Saturday, April 24, 2010

Spicebushes - The Lindera's

A large family of easy to grow pest and disease free deciduous and evergreen shrubs and small trees native to Asia and North America. The Linderas prefer partial shade to shade when young however are easy to transplant and grow in any somewhat acidic, well drained and moist soil. Many species are somewhat drought tolerant once established and can also tolerate full sun though shrubbier in habit. Generally of attractive natural habit, little pruning is needed. Some may be trained as small trees and limbed up if desired. Adaptable forest plants; the Linderas grow very well in both the Pacific Northwest as well as humid summer regions of the East though berry crops are far better in areas of hot humid summers.
Very attractive and ornamental plants; some of the showier blooming Linderas can be used to the same effect as Cornus mas - Cornelian Cherry.
The seeds must not be allowed to dry out and are preferrably sown fresh. Seed should be soaked for 12 hours before sowing. They can either be sown in the ground during autumn or stratified for 4 months at 40 F. Propagation can also be from layering and easily from cuttings taken in summer. Fruits are only borne on female plants that are pollinated from male plants nearby.


* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Lindera aggregata ( Aggregate Spicebush )
A pyramidal, evergreen shrub or small tree to 13 feet in 15 years, eventually to 20 feet. It is native from southeastern China to central Japan; south to Vietnam to Taiwan to the Phillipines. An excellent landscape shrub for the Mid Atlantic.
The ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above; whitish beneath.
The pale yellow flowers appear during early to mid spring.
They are followed by rounded, black fruits, up to 0.5 inches across, from October to November.
Hardy zone 7 to 9.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Lindera angustifolia ( Oriental Spicebush )
A moderate growing, semi-evergreen large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 21 ( rarely over 13 x 17 ) feet, that is a widespread native to eastern China and Korea. Some records include: 15 years - 13 feet ( average ). It makes an excellent landscape plant for Ontario, Canada and the eastern U.S.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 5.5 x 1.5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy green above and silvery below; turning to scarlet-red late in autumn and often persisting until April the following year.
The yellow flowers appear during early to mid spring.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Lindera benzoin ( Spicebush )
A moderate growing, upright, rounded, deciduous, large shrub ( rarely small tree ) that is native to moist woods, floodplains and sand dunes in eastern North America ( from eastern Kansas to far southeast Iowa to central Michigan to Wiarton, Ontario to Kingston, Ontario to southern Maine, south to eastern Texas to Tennessee & the Carolinas ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore ( very abundant ) during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit during that time. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 12 x 12 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 33 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The oval leaves are up to 7 x 3.5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size. The aromatic foliage is mid-green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The tiny, yellow, star-shaped flowers appear in small clusters during early spring.
They are followed by showy bright red berries, up to 0.5 inches long, that ripen during autumn and sometimes persist as late as February.
The smooth bark is grayish-brown. The twigs are slender.
The Spicebush is a staple food for the Spicebush Swallowtail butterfly.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Grows in sun or shade though most vigorous on light, very fertile, acidic soil. Tolerant of flooding and dense shade, it is also somewhat drought tolerant if in the shade. The roots can be coarse making transplanting difficult.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC





* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on June 24 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on April 11 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Apr 1 2016 in Catonsville, MD


'Xanthocarpa'
similar with yellow fruits

Lindera cercidifolia
A tree up to 80 feet with a trunk diameter up to 4 feet.
The leaves are up to 5 x 4 inches in size.

Lindera chienii ( Chiensi Spicebush )
A deciduous large shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 15 feet, that is native to Anhui, Henan, Jiangsu & Zhejiang Provinces in China. Some records include: 5 years - 7.5 feet; 15 years - 11.5 feet ( average ).
The elliptical to obovate leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, lighter green below; turning to yellow during autumn.
The yellow flowers are borne during late winter.
They are followed by red berries.
The bark is gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 8

Lindera erythrocarpa ( Red-berry Spicebush )

A vigorous, dense, tier-branched tree, reaching up to 33 x 20 feet, that is native to eastern China and Korea. Some records include: growth rate - 2 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 50 x 36 feet.
The Willow-like, oblong leaves are up to 9 x 3 ( rarely over 6 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bluish-white below; turning stunning yellow to orange during autumn.
The very showy, bright yellow flowers appear during early spring.
The fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, are yellow transitioning to red then purple then black.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is drought tolerant. Grows very well in the Mid Atlantic U.S.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Lindera floribunda
A very rare, attractive, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 33 feet; that is native to southeastern China.
The elliptical to obovate leaves, up to 4.3 x 3 inches, are dull mid-green above, grayish-blue beneath.
The flowers appear during early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 on well drained soil..

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Lindera glauca ( Grayblue Spicebush )

A moderate growing, large shrub or small tree, reaching up to 33 x 15 feet ( usually much less ), that is native to central and southeastern China, Korea, Japan and northern Burma. Some records include: 15 years - 17 feet.
The narrow willow-like leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy very deep green above and white below, turning to intense scarlet-red color during autumn.
The yellow flowers appear during early spring.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.6 inches long, during mid to late autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic region of the U.S.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA



* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on July 11 2014

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Lindera megaphylla ( Bigleaf Spicebush )
A very impressive, evergreen tree native to much of southern China reaching up to 82 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter up to 3 feet. One tree in England has already reached 52 feet. Also long lived to over 100 years.
The oblanceolate to oblong leaves are up to 9 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, greenish-white beneath.
The greenish-yellow flowers appear during early to mid spring.
They are followed by purplish-black fruits, up to 0.7 x 0.6 inches in size, that ripen during early autumn, persisting into late autumn.
The bark is grayish-black.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating as low as -4 F ).

Lindera melissifolia ( Pondberry )
A low growing shrub, that is native to floodplains and cypress swamps in southern Missouri, Arkansas, and from Mississippi to North Carolina. Some records include: largest on record - 10 feet. It has been extinct in Alabama, Florida and Louisiana since around 1900, the Pondberry is endangered in the remainder of its range and continues to decline from habitat loss.
The ovate leaves are up to 6.5 x 2.5 inches in size. The aromatic, drooping foliage is mid-green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade. Despite its rarity, it is easy to propagate and grow on suitable sites however both male and female plants are needed to produce viable seeds. Many populations in the wild are clonal and of one sex with no remaining populations nearby to pollinate with. Plants such as these which need plants of opposite sex to pollinate and produce seed are particularly prone to fragmentation of natural habitat, often no longer reproducing in the wild.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Lindera neesiana
A fast growing, deciduous large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 17 x 11 feet or more, that is native to the Himalayas ( from India to western China; south to Nepal and northern Burma ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 40 feet. It is native from Nepal to China; south to India to northern Burma.
The papery, broadly-ovate leaves, up to 5.5 x 3.2 inches, are deep green above, pale green beneath.
The yellow flowers appear during mid-spring.
They are followed by rounded berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during autumn.
The bark is blackish.
Hsrdy zones 7 to 9.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Lindera obtusiloba ( Japanese Spicebush )
A spreading, deciduous small tree, reaching up to 25 feet, that is native to eastern Asia ( from India to eastern China, Korea & Japan ). Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest recorded - 50 x 20 feet.
The smooth-edged foliage is somewhat like that of the Sassafras and can be either wide ovate and entire or 3 lobed. The leaves are up to 8.5 x 7 inches in size. The aromatic foliage is glossy deep green above, whitish beneath. The brilliant fall color is long lasting and golden-yellow to orange. The fall color is stunning even in mild climates.
The tiny, yellow-green, star-shaped flowers are borne in crowded umbels on previous years growth. They appear during early spring before the foliage.
The fruits, up to 0.25 inches, are glossy, ripening to dark red then finally black. They ripen during late summer.
The smooth bark is grayish-yellow and sometimes flushed with purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( 5 on protected sites...seed source from Liaoning Province may be fully hardy in zone 5 ).

* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* historic archive photo


Lindera praecox
A very attractive, large shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 20 feet that is native to Japan as well as Anhui, Hubei & Zhejiang Provinces in China. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 7 feet ( average ).
The elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The bright green foliage turns to rich yellow during autumn.
The yellow flowers are borne during early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are followed by large, red fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, during early autumn.
The bark is blackish-gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. It prefers hot humid summers and grows poorly in the cooler summers found on the British Isles. It is considered to be deer resistant.

Lindera pulcherrima

An evergreen tree reaching up to 50 feet with the largest on record being 80 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is native from the Himalayas in India to southwestern China; south to northern Burma.
The elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, bluish-gray beneath.
The creamy-yellow flowers are borne on axilliary panicles up to 6 inches in length.
They are followed by black fruits, up to 0.3 inches in length.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in partial shade on acidic, well drained soil.

Lindera reflexa ( Mountain Spicebush )
Similar to L. benzoin and reaching up to 23 feet in height, it is a widespread native to southern China. Moderate growing reaching up to 4 feet in 2 years; 10 x 10 feet in 10 years ( average ).
The broad, oval to elliptical leaves, up to 6.5 x 5 inches, are papery. The handsome foliage is blue-green above, whitish beneath during summer; turning intense golden-yellow or orange during autumn. The yellow flowers appear during mid-spring. They are followed by red fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, ripening during late summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, humus-rich, well drained soils. It thrives in regions with hot humid summers.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Lindera salicifolia ( Willowleaf Spicebush )
Also called Lindera glauca var salicifolia.
It is a large shrub, reaching a maximum size of 17 x 19 ( rarely over 12 ) feet. Some records include: 5 years - 11 feet; 18 years - 17 feet.
The narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 5 inches in length. The handsome mid-green foliage; turns to orange, red and purple during autumn then to beige and persisting through the winter until the emerging spring foliage pushes them off.
Hardy zones 6 to 8

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Lindera strychnifolia ( Japanese Evergreen Spicebush )
An evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum height of 40 ( rarely over 30 ) feet, that is native to China. It is similar in appearance to Lindera aggregata.
The deeply-veined, ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is bright yellowish-green for a few months during spring, before turning to glossy deep green.
The greenish-yellow flowers are followed by black berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on acidic well drained soil, enjoying hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S. Hardiness is not fully known yet and some seed source may be winter hardy no further north than zone 8. It does however certainly thrive in the Deep South of the U.S. It may be grown from semi-ripe cuttings if seed is not available.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Lindera subcoriacea ( Bog Spicebush )
An endangered native of very acidic swamps from Mississippi to Virginia ( unconfirmed report of New Jersey ); south to northwestern Florida. It forms a medium-sized deciduous shrub reaching a maximum height of 13 feet with stem diameters up to 2 inches.
The foliage is leathery and small, reaching up to 3.2 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage resembles that of Lindera benzoin but is thick rather than papery and also has a rounder tip.
The flowers resemble that of Lindera benzoin.
They are followed by scarlet-red berries up to 0.4 inches in length.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on wet peaty soil. Despite being extremely rare, it may be easy to grow on wet sites in cultivation. Propagation may not be easily achieved since both male and female plants need to grow in near proximity to pollinate each other to produce seed.

Lindera umbellata
A deciduous large shrub or small tree; native to China, Korea & Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; 15 years - 17.5 x 23 feet; largest on record - 20 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter up to 1 foot.
The entire, oblong leaves, up to 6 inches long, are mid-green above, white beneath. The foliage turns to yellow to orange during autumn.
The yellow flowers are borne during mid-spring with the emerging foliage.
The fruits are black.
The bark is smooth and light brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 7 and grows very well in the Mid Atlantic U.S.

photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photos taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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