Sunday, April 25, 2010

Serviceberry

Amelanchier

A genus of deciduous shrub and trees that are distant relatives of the Rose.
The edible fruits are very high in Vitamin C. They can be used in muffins, pies and jellies. The fruits can be preserved by freezing or drying in the same way as raisins. The fruits can also be used in the making of wine and cider.
Serviceberries are self fertile, therefore not needing a pollinator to produce fruit.
The flowers themselves are very hardy, surviving temperatures well below freezing.
The wood is very hard, heavy and close grained and useful for use in making of tool handles,
Most Serviceberries prefer full sun to partial shade on sandy, acidic, well drained soil. Serviceberries love high potassium and phosphate levels and can be mulched with wood ash. They are drought tolerant and have few pests.
All can suffer damage from salt, pollution and soil compaction.
The best time to transplant is March.
Tree forms should be pruned to a single leader with side shoots shortened during mid winter when young. Pruning severely when planting will quicken establishment.
The use of Neem ( botanical extract ) sprayed starting 2 weeks after the flower petals fall will greatly reduce scab and leaf spot diseases.
Serviceberries come very true from seed ( stratify at 40 F for 33 months ). They are self pollinating. Open flowers are very frost tolerant. The cultivars can be propagated from softwood cuttings, latering and detached suckers.
The Serviceberries are very easy to transplant if done during the dormant season.

* photo taken on March 22 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on June 3 2013 in Columbia, MD


Amelanchier alnifolia ( Saskatoon Serviceberry )
A rapid growing, stoloniferous, large shrub to small tree that is native to a huge chunk western North America ( from Bettles, Alaska to Fort Yukon, Alaska to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to near Churchill MB to Sandy Lake, Ontario to Attawapiskat, Ontario; south in mountains to Oregon, central Nevada to n AZ, n NM to Nebraska to Iowa to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario ). It is also locally native in southern Ontario along the shores of Lake Huron from Tobermory south to Grand Bend. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 15 years - 15 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 45 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.2 feet.
The leaves, up to 2.5 x 2.3 inches are nearly rounded and also coarsely-toothed on the top half. The foliage is deep green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The abundant, fragrant flowers are borne in erect clusters during late spring after the foliage has emerged. Up to 15 flowers can appear on a raceme.
They are followed by edible, tasty, deep purple or blue berries up to 0.5 inches wide during autumn.
The fruit have 10 TIMES MORE VITAMIN C than Blueberries! and can be used the same way.
Plantings of some improved cultivars in western Canada have yielded up to 6 tons per acre. Mixing different cultivars together for cross pollination is usually required for good fruit set. Saskatoon Berries are a long term investment as they are productive for over 30 years. The fruits are eaten fresh or used in pies, jellies and can be frozen for later use. Plants may need to be needed to keep the birds from taking the harvest.
Hardy zone 1 to 5, tolerating as low as -75 F.
They prefer fertile, well drained soil with a PH from 5.5 to 6.5 but tolerating alkaline soil. Hates root competition from sod. Saskatoon Serviceberry is prone to leaf diseases in the humid east. Even though the Saskatoon Berry is typically multi-trunked, it is best to have it trained to no more than 7 trunks.
* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id135733/

* videos found on Youtube



* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photos

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* historic archive photo


'Moonlake'
Larger fruit, up to 0.7 inches across.

'Northline'
Shorter in stature, reaching an average of 10 feet in height.
It abundantly bears sweet tasting berries, up to 0.5 inches across.
Hardy north to zone 3.

'Regent'
Vigorous but dense and compact, reaching up to 6 x 8 feet in size.
High yields of good tasting deep blue fruit.
Hardy north to zone 3

'Smokey'
Shorter height ( 15 feet ) than the species, though still vigorous ( with growth rates as much as 4 feet ). It is self-pollinating unlike most cultivars, however even this one will produce better if planted with another clone of Saskatoon.

* photos taken on June 22 2014 in Howard Co., MD


Amelanchier arborea ( Downy Serviceberry )
A broadly-spreading, medium-size tree reaching around 35 feet that is native to forest understories in eastern North America ( from northwest Minnesota to the north shore of Lake Superior to Haileybury, Ontario to Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to eastern Oklahoma to Louisiana to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 18 feet; largest on record - 101 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.6 feet; largest in Ontario - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet near Alberton; longest lived - 165 years.
The finely toothed, short-pointed oval leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is downy, whitish-green at first ( Alleghany has reddish emerging foliage ), becoming smooth and deep green. In autumn the foliage turns to orange, red and purple with often all colors on the same tree.
The 5 narrow-petalled flowers, up to 0.6 inches across, are borne in racemes up to 3 inches in length during mid spring as the foliage emerges. The flowers appear a week earlier than Alleghany Serviceberry. In the southern part of its range, they may be pinkish.
They are followed by juicy but tasteless, bluish-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches across.
The bark is light gray, smooth on young trees and later developing striations.
Hardy zones 2 to 9

* photo taken on April 7 2012 in Luzerne Co., PA

* photo taken on June 16 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Amelanchier asiatica ( Chinese Serviceberry )
A graceful, broadly spreading, small tree reaching up to around 30 feet that is native to central China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: 20 years - 20 x 17 feet; largest on record - 50 x 30 feet.
The finely-toothed, pointed oval leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to smooth, deep green. The leaves turn to scarlet-red during autumn.
The fragrant, 5 narrow-petalled, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches across, are borne in racemes up to 2.5 inches in length during late spring after the foliage has emerged ( 3 weeks later than Amelanchier arborea ).
They are followed by juicy but tastless, blackish-purple fruits, up to 0.5 inches across.
The shallowly-fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 preferring light, acidic ( but tolerates alkaline ), well drained soil.

Amelanchier bartramiana ( Bartram's Serviceberry )
A very impressive spreading shrub native to swamps and mountain bogs in northern North America ( from Manitoba to Red Lake, Ontario to near Winisk, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Labrador; south to northeast Minnesota to central Michigan to Haliburton, Ontario to West Virginia in mtns to Maine ). It can form dense, suckering colonies with up to 50 stems. Some records include: largest on record - 10 ( averaging 6 ) feet. It is found on rocky or sandy lakeshores and stream banks, acidic conifer swamps and bogs.
The slightly downy leaves are up to 3 x 2 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to mid-green above, bright green beneath.
The white flowers are borne either single or in a very small group during early summer.
They are followed by purplish-black berries up to 0.6 inches across, during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are purplish.
Hardy zone 2 to 6 in full sun on acidic, sandy or gravelly, well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Amelanchier canadensis ( Shadblow Serviceberry )
A moderate growing, suckering large shrub or small tree to 25 x 20 feet that is native to swampy woods within 200 miles of the Atlantic Coast from Newfoundland south to Mississippi ( the western extent of its range is central Tennessee to western PA, the Niagara region on New York to northern Vermont and far northern Maine ). In the Windsor/Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred at Detroit during that time.
The finely toothed, pointed, oval leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are very woolly at first, turning smooth. The foliage turns intense orange and red during autumn.
The white flowers are borne in sprays, up to 3 inches long, in spring. The flower and fruit clusters are erect unlike that of Amelanchier arborea & A. laevis.
They are followed by berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, that are juicy, tasty and blue-black.
The smooth, silvery bark is an added ornamental feature.
Hardy zone 3 to 7. Tolerant of wet soil and road salt. Transplants easily.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on May 21 2011 in Howard County, MD

* photos taken on Mar 26 2012 in Columbia, MD








* photos taken on June 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historical archive photos

* photos taken on Apr 8 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 10 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


'Pyramidalis'
Glaucous green foliage that persists late into autumn.

'Rainbow Pillar'
Also called 'Glenform'. Narrow, dense, upright growing, reaching up to 10 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually reaching up to 20 x 10 feet. Excellent for use as tall hedging.
The mildew resistant foliage is bright green in summer, turning to red in autumn.
The abundant flowers are white.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Tolerant of salt and high PH. Resistant to rust and mildew.
Excellent for commercial plantings.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Tradition'
Upright and oval in habit with a strong central leader, reaching up to 30 x 20 feet.
The foliage turns intense orange and red during autumn.
The fruits are bluish-black.

Amelanchier x grandiflora ( Apple Serviceberry )
A vigorous hybrid between Amelanchier arborea & A. laevis, the 2 largest Serviceberries.
Typically a medium-size tree up to 40 x 40 feet. They generally begin to produce fruit in about 5 years. Some records include: largest on record - 82 x 75 feet.
The finely-toothed, elliptical leaves, up to 3 inches long, are purplish-green at first, turning to mid-green. The foliage on most cultivars turn intense orange and red during autumn.
The large, white flowers are borne on large racemes during mid spring. The flowers are larger and borne in longer hanging racemes than the parents.
Hardy zone 4 to 9. Resistant to insects and lead disease including fireblight.

'Autumn Brilliance'
A rapid growing ( up to 8 feet in just 3 years ), good form, strong branching tree.
The foliage is medium green turning to scarlet-red in autumn. The foliage is leaf spot resistant and also very heat tolerant.
Tolerates as low as -35 F.

* photos taken on Apr 12 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Apr 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 10 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Ballerina'
A vigorous, spreading, small tree. Some records include: largest on record - 40 feet.
The foliage is bronze at first.
The masses of large, white flowers ( up to 1.2 inches wide ) are borne on clusters up to 6 inches in length.
They are followed by tasty fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, that ripen to red then finally purplish-black.
Resistant to fire blight.

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


'Coles Select'
Upright and spreading in habit. The thicker healthier foliage gives a healthier appearance in summer, turning to intense orange-red during autumn.
The very abundant spring flowers are white.

'Cumulus'
Vigorous, columnar and taller than most cultivars. Very disease resistant. It may actually just be a cultivar of A. laevis. The foliage turns to intense scarlet-red during autumn.

* photos taken on March 22 2012 in Columbia, MD









'Princess Diana'
A fast growing, vase shaped spreading tree, reaching up to 20 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually more.
The leathery, disease resistant foliage is deep green in summer, turning to intense orange-red during late autumn.
The abundant, large, white flowers in early spring are later followed by a profusion of tasty fruits that are red, later turning blue to purplish-black.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

'Robin Hill'
Typically reaching up to 40 x 40 feet, with a compact, broad-upright habit.
Foliage is purplish at first, turning to green in summer then to yellow and red during autumn.
The flowers are pale pink.
Very high yields of fruits, up to 4 gallons per year.
Hardy to -35 F. Pest and disease resistant.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 in Gatineau, Quebec


Amelanchier interior ( Inland Serviceberry )
A large shrub or small tree native to dry sandy woods and rocky slopes in northeastern North America ( from southeast Manitoba to Newfoundland; south to eastern South Dakota to Iowa to far northern Illinois to far northern Ohio to northeast New York to Maine ). Some records include: largest on record is 35 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 3 x 2 inches in size, are deep reddish-brown at first, turning to dull deep green.
The white flowers are borne on racemes, up to 3 inches long, during late spring.
They are followed by edible, sweet-tasting, red to purple berries.
The smooth bark is deep gray.
Hardy zones 2 to 5 in full sun to partial shade on sandy or gravelly, well drained soil.

Amelanchier laevis ( Alleghany Serviceberry )
A graceful, broadly-spreading, medium-size tree native to eastern North America ( from Minaki, Ontario to Lansdowne House, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Iowa to Tennessee to northern Georgia ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 5 years - 18 feet; 20 years - 50 x 33 feet; largest on record - 105 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.8 feet.
The finely-toothed, pointed oval leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches. The foliage is bronze-red and somewhat downy at first, becoming smooth and deep green. In autumn the foliage turns to red.
The 5 narrow-petalled flowers, up to 0.6 inches across, are borne in drooping racemes up to 3 inches in length during mid spring as the foliage emerges.
They are followed by juicy but tastless, bluish-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches across. The Alleghany Serviceberry may bear fruit at as young as 4 years of age.
The slender twigs have long pointed buds.
The gray-brown bark is smooth.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 tolerating as low as -35 F. Not prone to leaf spot.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum



* photo taken on July 1995 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on June 27 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 8 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photo


'Majestic'
Twice the average growth rate of typical Amelanchier laevis. The foliage is deep green and leaf spot resistant.
Very heat and humidity tolerant.

'Snow Cloud'
Strong growing and upright in form.

Amelanchier lamarckii ( Lamarck Serviceberry )
A small spreading tree originally native to eastern Canada and naturalized in northwest Europe. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 ( rarely over 35 x 40 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches.
The finely-toothed, pointed, oval leaves are up to 3.3 x 2 inches.
The foliage is bronze-red and silky at first, turning to deep green.
In autumn the foliage turns brilliant scarlet-red.
The masses of 5 petalled white flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne in loose sprays, up to 5 inches in length during spring with the unfolding foliage.
They are followed by juicy, purple-black fruits up to 0.5 inches across.
The gray bark is smooth at first, later developing narrow, vertical cracks.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 tolerating as low as -40 F. Prone to leaf rust and mildew.

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id135745/

'ECOS'
Very fast growing

Amelanchier obovalis ( Coastal Serviceberry )
A rhizomatous, upright, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 4 feet, that is native to sandy pine flatlands in the eastern U.S. ( from northeast Alabama and northern Georgia; northeastward mostly on the coastal plain to Cape Cod, Massachusetts ). It is endangered in Pennsylvania and Maryland. It is extinct in the wild in Delaware.
The finely-toothed, oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are mid-green.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne during mid-spring.
They are followed by red berries during early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil.

Amelanchier ovalis ( Snowy Serviceberry )
A spreading large shrub to small tree that is a widespread native from the mountains of central and eastern Europe, east to Turkey and the Caucasus. Some records include: 15 years - 13 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 20 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches.
The sharply-toothed, oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are deep green. The foliage is woolly beneath at first in spring.
The white flowers, up to 1.5 inches in width, are borne in compact clusters in mid spring after the foliage has emerged. The flowers are the largest of any species of Amelanchier.
The very small fruits are deep blue to blackish.
Hardy zone 4 to 8, it thrives at least as far north as Ottawa in Ontario, Canada.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39578/

Amelanchier sanguinea ( Huron Serviceberry )
Also called Roundleaf Serviceberry. A large stoloniferous shrub or rarely small tree up to 25 feet that is native to lake shores, edges of wetlands and rocky slopes in North America ( from south-central Saskatchewan to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Ogoki, Ontario to Matagami, Quebec to Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec & New Brunswick; south to eastern Montana, far western Nebraska to central Kansas to southwest Missouri to northern Indiana to the Smokey Mountains in Tennessee to Maryland ). It is endangered in Kansas, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Ontario and Quebec. In Ontario, it is most common on the Bruce Peninsula and in Haliburton County. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, rounded leaves are up to 4 x 2.2 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in size. The foliage is often bronzed at first, turning to blue-green. The leaves finally turn to bright yellow during autumn.
The white flowers appear in drooping clusters during late spring, about 2 weeks later than Amelanchier arborea.
They are followed by sweet tasting berries up to 0.2 inches wide.
Hardy zone 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on well drained, sandy or gravelly soil. It is drought tolerant.


* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on July 13 2016 in Tobermory, Ontario

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id157506/?taxonid=135751

Amelanchier spicata ( Running Serviceberry )
Native to eastern North America ( from northwest Minnesota to International Falls to Wawa Ontario to Cochrane, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to northeast Iowa to southern Michigan to Virginia ), this is typically a moderate growing, suckering spreading shrub though on occasion can be a small tree reaching up to 27 x 10 feet with trunk diameters up to 8 inches. Running Serviceberry is usually found in dry open pine woods, oak savanna, sand dunes, rocky lakeshores and riverbanks in the wild. It is considered by some to be a hybrid between Amelanchier canadensis & A. stolonifera. It has naturalized in parts of northern Europe; especially Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Germany & northern France where it is used as a landscape plant. It is valuable as a windbreak, hedgerow and for attracting wildlife. A single plant can spread out to form a dense, rhizomatous colony of up to 100 stems. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant on open sandy ground at Point Pelee during the 1800s.
The finely-toothed, ovate leaves are up to 2.3 x 2 inches in length. The foliage is very downy at first, later turning to blue-green above, often but not always white beneath.
The white ( sometimes pinkish tinged ) flowers appear on dense, upright racemes, up to 2 inches long, during late spring.
They are followed by sweet, juicy, purplish-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, ripening during mid to late summer.
The bark is brown.
Hardy zone 2 to 7 ( tolerating as low as - 55 F ) in full sun to partial shade on acidic,sandy or gravelly, well drained soil.

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source


Amelanchier stolonifera ( Running Serviceberry )
A suckering, spreading shrub native to northeastern North America from Newfoundland to Virginia, only reaching up to 6.6 x 6.6 feet in 10 years. It often forms thickets in the wild.
The leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are mid-green, turning to brilliant orange-red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne on short erect racemes, up to 1.5 inches in length.
The sweet tasting, bluish-black berries are up to 0.4 inches across.
This tough adaptable shrub is hardy zones 1 to 7 on moist, acidic, well drained soil. Shade and drought tolerant.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Amelanchier utahensis ( Utah Serviceberry )
A rapid growing, shrub to small tree up to 25 feet that is native to the western U.S. from central Washington State to the Montana-North Dakota border; south to southern California to New Mexico & near El Paso TX at elevations up to 10 000 feet. In the northern portion of its range it is often found on rocky slopes. In the southern parts of its range, it is usually found in open coniferous forest at high elevations. Some records include: 3 years - 2.2 feet; largest on record - 27 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 inches, though I suspect extremely old trees growing in ideal conditions may reach as large as 40 x 50 feet. The root systems are deep and spreading. Utah Serviceberry is adapted to fire and often resprouts from the root crown after unless high amounts of wood litter fuel lead to exceptionally severe burns.
The round leaves, up to 2.5 x 2.2 inches in size, are sharply toothed on the upper half. The foliage appears early during spring and is gray-green.
The white flowers are borne during mid-spring.
They are followed by purplish-black fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide, that persist until eaten by birds or mammals.
The stout grayish twigs have broad, downy gray buds.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 thriving in climates with 15 to 36 inches of precip per year. Drought tolerant and very heat tolerant; preferring well drained soil with a PH from 5 to 8.5.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

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