Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Enkianthus

A genus of 10 species of trees and shrubs native to Asia that are part of the larger Ericaceae family. Most are deciduous and have attractively layered branching.
They prefer full sun to partial shade on acidic to neutral, fertile, humus-rich, cool, moist, well drained soil. All species generally enjoy woodland conditions and do not like root disturbance including transplanting. Use a wood or bark mulch to keep the soil cool and consistantly moist. Enkianthus are shallow rooted, they are easy to transplant while small but later do not like root disturbance including hand weed pulling or digging. The Enkianthus's are practically immune to pests and disease, other than very rare occurences of spider mites. They are considered to be unattractive to browsing by White Tail Deer in the U.S..
Propagation is from seed sown in early spring ( easily germinated ) or by half hardened cuttings taken in early summer ( sharp sand peat mix with no lime ). Layering in fall is also works.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Enkianthus campanulatus ( Redvein Enkianthus )
A moderate growing, erect, bushy, spreading, large shrub to small tree with whorled branches, that is native to woodlands in the mountains of Hokkaido and Honshu islands of Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4.5 feet; 10 years - 8 x 4 feet; 25 years - 15 x 10 feet; 50 years - 20 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches; largest on record - 33 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 + inches; largest in North America - 31 x 40 feet ( 1963 to 2010 ) @ Polly Hill Arboretum in Massachusetts. It grows very vigorously in the British Isles but also the hotter more humid summers of eastern North America. It is common in cultivation in Europe, surprisingly rare in North America and endangered in the wild in Japan.
The toothed edged, sharp tipped, elliptic leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.5 inches in size. The leaves are clustered at the ends of the stems. The dull green foliage, turns to intense orange-red to scarlet during autumn.
The creamy ( with red veining ), small bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne on drooping racemes in late spring.
The bark is typically smooth and light reddish.
Hardy zone 4 to 8, more testing should be done to develop particularly cold hardy clones as healthy well established plants exist at Orono, Maine and a historic garden called The Fells in central New Hampshire. It has also thrived on protected sites in Ottawa, Canada.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 9 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 27 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 8 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Albiflorus'
Pure white flowers contrasts with deep green foliage.

'Donardensis'
Flowers are larger and red

'Hollandia Red'
Similar to species, except with larger, red flowers and exceptional red fall color.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Miyamabeni'
Faster growing, hardy to -30 F

'Palibinii'
Deep red flowers

'Red Bells'
Reaches up to 10 feet. The autumn foliage is intense red.
The red flowers are borne in drooping clusters.

* photos taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Ruby Glow'
Pure deep pinkish-red flowers.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )

* photos taken on Apr 27 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Showy Lanterns'
Similar with very abundant, large, deep pink flowers.
It is dense in habit and the foliage is deep green, turning scarlet-red during autumn.

'Sikokianus'
Vigorous in habit, with reddish new growth turns to deep green in summer then to scarlet-red in autumn.
The deep red flowers are borne in distinctive long pendulous racemes.

'Summer Hill'
Vigorous and upright in habit, with larger leaves.
The flowers are white with a rosy-red band on the top third of the corolla.
The stems are red when young.

Enkianthus cernuus
A medium size deciduous shrub native to the island of Honshu in Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 9 inches; 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 17 x 13 feet.
The tooth-margined, pointed, elliptic leaves are up to 2 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green above, downy brown-veined beneath; turning to red-purple in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in drooping clusters in late spring.
Hardy zone 5 to 9, tolerating as low as -20 F.
Overgrown plants can be cut back hard in spring before foliage growth begins.

'Rubens'
Deep red flowers. The foliage, densely clustered at the ends of the stems are deep green turning to deep red-purple in autumn.

Enkianthus chinensis
A medium size deciduous shrub to small tree native to central & southern China and northern Burma. Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 7 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches.
The tooth-edged, ( unlike E. campanulatus ) oval leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.3 inches.
The foliage is medium green with a hairy midrib above; turning golden yellow to scarlet-red in autumn. Forms with red flowers tend more towards red foliage color in autumn.
The creamy-yellow flowers with rosey lobes and pink veins are borne in racemes up to 5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 officially, seed originating from high elevations in western China may be hardy to zone 4. It prefers full sun with cool, consistantly moist but well drained roots.
Propagation from seed sown in March is quick and easy and so are cuttings taken late spring to early summer.

Enkianthus deflexus
A vigorous erect, deciduous small tree native from the Himalayas to western China
Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 10 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 3 x 1.7 inches in size.
The thinly papery foliage is downy and medium green; turning scarlet-red in autumn.
The bell shaped flowers are white with pink veining, borne in umbels of up to 20 in late spring.
The young shoots are red.
Hardy zone 5 to 9.

Enkianthus nudipes
A small shrub, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 feet, that is native to alpine meadows in the mountains of central Honshu and Shikoku Islands in Japan.
The leaves are up to 1 x 0.6 inches.
The flowers are borne during late spring.

Enkianthus perulatus ( White Enkianthus )
A slow growing, dense, compact, wide dome shaped, deciduous, medium size tree shrub to mountain woodlands in central and southern Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 6 x 15 feet; largest on record - 13 x 20 feet; longest lived - 200 years. One of the largest in the U.S. grows at the Morris Arboretum in Philadelphia, PA.
The toothed, oval to obovate leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. The medium to deep green foliage turns intense glowing scarlet-red during autumn. The autumn color is equal to that of the Burningbush.
The urn-shaped pure white flowers, up to 0.3 inches are borne in umbels in mid spring before or with the emerging foliage. It is distinguishable from other species by its earlier bloom time
The young stems are reddish.
Hardy zone 5 to 7, likes a very cool sheltered site.

‘J.L. Pennock’
The fall color which is even more intense scarlet-red than the species, also begins 2 weeks earlier.
It is otherwise identical to the species.

Enkianthus quinquefolius ( Chinese New Year Flower )
A very rare, medium size, semi-evergreen shrub to 10 x 6 feet ( rarely a small tree to 33 feet ) native to southeast China.
The leathery, lance-shape to elliptic leaves with a pointed apex, are up to 6 x 2 inches.
The pink, bell-shape flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in terminal clusters of up to 5 during spring.
The young shoots are coppery.
Hardy zone 8 to 10.

Enkiasthus serrulatus
A large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 20 feet, that is native to mountain forests of southeast and central China.
The oblong to elliptic leaves are up to 4 x 1.2 inches in size. The attractive foliage colors very nicely in fall.
The flowers borne during mid spring, are white. They are similar to that of Enkianthus perulatus but are larger.
Hardy zones 6 to 7 in partial shade, it thrives in the Mid Atlantic and the Piedmont regions of the southeastern U.S.

RELATED PLANTS

Menziesia ciliicalyx ( Mock Azalea Menziesia )
A tiered, small, deciduous shrub that is native to northern and central Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 3.3 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 6.5 x 6.5 feet.
The oval or obovate leaves, up to 3.2 x 1 inches in size, are bright green. The leaves are usually clustered at the stem tips.
The nodding, waxy yellow-green ( with purplish shading ), bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne 6 to 10 in clusters during late spring.
The bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic ( PH 5 to 6.2 ), well drained soil. They prefer a site protected from late spring frosts. Pruning is rarely needed. Propagation is from seed or cuttings taken during late spring.

Menziesia ferruginea ( Rusty Menziesia )
A medium-sized to large, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 15 x 6 ( typically 6 ) feet, that is native to western North America ( from King Salmon, Alaska to Talkeetna, Alaska to Atlin, British Columbia to Grande Cache, Alberta to western Montana; south to northern California to central Wyoming ). This spreading shrub can form suckering colonies. It is usually found in the understory of cool, moist, mountain conifer forests in the wild. Rusty Menziesia is similar to Enkianthus in appearance.
The alternately-arranged, toothed, oval or elliptical leaves are crowded at the stem tips. The leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches in size, are bright green with a rusty coating on top. The foliage turns intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The small, pale pinkish-orange, bell-shaped flowers are borne on drooping clusters during late spring.
They are followed by small seed capsules.
The stems are downy when young.
This plant attracts livestock yet can be poisonous if eaten.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( 3 for Alberta seed source ) in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic ( PH 5 to 6.2 ), well drained soil. They prefer a site protected from late spring frosts. Pruning is rarely needed. Propagation is from seed or cuttings taken during late spring.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Menziesia pilosa
A slow growing, erect small,deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 4 feet, that is native to moist woodlands from Pennsylvania to Georgia.
The elliptical to obovate leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches, are downy at first, turning to smooth and bright green.
The small, creamy-white ( with red flushing ), bell-shaped flowers are borne on drooping clusters during late spring. They are followed by small seed capsules.
The young shoots are downy. The bark on older trunks is shredded.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in partial shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic, well drained soil.
They prefer a site protected from late spring frosts.
Pruning is rarely needed. Propagation is from seed or cuttings taken during late spring.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Menziesia purpurea
Also called Menziesia cilicalyx var. purpurea. A tiered, bushy, spreading, medium-sized, deciduous shrub that is native to Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 3.3 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 8 x 6.5 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 1 inches in size, are bright green.
The nodding, small, purplish-pink or red, urn-shaped flowers are borne on racemes during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, peaty or humus-rich, acidic ( PH 5 to 6.2 ), well drained soil. They prefer a site protected from winter winds or late spring frosts. Pruning is rarely needed. Propagation is from seed sown during autumn or cuttings taken during early summer.

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