compact and bushy.
Propagation is from softwood cuttings taken during mid summer. Division can be done during early autumn if there is there is a dividable clump.

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Oct 17 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on Aug 8 2014 in Ellicott City, MD


* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


* photo taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD


* excellent video found on Youtube


'Albiflora'
White flowers

'Aurea'
Lower growing, though sometimes to as much as 3 x 3.5 feet on ideal sites with yellow variegated leaves. Flowers are blue.

'Berggarten'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with beautiful, unusually large, rounded, mildew resistant foliage that is rounded and silvery. The lilac-blue flowers are borne all summer long.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



'Holt's Mammoth'
Large leaves up to 5 inches in length.

'Icterina'
Aromatic foliage that is green and splashed golden-yellow

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.



'Purpurascens' ( Red Leaved Sage )
Moderate growing, reaching up to 3 x 3.5 feet with red-purple young shoots and foliage.
Blue flowers all summer long.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

* photo of unknown internet source




'Tricolor'
Reaches a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet with foliage that is green variegated with yellowish-white. During autumn, the variegation tinges purple, red or pink.
The flowers are blue.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


Salvia pachyphylla ( Giant Flowered Purple Sage )
An evergreen, woody, shrubby-perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to foothills in southern California.
It has aromatic, large, broad-ovate to almost rounded leaves. The fuzzy foliage is silvery.
The very attractive flower spikes are borne all summer long. The blue flowers are surrounded by larger lavender-purple calyces.
The flowers attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Requires full sun and alkaline, sandy, very well drained soil. Resistant to deer and rabbits.
Very heat and drought tolerant.

'Blue Flame'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with blue ( with rosy pink bracts ), tubular flowers borne on spikes up to 10 + inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Pinch back during late spring to encourage a more compact plant.

Salvia patens ( Gentian Sage )
A tuberous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to mountains of central Mexico. During late autumn, it dies back to the tubers to reappear during spring.
The toothed, oval to ovate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are hairy, bright green.
The intense mid-blue flowers are borne on spikes, up to 16 inches in length, during mid summer until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade ( can be grown as an annual in colder climates ) on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Propagation is from division or seed during spring.

'Cambridge Blue'
Bright blue flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Guanajuato'
Reaches up to 5 x 3 feet with very large, deep blue flowers.

Salvia 'Pozo Blue'
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 4 feet in height, that is the hybrid between Salvia clevelandii & S. leucophylla.
The aromatic foliage is gray-green.
The leaves are edible and can be used to flavor chicken salads.
The violet-blue flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 ( tolerates as low as 5 F ) in full sun. Very tolerant of drought and salt spray.

Salvia pratensis ( Meadow Clary )
An upright perennial native to Eurasia ( England to Russia; south to the Mediterranean ) that reaches a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet.
The aromatic, wrinkled, wavy-edged, oblong leaves, up to 6 inches in length, form a basal clump. The foliage is rich deep green.
The early summer flowers on branched spikes can be violet-purple, blue, lavender or pink. The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on moist, fertile, well drained soil. It is tolerant of harsh climates and thrives on the northern Great Plains. Deer resistant.

'Indigo'
A moderate growing, upright perennial reaching up to 3 x 3 feet with gray-green foliage up to 8 inches in length and indigo blue flowers during early summer. It will repeat bloom if cut back after flowering.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 on typical well drained soil.

'Pink Delight'
Similar, except it is compact yet still vigorous, reaching 2.5 feet in height,
The very abundant, lavender-pink flowers are borne over most of the summer if deadheaded.

'Rhapsody in Blue'
Similar, except it is compact yet still vigorous, reaching 2.5 feet in height,
The very abundant, purplish-blue flowers are borne over most of the summer if deadheaded.

'Rosea'
Rose-purple flowers.

Salvia przewalski
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, that is native to China.
The hairy, cordate, ovate leaves, up to 12 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in length, form a basal clump.
The purplish-red flowers, up to 1 inch long, are borne on branched stems during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

Salvia 'Purple Majesty'
A vigorous, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet. It is thought to be a hybrid between Salvia gesneriiflora and S. guarantica.
Can be used in containers in colder climates.
The heavily-textured, pointed leaves are glossy deep green.
The showy, deep bluish-purple, tubular flowers are borne on spikes up to 12 inches in length, from early summer to late autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun. Mulch to cool soil and maintain consistant moisture. Do not cut back until early spring.
Resistant to rabbits. It is propagated by cuttings.

Salvia 'Raspberry Delight'
A fast growing, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet with abundant crimson-red flowers during most of the summer. The aromatic foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil, it is heat, drought and alkaline soil tolerant.

Salvia 'Red Velvet'
A hybrid between Salvia greggii & S. microphylla, that has flowers that are double the size of either species. It is a fast growing, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 4 x 5 feet in size. The spectacular, large, intense red flowers are borne late spring into autumn.
The foliage is glossy rich green.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil. It is tolerant of drought as well as summer humidity in the southeast. Rabbit and deer resistant. Cut back to near ground level during late winter.

Salvia regla ( Mountain Sage )
An erect, deciduous or evergreen, woody shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 feet, that is native to the Chiso Mountains in southwest Texas south to Oaxaca in Mexico. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 2 years - 6 x 5 feet.
The deeply-veined, wavy-edged, triangular leaves, up to 2 x 2 ( rarely over 1 ) inches in length, are deep green. The new foliage is late to appear during spring.
The large, intense scarlet-red flowers, up to 1 inch in length, are borne late summer until autumn frost.
The stems are deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( the leaves fall at 28 F ) in partial shade on just about any well drained soil. Dappled shade or an east facing wall is perfect. They become very drought tolerant once established requiring only an occasional deep watering during droughts. Do not prune during winter, rather wait until new growth is just beginning to show. Propagation is from cuttings or seed.

Salvia reptans 'West Texas Form' ( West Texas Grass Sage )
Reaching up to 4 x 4 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, it is an upright form of a usually sprawling perennial that is native to western Texas and Mexico.
The stiff, thin, black stems bearing very narrow, blue-green leaves, give the plant a grassy appearance.
The very profuse, deep blue flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on alkaline, very well drained soil ( sand in moister climates ). 'West Texas Form' originated from Davis Mountain in western Texas and is much more cold hardy than other forms of Salvia reptans. It thrives in both the west and the hot humid east. Very drought tolerant as well as deer and rabbit resistant.

Salvia roemeriana ( Cedar Sage )
A perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1 foot, that is native from Arizona to central Texas; south into Mexico.
The toothed, rounded leaves resemble that of the Geranium. The foliage is bright green.
The scarlet-red, tubular flowers are borne during summer and autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Propagation is from seed or softwood cuttings taken during spring.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Salvia sclarea ( Clary Sage )
A biennial or short-lived perennial, reaching up to 5 x 4 feet in size, is native from southeast Europe to southwestern Asia.
The very aromatic, toothed, broadly-ovate, crinkled, leathery leaves, up to 9 inches long, are bright to mid-green.
The pale pink flowers, up to 1 inch long, are borne on tall spires. The flowers are shown off by showy deep pink bracts.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it requires full sun on a very well drained soil It is very tolerant of drought. Propagation is from seed, semi-ripe cuttings during late summer or softwood cuttings during spring.

var' Turkestaniana'
From central Asia, this form has larger, deeper red-pink colored bracts.

'Vatican White'
Pure white flowers contrasts with gray-green foliage. It is otherwise similar to the species.

Salvia sessei
The largest of all the Sages, reaching up to 17 feet in height.
It requires a mild climate.

Salvia semiatrata ( Bicolor Sage )
A dense, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet, that is native to
The small, wrinkled leaves are gray-green.
The purple and lavender ( with deep red calyces ) flowers, are borne on spikes from spring through autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerating as low as 15 F.

Salvia sonomensis ( Sonoma Sage )
A mat-forming, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 5 feet, that is native to the coast ranges and the Sierra Nevada foothills in California. It makes an excellent groundcover for dry slopes.
The attractive, aromatic leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are gray-green.
The small, bluish-violet flowers are borne on 12 inch stems during spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( 6 & 7 on protected sites ) in full sun.

Salvia spathacea ( Hummingbird Sage )
Also called Pitcher Sage. A moderate growing, rhizomatous, mounding, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 4 x 5 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, that is native from Orange to Napa Counties in California. It makes a great groundcover.
The spear-shaped leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are bright green to deep green above, hairy beneath.
The deep purplish-pink flowers, up to 1.6 inches long, are borne early spring through summer.
Hummingbirds love the flowers.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade ( even under Live Oaks ) on just about any fertile, well drained soil. It is tolerant of clay and rainfall as low as 15 inches per year ( 20 + inches is preferred ). It is great for dry shade under Oaks. Old flowerstalks should be cut back.

'Puwerline Pink'
Taller with pink flowers.

Salvia splendens ( Scarlet Sage )
A shrubby perenial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to Brazil. Most plants grown in cultivation are of dwarf varieties reaching less than 2 feet.
The toothed ovate leaves, up to 3 inches long, are deep green.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne early summer until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in full sun. Can be grown in colder climates as an annual.

* photos taken on July 13 2011 in Columbia, MD



'Ablazin Purple'
Reaches up to 2 feet in height with deep purple flowers.

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Blaze of Fire'
Intense orange-red flowers.

'Empire Purple'
Deep red-purple flowers.

'Red Arrows'
Scarlet-red flowers.

'Red Riches'
Deep green foliage and intense scarlet-red flowers borne early.

'Scarlet King'
Deep green foliage and scarlet-red flowers borne on dense large spikes.
Often used as a summer annual.

'Sizzler Series'
Compact and dense in habit, with flowers that appear early and last over a long season in a variety of color ranging from white, pink, lavender, scarlet-red to deep red.

'Vanguard'
Compact in habit, with deep green foliage and red flowers borne early.

'Van Houttei'
The fastest growing form, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet in a single season.

'Vista Salmon'
Compact and dense in habit, with deep green foliage and salmon-pink flowers borne on dense spikes.

Salvia tiliifolia ( Lindenleaf Sage )
A Mexican native that can reach up to 5 feet in height.
The flowers are intense blue.

Salvia transylvanica ( Transylvanian Sage )
A vigorous perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet, that is native to eastern Europe.
The coarse foliage is deep green.
The intense blue-violet flowers are borne mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on both moist or drought prone sites.

Salvia urticifolia ( Nettleleaf Sage )
A woody-based perennial, reaching up to 2 x 2 ( up to 3 in flower ) feet in size, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from central Kentucky to Maryland & southeast Pennsylvania; south to northern Mississippi to central Georgia to Virginia ). It may occur in Pennsylvania where it is endangered, is not known from Delaware and does not occur on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. It is also endangered in Kentucky and Maryland as well as very rare in North CCarolina.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are mid-green or gray-green.
The abundant, purplish-blue flowers are borne on clusters up to 12 inches in length, from late spring into early summer. The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, well drained soil however is tolerant of temporary drought.

Salvia verticillata ( Lilac Sage )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 4 feet, that is native from central Europe to western Asia.
The attractive, coarsely-toothed, broad leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are hairy mid-green.
The leaves form a dense clump.
The pale purplish-blue flowers are borne on whorls on branched inflorescences, up to 8 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in length, all summer long if deadheaded.
The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 in full sun on humus-rich, very well drained soil. It is very heat and drought tolerant though a deep weekly watering will keep plants growing luxuriantly during summer. Cover with pine needles or straw during winter in cold climates to prevent frost heaving. Deer resistant. Propagation is from division or seed.

'Alba'
Flowers are white with bright green calyces.

'Endless Love'
Reaches up to 2 feet in height, bearing fragrant, violet-blue flowers.

'Purple Rain'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet with smoky purple flowers.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'White Rain'
Reaches up to 2 x 4 feet with pure white flowers.

Salvia 'Vicki Romo'
The hybrid between Salvia apiana & S. clevelandii, it forms a fast growing, dense, upright shrub, reaching up to 5 x 4 ( 3 x 4 when not in bloom ) feet in size.
The strongly aromatic, broad leaves are pale gray.
The lavender flowers are borne during spring.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 ( est. ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is drought tolerant. Deer resistant. Cut back by 1/3 during late summer to encourage more vigorous dense habit.

SIMILAR PLANTS

LEUCOPHYLLUM
A genus of evergreen shrubs, native to the southwest U.S. that are often called Sages though unrelated. They are actually part of the Scrophulariaceae family.
They are great for hedges and xeroscaping.
They thrive in full sun on well drained soil and are very salt tolerant. The species are easy to raise from seed without pre-treatment. Just press the seeds lightly into the soil and do not cover them. They take about a month to germinate. They can be sheared during late winter to early spring to encourage dense habit, pruning at any other time may reduce blooming.
Many cultivars are sold by Mountain States Wholesale Nursery. It is recommend to install container grown plants when adding to your home landscape.

Leucophyllum candidum ( Purple Ceniza )
An extremely beautiful, moderate growing, dense, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 6 feet, that is native to southern Texas.
The foliage is silvery-white. The elliptical to obovate leaves are up to 1 inch in length.
The rich deep purple flowers, up to 1 inch long, typically appear late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 7 F ) in full sun. It prefers a dry climate with average annual precipitation between 10 and 25 inches, they may rot if overwatered so do not plant within irrigated turf. Do not mulch close up to the trunk. It requires very well drained soil and is very tolerant of alkaline soil and drought.

'Thundercloud'
Same with rich deep purple flowers.

'Silver Cloud'
Reaches up to 10 x 6 feet with white flowers; otherwise similar to species.

Leucophyllum frutescens ( Texas Ranger )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 11 ( rarely over 8 x 8 ) feet. It is native to Texas and northern Mexico. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 3 years - 6 feet; 10 years - 8 x 6.5 feet. It makes a great hedge and specimen plant in regions prone to extreme heat and drought.
The elliptical or obovate leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are felted, silvery-gray.
The lavender to bright purple, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne sporadically from the leaf axils during summer. The flowers often appear after heavy rains.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 5 F if the wood is sufficiently hardened ) in full sun on very well drained soil. Very heat tolerant, overwatering or planting in irrigated lawns can lead to root rot. Tolerant of both acidic and alkaline soils as well as salt spray. Pruning is done during early spring, however is not often required. It does not survive east of Houston, Texas unless very carefully situated on an airy, very well drained site. Newly installed plants should be irrigated daily during the first week, every 2 days during the 2nd and 3rd weeks, then for the next year twice weekly during the hot months and once weekly during winter. The year after that, every 2 weeks is preferrable during summer then after that only during severe drought. It is easily propagated from 4 inch softwood cuttings placed in 1/2 sand or perlite and 1/2 pear mix during summer. They root in a month and take about a year to form a gallon sized plant.

* photo taken by Clarence A. Rechenthin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


'Compactum'
Fast growing though dense and smaller in size, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 6 feet.
The flowers are pink.

'White Cloud'
Slightly smaller, to 8 x 8 feet, otherwise it is similar with white flowers.

Leucophyllum 'Green Cloud'
A fast growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 feet.
The luxuriant deep green leaves are the largest of any Leucophyllum.
The flowers are violet-purple.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ).

Leucophyllum 'Heavenly Cloud'
A fast growing, dense, rounded evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 7 feet.
The foliage is mid-green.
The flowers are bright purple.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ).

Leucophyllum laevigatum ( Chihuahuan Sage )
A moderate growing, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 7 ( rarely over 4 x 5 ) feet, that is native to northern Mexico.
The oval leaves are deep gray-green.
The fragrant, lavender flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne summer into fall.
Hardy zones 7b to 10 in full sun on sandy, very well drained soil. It is very tolerant of drought and alkaline soil.

Leucophyllum langmanniae ( Canyon Rain Sage )
A moderate growing, dense, small to medium-sized evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 5 x 5 ) feet, that is native to the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico.
The foliage is deep green. The rounded leaves are up to 1 x 0.5 inches in size.
The intense lavender-purple flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ) in full sun on sandy, very well drained soil. It is very tolerant of alkaline soil. Little pruning is needed.

'Lynns Legacy'
Nearly identical except with rich green foliage.

'Rio Bravo'
Very similar and reaching the same size.

Leucophyllum pruinosum ( Fragrant Rain Sage )
A fast growing, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet, that is native to mountains of northeastern Mexico.
The spoon-shaped leaves, up to 0.5 x 0.5 inches, are velvety and silvery.
The purplish-blue flowers appear summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 8b to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ). It is extremely heat tolerant and thrives in Texas but not east of San Antonio where it becomes too humid.

'Sierra Bouquet'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet,
The fragrant violet-blue flowers are borne early summer to early autumn.
Tolerates as low as 10 F, it is also extremely drought tolerant, surviving on as little as 10 inches of yearly precipitation. It also tolerates moister climates than most Leucophyllum and even grows in Tennessee.

Leucophyllum 'Rain Cloud'
A fast growing, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 feet, that is the hybrid between Leucophyllum frutescens & L. minus. Some records include: 5 years - 5 feet.
The foliage is silvery-gray. The flowers are bluish-violet in color.
Hardy zones 7 to 10.

Leucophyllum revolutum
A slow growing, dense, small evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 5 feet.
The bright green, succuletn foliage resembled that of Rosemary. The mid-purple flowers are borne late summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ).

Leucophyllum zygophyllum ( Cimarron Dwarf Sage )
A rounded shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in size, that is native to southern Arizona and northern Mexico.
The oblong leaves are silvery-gray.
The lavender flowers can appear from mid-spring to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on sandy, very well drained soil.

No comments:

Post a Comment