Tuesday, May 18, 2010

Walnuts

A large family of trees from Asia, Europe and North America; the Walnuts are well known for their nuts and timber but also make excellent ornamental trees.
The nuts are typically harvested from the ground and the fruits can be sun dried making it easier to remove the husks. At that point the nuts can be thrown in water, the good nuts sink so any floating nuts are to be discarded. To crack the nuts, a vice commonly found in workshops can be used. The extremely nutritious nuts contain: 60% fat, 20% protein, 15% carbs, ellagic acid ( protects from cancer ), linolenic acid, calcium, iron, phosphorus, potassium and sulfur. 1/4 of a cup of Walnuts contains 90% recommended daily dose of Omega-3 Fatty Acids.
The nuts of many species of Walnut are highly valued as a food crop. Walnut milk is very healthy and is made from dropping ground Walnuts into boiling water.
Walnuts can also be used as a base for nut grain protein bars.
The wood is hard and beautifully grained and is excellent for use in furniture.
The wood is among the most highly valued of all trees, used for making of fine furniture, fencepost, bridges, pilings and cabinetmaking. Using the wood for general construction is basically burning money since it is too highly valuable. Rich brown in color, durable if moist, easy to work and splitting along the grain, the timber is a dwindling resource. A wood is typically sliced into veneer, 50 000 to 100 000 square feet possible off a mature Black Walnut.
The wood of most species of Walnut is average for fuel used, giving off close to 19 million Btu per cord.
Some species have roots that release a competition suppresser chemical called Juglone which is poisonous to plants such as Tomatoes, Potatoes, Alfalfa, Apples, Blueberries, Kalmia, Rhodos, Hydrangeas, Peonies & Red Pine. The shade is usually light enough to allow turf grass beneath.
The Walnuts prefer deep, fertile, moist, well drained soils. They enjoy early spring fertilization with a 10-10-10 or 15-15-15 complete plant food. Trees in plantations are often pruned and trained to develop a straight single trunk to at least 12 feet. The seed is inside the nuts and is best soaked in water for 24 hours before sowing. The seed is best collected in the fall and stored in containers in cool conditions until sowing outdoors in early spring. The seed should not be allowed to dry out as it will die.
Due to the taproot that makes Walnuts difficult to transplant; they are best planted from seed during autumn on permanent site or as small trees which shouldn't be a problem since they are fast growing. Walnut can also be sown in cardboard tubes to accomodate their deep taproots thus can be planted onto their permanent site later.
If a young walnut gets damaged from deer, rodents or mechanical damage, cut it back to close to ground level during late fall or early spring and it will regenerate vigorously with straight, sturdy shoots. Choose the strongest, straightest one and remove the remainder.

* historic archive photo


Juglans ailanthifolia ( Japanese Walnut )
Also called the Siebold Walnut; is a Japanese native that becomes a large upright tree, reaching around 80 feet. Some records include: 7 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 110 x 125 feet with a trunk diameter to 9 feet. It is fast growing, with rates up to 3 feet per year being common. It has reached 35 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.
The leaves look like that of the Ailanthus and reaches up to 45 inches in length with 11 to 17 blunt-tipped, oblong leaflets up to 10 x 2 ( rarely over 7 ) inches in size. The young foliage is densely covered with red hairs.
The male catkins are long, up to 12 inches and the female ones and striking deep red.
The oval fruits are up to 2 inches in length and are borne in clusters ranging from 4 to 10
The gray-brown stems have pointed buds.
The bark is shallow fissured and striped dark and light gray.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and has survived -40 F with no dieback.
subsp 'cordiformis' the same except for the fruits being a different shape

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario


* photos taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario




* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Juglans australis ( Argentine Walnut )
A large tree producing quality lumber, that is native to the mountain cloud forests of Argentina and Bolivia. It is threatened in its native range due to habitat loss. The largest on record is 82 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The pinnate compound leaves bear up to 15 finely serrate lance shaped leaflets.
It may grow in parts of the U.S. Pacific Northwest; it prefers mild winters and cool summers and is more tolerant of frosts during the growing season than Juglans persica. Likely not winter hardy north to zone 8 or 9.

Juglans x bixbyi
A hybrid between Juglans ailanthifolia & J. cinerea. It has the attractive look and shape of Juglans ailanthifolia and also has the hardiness and tasty nuts of Juglans cinerea. A very vigorous growing, large tree to 90 + x 117 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet. It can produce fruit in as little as 5 years.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and can tolerate -30 F.

* historic archive photo


'Fioka'
The best fruiting form

'Mitchell'
The hardiest form

Juglans californica ( California Walnut )
A rapid growing, rounded large tree native to fertile, moist bottomlands in central and southern California. Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. It is a recommended landscape tree the Pacific Coast region from Oregon and south.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of 11 to 17 lance-shaped to oblong leaflets up to 8 x 1 ( averaging 3 ) inches. The glossy deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The small rounded fruits are up to 1.3 inches wide. The dark nuts are up to an inch with smooth ridges and shallow grooves.
The downy twigs are orange-red.
The ridged bark is whitish later turning brown. The bark pattern is similar to that of Juglans nigra. The timber is highly prized.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 and flood tolerant. It is tolerant of mediterranean climates with no summer rainfall through growth will be more vigorous with an occasional deep watering. It is now rare in the wild and is also extremely rare as a landscape plant.

* photo from unknown internet source

* historical archive photo


Juglans cathayensis ( Chinese Butternut )
Native to western & central China as well as Taiwan; this is a massive large spreading tree to 80 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 40 x 27 feet; largest on record - 92 x 106 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. It has reached 25 x 20 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.
The very large leaves are up to 3 feet long or rarely 55 inches and are composed of up to 17 or rarely 19 tooth edged, finely hairy leaflets up to 7 or rarely 10 inches long. The young leaves are velvety maroon-red before quickly turning to bright green. The foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn.
The flower catkins are up to 16 inches in length.
The fruits are up to 2 inches wide and occur in clusters of 5 to 10. They have inside sweet and edible nuts which are unfortunately difficult to extract. One 6 year old tree was reported to have 1oo pounds of nuts!
The bark as well as the foliage is similar to that of Juglans cinerea.
Hardy from zone 4 to 9. Seeds need 3 or 4 months of cold stratification to germinate. Chinese Butternut is tolerant of temporary flooding as occurs on river floodplains.

Juglans cinerea ( Butternut )
A fast growing medium to large tree that is native to eastern North America ( from northern Minnesota to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to near Lions Head, Ontario to Bracebridge, Ontario to Petawawa, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick, south to Arkansas to northern Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred abundantly in Lasalle, the Canard River Valley, southern Essex County as well as the Ohio shore; sporadically at Point Pelee during the 1800s. It can reach up to 20 x 33 feet in 10 years; 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot in 20 years and eventually 80 feet. One is recorded to grow 110 x 103 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet in 112 years and some truly massive trees that formerly grew in the old growth hardwood forest that is now long gone reached up to 140 feet tall and wide with trunk diameters up to 7.7 feet! It has reaches 75 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada. From seed a tree can reach up to 18 inches in height in the first growing season. Established trees are fast growing with the record being 7 feet per year. It is sometimes used as a timber tree in Romania.
The leaves are long up to 2 feet or rarely 3 feet in length. The toothed, oblong leaflets are up to 7 x 2.5 inches in size. The hairy foliage is yellowish-green.
The fruits are either solitary or in small clusters of 3 to 5 and are up to 2.5 inches long.
The orange-brown fuzzy twigs have large yellowish terminal buds. The shoots are sticky to touch.
The thick gray-brown bark becomes shallow furrowed with age.
The wood is not as valuable for fuel as the Black Walnut, giving off only about 14 million Btu of heat per cord.
In the eastern U.S. many trees especially in the wild now die young from an accidently introduced canker disease that threatens to make the Butternut go extinct in much of its native range ( est. 80% already died off ). Butternut Canker was first reported in Wisconsin in 1967, in the next 15 years 60 % Butternuts died in Wisconsin and by 1986 91% died in Michigan and 77% in Virginia and North Carolina have died, in South Carolina it is now extinct. It is now endangered. It is not known where the disease came from. The canker makes trees of all ages infertile and soon girdles the main stem making the wood dark and mushy.
Hardy zones 3 to 8; this tree is even hardy and sometimes planted in Alberta and central Manitoba.
Oikos Tree Crops in Michigan sells a variety that is resistant to the fatal canker and blight and is drought tolorant.

* photo from unknown source on internet


* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken in Harford County, MD on June 15 2010

* photo taken on August 3 2010 west of Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario






* photos taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario


* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Chevy Chase, MD







* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON













* photos taken on Nov 28 2015 in Dauphin, PA

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


Juglans hindsii ( Hind's Black Walnut )
A potential very large tree though its mature size is most often diminished by lack of rainfall in its native central California where it is found along streams and is endangered. Rapid growing to 60 feet or more; on ideal sites this tree is known to have reached truly giant sizes up to 130 feet in height; 110 feet in width and 11.8 feet in trunk diameter. This tree can also live up to 300 years.
The leaves are up to 15 inches long and consist of 15 to 21 coarsely-toothed, pointed leaflets up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The blue-green foliage turns golden-yellow in autumn.
The fruits are covered in fine hairs and are round up to 2 inches in diameter.
The husks are thin and dark brown.
The downy twigs are orange-red and the bark is dark brown and similar in pattern to Juglans nigra. The timber is highly prized.
Surprisingly hardy considering its native range; the Hind's Black Walnut can be grown from zone 5 to 10 and is completely hardy in Michigan to -20 F or colder.
Can be grown in climates with 16 or more inches of rainfall in a year on soils from PH 6 to 8.


* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Juglans jamaicensis ( Caribbean Walnut )
A very large tree native to Puerto Rico, the Caribbean and central America, reaching up to 150 feet in height.
The leaves reach up to 24 inches in length and are composed of up to 20 leaflets up to 9 inches in length. The flower catkins are up to 5 inches in length and the twigs are reddish. This tropical Walnut is only hardy in zones 10 + where there are no frosts.

Juglans major ( Arizona Walnut )
Native to the southwest U.S. from central Arizona to central Texas and south into the mountains of Mexico; this is another potentially large tree whose size is often diminished by lack of rainfall in its native range. With a slender crown originating from a single upright trunk; this tree can reach up to 80 feet or very rarely 110 feet tall; 100 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 7.9 feet. Rapid growing; this tree can live up to 400 years. It known to reach up to 36 feet in Chicago very far from its native habitat.
The leaves up to 15 inches consist of 9 to 15 coarsely toothed leaflets up to 4 x 2 inches in size. They turn an unusual attractive creamy yellow in the fall.
The flower catkins are yellow and up to 8 inches in length. They are followed by
round fruits that are up to 1.6 inches wide. The nuts have a deeply grooved shell and are up to an inch.
The twigs are hairy and red-brown.
The bark is gray and patterned similar to that of Juglans nigra.
Hardy from zone 6 to 10, prefers a soil PH from 6 to 7 and is flood tolerant. It thrives far outside its native range at Morton Arboretum in Illinois. The Arizona Walnut is an excellent heat and drought tolerant shade tree. May be prone to leaf anthracnose in some regions. Rare in the wild and very rare in cultivation.

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Juglans mandshurica ( Manchurian Walnut )
Native to northeastern China, Manchuria and Korea; this is a potentially large tree up to 60 feet or rarely up to 100 x 105 feet with a trunk diameter up to 6.5 feet. The Manchurian Walnut can grow to 66 feet in height in just 20 years. It is found on both mountain slopes and on floodplains in its natural range.
The pinnate leaves are about 24 or rarely to 38 inches long and are composed of 11 to 19 pointed leaflets up to 10 x 4 inches in size. The luxuriant tropical-looking foliage is bright to mid green; turning to bright yellow during autumn.
The flower catkins, up to 14 inches long, are borne during late spring.
The 2 inch fruits consist of round nuts. They ripen during early autumn.
The fissured bark is dark grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7; this tree can tolerate as cold as -45 F and even thrive in parts of Alaska; Winnipeg, Manitoba as well as Edmonton Albt ( copy and paste - http://www.edmontonpl.com/tourist-attraction/natural-attraction/the-natural-beauty-of-edmonton-city.html ). Seed source from Heilongjiang Province in China should be further tested in zone 2b. Manchurian Walnut is tolerant of temporary flooding as occurs on river floodplains.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photo


Juglans microcarpa ( Texas Walnut )
A rather bushy medium size tree in cultivation; this tree is often dwarfed in the wild in its drought plagued native range from New Mexico to Kansas, south into Mexico. Moderate growing; it can reach 20 x 20 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 50 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 70 x 108 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.6 feet. Known to reach 36 feet in England despite its preference for hot summers. Very rare both in the wild and in cultivation.
The pinnate leaves are up to 16 inches in length and composed of 13 to 25 finely-toothed. lance-shaped leaflets up to 6 x 1 or rarely as much as 10 x 1 inches. The very handsome foliage is brownish in the spring becoming dark green during the summer.
The rounded fruits are small, up to 1.4 inches wide. They are edible and sweet tasting.
The downy twigs are orange-red and the light brown bark is patterned similar to that of Juglans nigra.
Hardy from zones 5 to 9; it is much hardier than its native range suggest, even thriving as far north as Chicago. Extreme heat and also drought tolerant due to its very deep taproot.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken by W.J. Gardner @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database



Juglans neotropica ( Tropical Walnut )

A native to the cool high Andes Mountains in northwest South America; this tree is very fast growing to 5 feet in a year; 33 feet or more in 10 years and can eventually reach 100 feet in height. The largest on record is 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
Very vigorous; it can bear nuts in only 8 years and ever prospers in highway medians. Grows well far from its native range in New Zealand and does not need pollination to fruit. The up to 14 inch leaves are composed of up to 19 ovate leaflets to 6 x 2 inches. Endangered in wild.

Juglans nigra ( Black Walnut )
Native to North America ( from central Nebraska to eastern South Dakota to southern Minnesota to Saginaw, Michigan to Wiarton, Ontario to Barrie, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to New Hampshire, south to central Texas to far northern Florida ); this is a fast growing tree with a large dome shaped crown. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was very abundant in southern and western Essex County as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Fast growing to an eventual size of 80 feet or more. On ideal sites this tree grows with exceptional vigor and grows huge. Some records are; 3 feet from seed in first season; 33 x 30 feet in 10 years; 50 years - trunk diameter of 1.9 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 4.6 feet; and the largest trees ever recorded in the original old growth hardwood forest that is now mostly gone - 200 x 130 feet with trunk diameter of 10 feet. In fact the largest Black Walnut ever known fell in a storm during the spring of 1822 in Indiana and had a diameter of 12 feet and was 80 feet to the first limb. Another tree of 10 feet in diameter was recorded in Cattaraugua County, New York. Black Walnut reaches 60 feet at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada. It is frequently used in timber plantations in central & eastern Europe.
The leaves are composed of 11 to 23 leaflets which are up to 5 inches in length.
The fruits are up to 3 inches in size and contain dark brown edible nuts.
The deeply-fissured bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( tolerating -45 F for hardiest seed source ), the Black Walnut is hardy far north of its native range. It can still grow quite large in extremely harsh climates: 605 x 50 feet in North Dakota; 40 + feet in eastern Manitoba & International Falls, Minnesota. Also reports of it growing in Lethbridge, Alberta. The Black Walnut prefers soil PH from 5 to 8.2. Unfortunately in parts of its range this tree is often defoliated by anthracnose during very early autumn - Hybrid Black Walnuts are often resistant and keep a full canopy of leaves until turning a warm glowing gold color in the fall. It is VERY IMPORTANT that young trees are kept free of competition from dense turf and weeds or they will remain stunted in growth. The Black Walnut is moderately salt tolerant.

* photo taken in Bayfield, Ontario on August 2007 with Lake Huron in background

* photo taken July 1995 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on April 15 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD














* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario


* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario





* photos taken on Aug 3 2010 @ Univ of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario





* photo taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* 1800s archive photo

* photo taken on June 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario
* photo taken on June 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on May 21 2014 @ Hampton Ntl Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on Aug 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken by E.S. Shipp @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* historical archive photos



* historic archive photo of 23 year orchard


* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Oct 21 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON



'Cannonball'
Largest nuts of any Walnut; up to 1 pound.

'Laciniata'
Deeply-lobed, finely-cut leaflets; otherwise similar to species.

* photos taken on Aug 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario







Juglans regia ( Persian Walnut )

Native to from southeastern Europe to the Himalayas and Chinas ( also naturalized from the British Isles to Germany & Hungary ). This is a fast growing, broadly-rounded, large tree with many twisted branches, reaching up to 80 feet or more. The largest ones on record reach a truly huge 150 feet in height; 70 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 10.5 feet. Some additional records include: 8 years - 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches; 60 years - trunk diameter of 3.3 feet. It is long-lived, up to 600 years.
The leaves, up to 16 inches long, are composed of up to 7 smooth-edged leaflets that can be as large as 8 x 5 inches. The aromatic foliage is bronze purple at first in spring later turning deep green which it remains late into the fall. Late spring frosts can be a problem in some areas as the tree leafs out earlier than other Walnuts and the foliage can be damaged at 27 F. The rounded fruits are up to 2.5 inches across. The Persian Walnut can bear nuts in as little as 8 years. A single tree is known to bear as much as 300 pounds of nuts.
The stout twigs have gray winter buds.
The silvery-gray bark has smooth interlacing ridges.
Hardiness varies depending on the seed source of clones. Some ( Carpathian ) clones are hardy as far north as zone 3 and can tolorate -40 F while others are only hardy to zone 7. It attention is given to which variety you choose then the Persian Walnut can be successfully grown throughout most of North America. All clones thrive as far south as zone 9. Persian Walnut requires yearly precip exceeding 30 inches unless irrigated.

* photos taken on Aug 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario



* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken on Aug 13 2017 @ Howard Comm. College, Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos


'Laciniata'
Has deeply cut leaves.

'Purpurea'
Dull red foliage.

Juglans sigillata ( Iron Walnut )
A large tree, reaching up to 82 feet, that is native to central China. Some records include: 10 years - 10 feet ( average ). It is a close relative of Juglans regia.
The pinnate leaves, up to 20 inches in length, are composed of 9 to 11 ( rarely 15 ) ovate or elliptical leaflets, up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The nuts, up to 2.3 x 2 inches in size, ripen during early autumn. It is cultivated in its native range for its edible nuts.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( estimate, may prove hardier with further testing ).

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