Tuesday, May 18, 2010

MAPLES - The Native Ones

Acer - native
These are the Maples and cultivars of, that are native to North America only.

* photo of unknown internet source


Acer barbatum ( Florida Maple )
Native to a wide but scattered range in the southeast U.S. ( eastern Oklahoma to central Missouri to southern Illinois to northern Kentucky to southern Virginia; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). Closely related to the Sugar Maple but more heat tolerant; typically growing to around 30 feet in 20 years and eventually 60 feet; it can become much larger and grow fast on ideal sites. The largest trees recorded reach up to 135 x 85 feet with a trunk diameters up to 4 feet. The record growth rate is 4 feet per year ( average is around 2 ). Florida Maple is considered to be long-lived, though extreme maximum age is unknown.
The foliage is shaped much like the Sugar Maple and is palmately 3 to 5 lobed.
In summer the foliage is shiny blue-green above, white hairy below and turns red late in the fall ( the leaves usually persist until temperatures below 23 F occurs. In Texas this is the most reliable Maple for red fall color.
leaves are up to 6 x 5 inches and the lobes have wavy margins and rounded rather than pointed tips. The foliage of this Maple does not scorch or disease in dry weather. All the leaves do not always fall off in the fall and this maple may hang onto its dried leaves in the maple in the same way as some Oaks.
Unfortunately rare in nurseries; this is an excellent shade tree in for the southeast U.S. It grows well in sun or part shade with average water and acid soil PH 5.5 to 6.5. It hates alkaline, salty or compacted soil so picking the right spot is important. It can tolerate occasional flooding and is more drought tolerant than the Sugar Maple. Considered hardy zones 6 to 9 ( do not use Deep South seed source in zone 6 & 7 ). This Maple is highly recommended for Texas and the deep south where it thrives where the related Sugar Maple does not. It is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on May 20 2017 in Pikesville, MD

* photos taken on Aug 1 2017 in Columbia, MD


Acer circinatum ( Vine Maple )
A low branching tree native to forests of western North America ( from southwestern British Columbia to northern California ) reaching up to 40 feet in size and on ideal sites sometimes larger. The largest on record is 80 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Moderate growing; it can reach 15 feet in 6 years and the record 20 year size is only 40 x 40 feet. The record growth rate recorded is 3 feet.
This is the only Maple native to North America that in any way resembles the Japanese Maple.
The light green leaves are almost round with 7 to 9 toothed lobes and are up to 7 x 7 inches. They are often tinged with red early in spring and also turn spectacular orange-scarlet to crimson red during autumn.
The purple flowers are borne on drooping small clusters.
The fruits are red and horizontally winged.
The bark is red-brown and smooth.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and tolerates as cold as -30 F. It is easily grown from seed, tolerates shade and makes an excellent forest understory tree. Despite its native range; this Maple is heat tolerant if in the shade.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Acer x freemanii
Hybrids between Acer rubrum & A. saccharinum. These hybrids are fast growing commonly to 3 feet per year with the record being 8 feet. These round canopied trees can reach 80 feet or more in height and have the potential to reach extreme sizes up to 180 x 120 feet with trunk diameters up to 9 feet with great age. The 5 lobed leaves are about 6 inches and sometimes to 8 inches. The foliage is often brilliant red in fall. Many of these hybrids are male and do not produce seed and continue in growth until very late in the season. They graft poorly and should be grown from cuttings.
Hardy from zones 3 to 9 however it does not grow well in Alberta.

'Armstrong'
Fast growing with strongly upright growth habit and orange-yellow fall color.

'Autumn Blaze'
Large tree with foliage that is shaped like the Silver Maple except with long-lasting intense scarlet fall color. Rapid growing and upright oval in shape.

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


'Autumn Fantasy'
Glowing scarlet fall color persists until hard freeze.

'Autum Spire'
A broadly-columnar form, reaching up to 50 x 30 feet, that originated in Minnesota.
The fall color is usually intensely scarlet-red.
The red early spring flowers are also very attractive.
It does not produce seeds.
Hardy zones 3 to 6.

'Burgundy Belle'
Intense scarlet very long lasting fall color. This cultivar comes from Kansas and unlike regular Silver or Red Maples; this one is very drought and heat tolerant. Tolerates to -32 F with no damage.

'Celebration'
Fast growing and with very strong branches and red early fall color.
The foliage appears more like Acer saccharinum than that or A. rubrum.
It produces few seeds.
Hardy zones 4+.

'Firefall'
Fast growing, upright, oval and srurdy in habit, reaching up to 60 x 40 feet.
The deeply-cut, mid-green folaige turns intense orange and scarlet-red during early fall.
It does not produce seeds.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, it is an excellent selection for the upper midwest.

'Marmo'
Fast growing with a tall strong leader and broadly-columnar habit.
Red to maroon fall color.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum



'Morgan'
Large leaves that turn brilliant red during autumn.
Very fast growing and upright-oval in habit.
Hardy north to zone 4.

'Scarlet Sentinal'
Fast growing and upright in habit with yellow, orange and scarlet red fall color.

'Sienna Glen'
A fast growing, upright, broadly-pyramidal form, reaching up to 60 x 40 feet, that was originally found at an old abandoned farm in southern Minnesota. It was introduced into cultivation by Dennis Heins.
The foliage is deep green above, silvery-blue beneath; turning orange and red during autumn.
It produces few seeds.
Hardy zones 3 to 6, it is among the best cultivars for cold climates, especially on the Great Plains. The bark is also more resistant to frost cracking than usual.

Acer glabrum ( Rocky Mountain Maple )
Also called the "Douglas Maple". Native to mountainous areas in western North America ( from Alaska to Watson Lake, British Columbia to Dawson Creek, British Columbia to western Alberta to far western South Dakota; south to southern California to southern New Mexico ). It forms a moderate growing, small upright tree to around 25 feet, though sometimes growing larger. The largest recorded is 80 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 8 years - 6 x 5 feet ( average ); 55 years - 49 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.9 feet.
The palmate leaves, up to 8 ( rarely over 5.5 ) inches wide, are 3 or 5 lobed with very sharply-toothed margins. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, blue-green beneath; turning to red during autumn.
The yellow flowers appear in clusters, up to 2 inches in length, during mid-spring.
The bark is smooth and reddish-brown.
Hardy from zones 2 to 7 ( tolerating - 43 F confirmed & likely colder ); this Maple requires a cool summer climate to thrive.
It can make an excellent small shade tree and also grows very well in northern Michigan and the northeast U.S. as well as much of eastern Canada. An adaptable tough tree; it grows well in sun or shade on any soil with PH 5 to 7.5 and is flood tolerant. Drought tolerant but only in cold climates. It also grows at higher elevations than any other North American Maple.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Acer grandidentatum ( Bigtooth Maple )
Native to moist soil along streams in the Rocky Mountains in western North America from Idaho south to southern Arizona to central Texas. A medium-size tree with a spreading, dense, rounded crown. It is usually moderate growing to 2 feet per year and averages 15 ( rarely 30 ) feet in height in 15 years. In cultivation with the right care it can be pushed to grow much faster. Indeed one is reported to have reached 7 feet in height in the second year and the record growth rate recorded is 5 feet. A good 15 gallon size plant can be produced in 5 years. Usually topping out around 50 feet; some trees have reached as much as 85 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.6 feet. One notable tree is approx. 75 x 50 x 4 feet in Tonto NF, Arizona. In the eastern U.S., one tree of 63 x 36 x 2 feet grows far outside its native range in Monroe, County, NY. It is closely related to the Sugar Maple and its sap is equally edible and sweet.
The bluntly-toothed, 3-lobed leaves, up to 5 x 5 inches in size, are very similar to the Sugar Maple which it is closely related to. The foliage is glossy deep green above, hairy beneath; turning to deep red during autumn ( often early November ).
The flowers are similar to that of the Sugar Maple.
The seeds are not widely winged, instead making a U-shape.
The bark is brown; smooth on young trees. Scaly on old trees.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun or part shade ( prefer part shade when very young ). This Maple is very heat/drought tolerant and grows well in soil with PH from 5.5 to 7.5. It resists leaf scorch and breaks dormancy easily after a mild winter.

* photo from unknown source on internet

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Highland Park'
A moderate to fast growing, upright, pyramidal to rounded tree, reaching an average of 45 x 25 feet. It makes an excellent street tree.
The thick, leathery, glossy very deep green foliage turns intensely orange-red during autumn.
It is ideal for Maple Syrup plantations in climates too dry for Acer saccharum.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it is very drought, heat and urban tolerant. The foliage is very windburn and scorch resistant.

'Rocky Mountain Glow'
Faster growing to 3 feet per year with intense orange-red autumn color

Acer leucoderme ( Chalk Maple )
A dense, rounded-canopied, medium-size tree native to the southern U.S. ( from Southern Oklahoma to s. Virginia and south almost to the Gulf Coast ). It is closely related to the Sugar Maple but never grows as large. The largest ever recorded is only 72 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Moderate growing to 2 feet per year it can sometimes be pushed to rapid growing with the right care. It can indeed form a good 18 inch, 1 gallon size plant in one year. Outside its native range; it is rare but very adaptable. One has already reached 50 x 32 feet in Maryland and another 25 feet in Chicago, another large tree of 62 x 45 feet grows at the Henry Foundation in Gladwyne, PA.
The leaves are shaped like the Sugar Maple but smaller. They reach up to 3.5 x 3.5 inches in size with 3 blunt lobes and wavy margins. They are drooping, dark green above, white & hairy below and turn glowing red persisting late into the fall.
The early spring flowers resemble that of the Sugar Maple but the wings on the seed spread much more widely.
The unusual bark is smooth and chalky white. The Chalk Maple is strongly branched and makes an excellent street tree. It prefers acid soil and hates swampy sites but is very heat as well as drought tolerant and grows well in sun or part shade.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 tolerating as cold as -30 F. This tree should be much more widely used in the landscape.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014
* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Acer macrophyllum ( Oregon Maple )
Native to moist woods and stream banks of western North America ( from Vancouver Island and southwestern B.C. to central California ); this Maple forms a very striking, tall, broad columnar tree. It is fast growing to very large sizes. One massive tree of 100 x 106 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.8 feet was found to be only 150 years of age, however the all time record for age is 250 years. The largest Bigleaf Maples ever recorded in the old growth forests of the Pacific Northwest reach up to 165 x 90 feet with trunk diameters up to 12.3 feet. This extremely vigorous tree is also one of the fastest growing Maples with the record recorded growth rate being 10 feet. One seedling was even recorded reaching 7 feet in height in the first year and 17 feet in the 3rd year!
This Maple is sometimes planted in the East and there is a 60 footer growing in New Jersey. The Oregon Maple seems to be very happy in the Northeast U.S.
This Maple would likely scorch badly in the Midwest and Deep South and is not planted there. Outside its native range; it is especially well adapted to the British Isles. An excellent shade tree though the dense canopy can shade out lawns ( then again there is always Mondo Grass )
The leaves are the largest of all Maples and are often 12 inches across ( the record being 24 inches long and wide! ). They are borne on long stalks and are 5 lobed ( each lobe has a few large teeth ). The glossy deep green foliage turns bright orange and golden-yellow during autumn.
The fragrant, small yellow flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, are borne on long hanging clusters, up to 16 inches long, during early spring before the foliage emerges.
The fruit are keys with horizontal spreading wings and are borne in large hanging clusters.
The bark is smooth and greenish-brown on young trees, becoming black and deeply ridged on old trees. This sap of this Maple makes excellent syrup just like the Sugar Maple.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 5 to 7 in East ), tolerating as low as -22 F. This Maple is shade and flood tolerant and enjoys cool humid summers and especially deep, fertile, sandy soils.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* historical archive photos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


'Laciniata'
Lacy leaves deeply cut into 5 leaflets.

'Rubrum'
emerging leaves are dark red contrasting with yellow flowers.

'Seattle Sentinal'
a handsome tall, dense and very columnar tree for narrow areas.

Acer negundo ( Manitoba Maple )
Also called the Boxelder; this Maple is native to central and eastern North America along moist riverbanks, it's range is massive from southern Alberta to central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba to central Wisconsin to Sault Ste Marie to Bracebridge, Ontario to Maine; south to mountains of California all the way to northern Florida. It has recently spread northward in Ontario and is now common in the wild as far north as Tobermory. The Manitoba Maple is one of the most widespread and adaptable of all North American trees. It is a fast growing broadly columnar to rounded tree reaching up to 70 feet and on ideal sites sometimes much larger. The largest on record is 141 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet ( one almost that large grows in Washtenaw County, Michigan ). Very fast growing - some records include: fastest growth rate... 7 feet height x 1 inch diameter; 20 feet in height in 4 years; 70 x 60 feet in 20 years.
Colored leaf forms are both slower growing and smaller in size. The Manitoba Maple is weak wooded with shallow roots. A hundred years is considered very old for this tree.
The pinnately-compound leaves are composed of 3, 5 or 7 ( rarely 9 ) sometimes lobed, ovate leaflets. The leaflets are typically about 4 inches in length though they can reach as much as 6 x 5 inches on vigorous growth. The foliage is dark green and smooth above, and either downy or smooth beneath. The foliage typically turns to yellow during autumn.
The small, yellow ( pink in some forms ) flowers are borne on hanging, tassel-like clusters during early spring.
They are followed by the keys which remain on the trees dried through the fall and winter.
The bark is light brown and smooth; later becoming lightly ridged and furrowed.
The wood is very light in weight ( 27 ibs per square foot ).
Acer negundo often seeds profusely and can become weedy and invasive. All of its cultivars require occasional pruning to removed reverted foliage. Plains.
Hardy zones 2 to 9. The Manitoba Maple is tolerant of flooding and wind and grows well in the harsh climates of the Great Plains and even Anchorage, Alaska. This is among the few Maples that are easy to grow from cuttings.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on Aug 3 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 13 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken by F.S. Baker @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


'Aureovariegatum'
Golden-yellow edged leaves on red stalks

subsp 'Californica'
Very dense and even faster growing than regular Manitoba Maple reaching up to 82 feet in height.

'Elegans'
A male clone with lush green leaves broadly margined gold.

'Flamingo'
Smaller in size, reaching only up to 27 x 15 feet.
The stunning foliage is boldly-margined pink during early spring, the variegation turn to white during summer.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Giganteum'
Huge compound leaves up to 16 inches in length. It is otherwise identical to the species.

'Kelleys Gold'
Smaller in size, reaching up to 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches in 8 years, eventually around 50 x 30 feet.
The bright yellow foliage keeps its color all summer long and does not scorch.

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on May 17 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Sensation'
A tall tree to the same size as regular Acer negundo. Some records include: 5 years - 13 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches. It was originally found near an abandoned homestead in Idaho.
Its foliage is very different than the regular Manitoba Maple. The new foliage during spring is coppery-red, turning to green with a reddish tint in the summer then to scarlet-red during autumn.
It is a male clone that does not produce fruit.
It thrives even in Alberta, however there growing slower to about 10.5 x 10 feet in 5 years, eventually much more.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Variegatum'
A sterile female clone with no seeds and white margined foliage.
It grows large.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Violaceum'
Very attractive with foliage that is bronze in spring turning to dark green in summer then to purple in late fall ( December in Virginia ). The flowers are pink and the bloomy shoots later turn to purple. Grows very large.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 11 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash. DC


'Winter Lightning'
Generally very similar to regular Acer negundo except with shiny bright orange winter shoots.
The foliage turns brilliant yellow in autumn.



Acer nigrum ( Black Maple )
MY FAVORITE MAPLE! Why the hell is it not planted more!!! This Maple is not abundant anywhere though I have run into some real beauties growing wild in the Canard River Valley outside Amherstburg, Ontario. I always thought this tree was more beautiful in all seasons than the Sugar, Red and Silver Maples growing in proximity. Despite its beauty most people in that region don't even know the Black Maple exists while the Silver Maple is planted to rediculous excess. In Washington, D.C. the Black Maple grows in Garfield Park, however is generally very rare in the Mid Atlantic region also. This tree is uncommon in the wild but native over a wide range in central North America ( from far southeast South Dakota to southern Minnesota to northern Wisconsin to Bayfield, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario and the St. Lawrence Valley of Quebec to southwest New Hampshire; south to far eastern Kansas to central Tennessee to western Maryland. It is not native anywhere on the Piedmont or coastal Plain. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was moderately common along the Canard River Valley, near Amherstburg, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well at the Ohio shore during the 1800s. The Black Maple grows at a similar rate to the similar size as the closely related Sugar Maple. The record size is 170 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
A notable tree of 120 x 130 x 5.5 feet grows at Allegan Co., Michigan. The Black Maple is rarely bothered by pests or disease and can live up to 500 years.
The leaves somewhat resemble the Sugar Maple but are nearly 3 more shallowly lobed, droop and are hairy below. They are large up to 8 x 8 inches ( sometimes to 11 inches ) and are dull dark green with yellow veins and turn brilliant gold to orange in the fall. This Maple has a very dense canopy casting deep shade.
The yellow flowers are similar to that of the Sugar Maple.
The bark is dark gray to almost black and deeply furrowed.
This is the only Maple other than the Sugar Maple that is valuable for commercial Maple syrup production. Also like the Sugar Maple; it has highly valuable timber is used for furniture, flooring, interior trim and cabinet work. Unfortunately this tree is no longer abundant with most of its native range fitting within the Midwest corn belt where the rich forest that greeted the European Settlers has been gutted, destroyed and almost entirely converted to agriculture.
This tree is well adapted for landscape use being tougher than the Sugar Maple. The Black Maple is tolerant of clay, heat, drought, pollution and shade.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, tolerating as low as -48 F and possibly slightly lower.

* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario


* photo from unknown internet source


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Oct 26 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* photo taken on Nov 28 2015 in Dauphin, PA

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 17 2016 in Goderich, Ontario

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


'Morgan'
Superb orange-red fall color

'Sweet Shadow'
Vivid orange fall color

Acer pennsylvanicum ( Striped Maple )
Native to moist woodlands in eastern North America ( from northeast Minnesota to Batchewana, Ontario to Temagami, Ontario to southern Quebec to Gaspe and Cape Breton of Nova Scotia, south through the Appalation Mountains to northern Georgia ). It is a broadly columnar tree reaching up to 40 x 20 feet in 20 years which is usually about its mature size. The largest Striped Maple on record is 88 x 38 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. One almost that large grows in Bailey Arboretum in Nassau County, New York. A 50 foot tree is reported to grow in the Scranton, PA area. A moderate grower; the fastest growth rate ever recorded is 4 feet. The Striped Maple only lives up to 100 years in age at most.
The serrate edge leaves have 3 triangular forward pointing lobes. The leaves are up to 10 x 10 inches in size ( usually around 6 ). The foliage is pinkish then bright green during spring, turning dark yellow-green and smooth above during summer. The leaves turn to golden yellow or sometimes orangish during autumn ( typically mid October ).
The small, bright yellow flowers are borne on drooping racemes, up to 6 inches long, during early spring with the leaves.
The bark is smooth and green with white vertical stripes becoming darker and warty in old trees. The wood typically weights 33 ibs per square foot.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 and preferring cool summer climates. The shallow wide spreading roots like cool soil. Shade tolerant and often a forest understory tree in the wild; the Striped Maple scorches badly on hot dry sites. Surprisingly it is reported as growing in the Washington, D.C. area at Mount Vernon and Fern Valley in the U.S. National Arboretum.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario




* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Wash., DC

* historical archive photos


'Erythrocladum'
The bark is salmon-red striped white. The new shoots are salmon to coral red. The buds are bright pink.

* photo from unknown source on internet

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


Acer rubrum ( Red Maple )
Native to eastern North America ( from southeast Manitoba to Thunder Bay to Wawa, Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to Roberval, Quebec to Newfoundland; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). The Red Maple is a broadly-columnar fast growing tree often over 3 feet per year and can reach heights in excess of 80 feet. Indeed some of the trees that grew in the river valleys of America before European settlement reached truly massive sizes. The largest Red Maples ever recorded reach up to 180 x 120 feet with a trunk diameters up to 7.5 feet. One tree of 180 x 120 x 6 feet grew in St. Clair County, Michigan and another of 141 x 90 x 7.5 feet in Smokey Mountains, N.P. in Tennessee. In Canada; the Ontario champion is a massive tree of 107 feet tall and 4.3 feet in diameter at Squirrel Island on Lake St. Clair.
Some records are: first year from seed - 16 inches; single year growth increase of 8 feet with diameter increase of 0.5 inches; 30 feet in 10 years; 80 x 60 feet with trunk diameter of 16 inches in 20 years. The seedlings can reach a foot in height by the end of the first growing season. The Red Maple can live up to 300 years of age.
The leaves, up to 5 x 5 inches ( rarely 8 inches ) in size are 3 or 5 lobed. The foliage is glossy deep green above and glaucous bluish-white below. In autumn the foliage turns to a combination of yellow, orange and fiery red. Foliage is usually reddish in early spring. Wilted leaves of Acer rubrum can kill a horse by thickening bloods ability to carry oxygen to organs within 10 to 24 hours.
In very early spring ( January in Deep South ) the leafless twigs are covered in dense red flower clusters made up of tiny flowers which later become the reddish winged fruit.
Branches are generally not brittle unlike the Silver Maple ( Acer saccharinum ).
The bark is light gray and smooth becoming rough and shaggy with age.
In North America the lumber is valued for furniture. This tree is not important for the making of Maple Syrup.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 though this Maple does not grow well in Alberta.
In northern areas grow trees from local or northerly seed source. If you try seed from Florida or Alabama or anywhere in the Deep South it will likely not survive the winter north of zone 6. Tolerant of swampy soils and pollution but not salt or deer. Planting is best done in early spring. Cultivars can be grown from softwood cuttings which root easily under mist ( 1000 to 3000 ppm IBA in 4 weeks. Red Maples are best grown on their own roots since they are often not graft compatible. Propagation from tissue culture has also been successful.


* photo from unknown source on internet


* photo taken on November 7 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photo taken on Oct 5 2011 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on April 4 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 23 2016 in Laurel, MD

* photo taken by W.H. Morin @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on Apr 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Mar 31 2016 in Catonsville, MD

* photos taken on May 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Autumn Flame'
A dense, round-canopied tree.
The mid-green foliage turns to intense scarlet-red during early autumn.
It is a male clone that does not produce seed.
Hardy zones 3b+.

* photos taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Autumn Spire'
A columnar to upright-oval form, reaching only 30 feet wide, that originated in Minnesota.
The foliage turns to intense scarlet-red during early autumn.
It is a male form that does not produce seed.
Hardy zones 3+.

'Bowhall'
Narrowly-columnar in habit, reaching up to 90 x 30 feet.
The mid-green foliage turns to orange or orangish-red during autumn.
It does produce seeds.
Hardy zones 4+.

* photo taken on June 19 2010 in Silver Spring, MD


* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on Mar 17 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Brandywine'
This seedless cultivar is excellent in the south. Its intense deep red fall color is 10 days later than average for Acer rubrum.
It reaches an average of 25 x 12 feet in 12 years.
Hardy north to zone 4.

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on November 2000


subsp. 'Drummondi'

Native to the lower Mississippi Valley and some of the Prairie states.
It has larger flowers and thicker shallower lobed leaves which are white below.
Tolerates salty soil.

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on June 4 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Gerling'
Broad conical shape.
Fiery scarlet fall color.

'Mag Magenta'
Reaches to 75 feet in height with very intense red fall color.
Very drought tolerant compared to regular Acer rubrum.

'Matador.
Fast growing, upright and oblong to rounded in habit, reaching up to 45 x 40 feet.
The foliage turns a long lasting, intense deep red.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Morgan'
Similar to 'Ruby Frost' and also very cold tolerant.

'Northwood'
Broadly-oval in habit, it originated in northern Minnesota was introduced by the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum.
The deep green foliage turns to red during autumn.
Hardy zones 3+, it is among the most cold hardy of Acer rubrums.

'October Glory'
Fast growing to 25 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 5 inches in only 7 years.
The thick foliage is lush glossy mid-green. The intense scarlet-red, very late fall color lasts for several weeks.
It does produce seed.
Less hardy than some Red Maple but still good as far north as zone 4b. It is also very tolerant of hot humid summers.


* photo taken on job site in Howard County, MD


* photos taken on April 5 2010 in Columbia, MD






* photos taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 2 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Red Rocket'
Narrow pyramidal in shape and growing up to 3 feet per year. This cultivar originates in Minnesota.
Red-scarlet fall color.

'Red Sunset'
Vigorous with strong branching and pyramidal habit. Fast growing, reaching around 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches in 24 years, eventually much more.
The thick, glossy deep green foliage turns brilliant scarlet during autumn ( earlier than October Glory ).
It does produce seeds.
Hardy zones 4+.

* photo taken on Nov 1 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Ruby Frost'
Very cold and extremely drought tolerant. Strong uniform branching and good glowing scarlet fall color. Strong branches.
Hardy north to at least zone 4.

'Scanlon'
A pyramidal to columnar tree reaching up to 80 x 15 feet in size. It originated as a sport of 'Bowhall'.
While the fall color is generally orange it can be disappointing in coastal and maritime areas.
Hardy zones 4+.

'Scarlet Jewel'
A fast growing, upright, oblong to rounded form, reaching up to 70 x 30 feet.
The fall color begins about 2 weeks earlier than average for Acer rubrum and turns to an intense deep red. The foliage is reddish at first during spring, then turns to deep green.
The abundant red flowers ( "little red nubbins" ) put on a great show during early spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 6, preferrring acidic soil. The bark has superior resistance to frost cracking.

'Scarlet Night'
Only hardy from zones 7 to 9. It holds its glowing scarlet fall color very late into late November.

'Somerset'
Exceptional long lasting fall color that peaks a week before 'October Glory'.
Excellent fall color as far south as Georgia.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Summer Red'
A fast growing, dense, broad-upright, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40 x 30 feet in 20 years, with an eventual maximum height of 70 feet.
The thick, leathery foliage is deep red at first, turning to deep purplish-green above, silvery-white beneath. The foliage turns to orange during autumn.



'Sun Valley'
Exceptionally long lasting, glowing red fall color. It is also resistant to leaf hoppers.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( possibly 3 ).

Acer saccharinum ( Silver Maple )
A majestic broadly columnar to spreading tree native to moist river banks of eastern North America ( from far southeast Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Sault Ste Marie to Tamagami, Ontario to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; south to central Oklahoma to northern Georgia to central North Carolina ). Rapid growing when young; it is commonly to excessively planted in parks, yards and along streets. The Silver Maple can easily reach 100 feet and some have reached truly gigantic proportions of up to 160 x 120 feet with trunk diameters up to 10.5 feet. The Ontario, Canada champion is 110 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 7 feet in Southwold Township, Elgin County. One of the tallest Silver Maples ever recorded is at Arnold Arboretum in Boston, MA.
Other notable trees: 165 x 100 x 7.5 feet in Rochester, Michigan; 125 x 100 x 7 feet in Baltimore, MD; D 10 feet in Polk County, Iowa.
Average trunk diameter of 5 inches in 10 years. Some record growth rates include: first year from seed - 16 inches; diameter of 7 inches in 7 years; 20 feet in 4 years; 53 x 47 feet in 10 years; 60 feet in 15 years; 70 x 47 feet with trunk diameter 1.8 feet in 20 years; trunk diameter of 3.2 feet in 50 years; trunk diameter of 7 feet in 100 years! Usually maturing in 40 years and not living more than 150 years; the record is 380 years.
The foliage is very handsome. The palmate leaves are deeply 5 lobed with each lobe itself being sharply toothed and lobed. Typically around 6 x 6 inches; on vigorous growth some leaves may reach up to 10 x 10 inches. Dark green above and thinly hairy blue-white below; the foliage usually turns clear yellow during autumn.
The small, yellow-green flowers are borne in clusters on the shoots during early spring.
They are followed by the keys with spreading wings that fall off and germinate in late spring.
The bark is gray and orange; smooth on young trees becoming shaggy and flaking with age.

Hardy zones 2 to 8 but does not grow well in Alberta. Very flood tolerant. It is among the most prone to storm damage of any Maple in addition to most trees. As a result, it has been banned from use as a street tree in many cities. Decay quickly sets in following storm damage shortening the trees life. The Silver Maple also does not enjoy drought and may prematurely drop its leaves. It hates shade and salt.


* photos taken on March 9 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario



* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, ON




* photo taken on June 22 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario
* photo taken on Sep 5 2013 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD


* photo taken on Apr 28 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 23 2016 in Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


'Laciniata'
Similar with much more deeply cut foliage

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photo


'Northline'
Stronger wooded and hardy north to zone 2

'Silver Cloud'
hardiest cultivar ( north to zone 2 ) with consistant upright habit and central leader. It is hardiest than the species in Alberta, thriving in Brooks and Red Deer.

'Silver Queen'
fast upright growth with a straight central leader and stronger branches. The main branches have wider crotches that do NOT break easily in storms. It is a large spreading tree with deeply cut foliage. Seedless

'Skinners Cutleaf'
A seedless cutleaf variety with wider crotches and more horizontal branches. It can be prone to severe chlorosis on the Great Plains though has been recorded reaching 66 x 72 feet in North Dakota.

Acer saccharum ( Sugar Maple )

Native to eastern North America ( from far southeast Manitoba to Wawa, Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to Roberval, Quebec to Gaspe and Cape Breton of Nova Scotia; south to eastern Kansas to Arkansas to Virginia...there is an isolated population in far southeast North Dakota ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was sporadic in southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is very valuable both for its lumber and the edible syrup which is extracted from it. The Sugar Maple is the national tree of Canada. The Sugar Maple can live up to 500 years of age and some of the largest trees recorded in the original old growth forest which once covered eastern North America reached up to 170 x 100 feet with trunk diameters of up to 9 feet ( 12 feet wide at the base being recorded ). The Ontario, Canada champion grows in North Pelham on the Niagara Peninsula with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. Typically a moderate grower in the wild though can be forced to grow much faster with special care. Record growth rate is: single year growth increase of 6 feet with diameter increase of 0.5 inch; 15 feet in 5 years; 20 feet in 7 years; 43 x 27 feet in 10 years; trunk diameter of 13 inches in 20 years and 75 x 40 feet in 30 years. The Sugar Maple really does look similar to the Norway Maple though and easy test is breaking a twig. The Sugar Maple's sap runs clear where the Norway Maple's run milky. The Sugar Maple has much sturdier branches and is much less prone to storm breakage than the Silver Maple. Unlike the Silver Maple; it has deep wide roots and a very dense canopy. The Sugar Maple is an excellent shade tree.
The leaves, up to 10 x 10 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size, are palmately 5 lobed. The 3 larger lobes on the leaf do have a few prominent teeth. The foliage is dull dark green above and slightly hairy beneath; turning to glowing orange-yellow and crimson during autumn. On alkaline soils they often turn yellow rather than red.
The yellowish-green flowers are borne on drooping open 3 inch clusters during mid-spring ( usually April in zone 6 ).
They are followed by keys, up to 1 inch wide, that mature in September.
The bark on young trees is light brown and smooth, becoming furrowed and scaly on older trees.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( reports of zone 2 ) in full sun to shade on fertile, deep, well drained soil. The Sugar Maple needs deep soils and is tolerant of shade often being found in the understory as well as the canopy of forests. Location of planting is important since the Sugar Maple does not enjoy pollution, salt or soil compaction. Do NOT plant the Sugar Maple in planters or tree lawns less than 6 feet wide or if you do - don't expect it to grow much - its roots need room. Paying attention to selection is important to having a badass healthy shade tree. Do not plant seed from northern trees in the south; they will scorch badly ( it doesn't pay to be chiep; pick an appropriate selection from below at a local nursery - a tree is a permanant investment ). Sugar Maples respond very well to fertilizer. Topdressing with an inch of sewage sludge weekly can quadruple the growth rate.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010

* photo taken near Wilkes-Barre, PA

* photos taken in Bayfield, Ontario on the shores of Lake Huron



* photo from unknown source on internet



* photos taken on April 5 2010 near Wilkes-Barre, PA



* photo taken on April 17 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD






* photo taken on July 1 2010 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, ON

* photos taken on August 5 2010 in Clinton, ON


* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 31 2011 in Hyde Park, NY





* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 4 2012 in Blyth, Ontario

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on May 26 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


'Bonfire'
Heat and more environmentally tolerant than most Sugar Maples. It is the fastest growing variety ( up to 20 feet in just 6 years ) with mid green polished leaves that turn a very brilliant orange-red in the fall.

* photo taken on October 24 2010 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Oct 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Caddo'
Originating from a separate wild population in Oklahoma; it is disease free and extremely drought tolerant. The leaves are leathery and turn scarlet in fall. This cultivar is not well adapted for humid regions east of the Mississippi.
Colors late in the fall.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

'Commemoratum'
Very fast growing, some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 10 years - trunk diameter of 6 inches.

'Fall Fiesta'
Fast growing, dense, upright, oblong to rounded in habit, reaching up to 75 x 50 feet.
The leathery foliage is deep green, turning intense orange and red during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it was developed specifically for the upper midwest and has superior drought resistance. The attractive foliage is very resistant to windburn and leahopper damage. It also has superior resistance to sun scald.

'Flax Hill Majesty'
Very fast growing and among the most cold hardy of the Sugar Maple cultivars, tolerating -38 F or colder. Trunk diameter increases up to 1 inch per year are recorded.

'Green Mountain'
Reaches up to 21 feet tall and 4 inches in trunk diameter in only 7 years.
It even grows in dry urban areas where most regular Sugar Maple will not grow. The leathery wind tolerant leaves retain their shiny glow even during drought and are 2 times thicker and shinier than the species. The foliage tolerates heat reflected off concrete that will very often scorch the regular Sugar Maple.

* photos taken on Oct 25 2011 in Columbia, MD



'Johnny Cake'
Huge 12 inch wide leaves that turn spectacular orange-red in the fall.

'Legacy'
Exceptionally vigorous and dense growing. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 4 th year - 8 feet with trunk diameter increase of 1.5 inches.
Thick, very glossy, dark green leaves that turn spectacular red-orange in the fall. Very heat tolerant as well as drought and wind tolerant.
It originates from the western part of the Sugar Maples range where the climate is more severe.

* photos taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 2 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Sandersville'
Very heat tolerant and very fast growing, some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 4th year - 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 inches.
Propagates well from cuttings.

'Steeple'
With a very symmetrical, oval and excellent shape. Reaching up to 45 x 20 feet in 20 years. Well adapted to heat in the South.

'Sweet Sap'
Double sap sugar content of regular Sugar Maple.

'Temple's Upright'
Reaches up to to 85 x 27 feet and is upright-columnar in habit with a strong central leader.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on May 3 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photo


'Unity'
Bred at Portage La Prairie in Manitoba and hardy north to zone 3. This moderate growing Sugar Maple was bred for the cold Canadian Prairie. It is also resistant to frost cracking of the trunk. The attractive foliage is dark green in summer and turns to orange-red in the fall.

'Wrights Brother'
Very fast growing to double the rate of regular Sugar Maple. Very cold tolerant.

Acer skutchii ( Mexican Mountain Sugar Maple )
A large tree that is native to mountains of southern Mexico and Guatemala. It is the Mexican equivalent of the Sugar Maple. It is very fast growing, reaching up to 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches in just 16 years, eventually growing large.
The leaves are similar in shape to Acer florida but are larger.
The foliage is salmon-pink at first, then turning to mid-green.
During autumn the foliage turns intense scarlet-red persisting a long time into winter.
The samaras are the largest of any Maple.
Hardy zones 8. It is tolerant of drought and alkaline soil but not irrigation water on the foliage which can scorch the leaves.

Acer spicatum ( Mountain Maple )
Native to northeastern North America ( from central Saskatchewan to Norway House, Manitoba to Sandy Lake, Ontario to Lansdowne House, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to central Quebec to eastern Labrador & Nfld.; south to northeast Iowa to Pennsylvania...south to the Smokey Mountains in the Appalachians ); the Mountain Maple forms a moderately growing small tree with a dense, upright, rounded crown. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred in rich woods around Windsor during the 1800s. Record growth rates are: 2 feet per year and 30 feet in height in 20 years. It generally grows no more than 25 feet though the record is 60 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter fo 1 foot ( one in Houghton County, Michigan is very close to that ). The Mountain Maple rarely survives more than 40 years.
The leaves are sharply-toothed and 3 or 5 palmately lobed with tapered points. They are usually about 5 x 5 inches in size; though sometimes up to 10 x 10 inches on vigorous shoots. The foliage is deep green above, smooth to white downy beneath; often turning scarlet-red during autumn.
The small, greenish-white to yellow flowers are borne on dense, slender upright panicles, up to 6 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by small keys with spreading wings up to an inch across that are green turning to red at maturity.
The bark is green and indistinctly striped eventually becoming reddish and smooth. The wood is about 33 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 2 to 6, preferring cool summer climates. Mountain Maple thrives in Englands cool summers. This Maple WILL die in poorly drained or dry clay soils. It requires mulch and shelter from wind. It should be no surpise that it generally grows wild in the undergrowth of mountain and hillside forest. The root system is very wide and shallow.

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

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