Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Bugbane

Cimifuga
A genus of perennial plants that are part of the larger Buttercup ( Ranunculacae ) family. The Bugbanes thrive in sun or shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich soil. Easy to grow, however may lack in vigor if competing with dense tree roots.
Insect pests and disease problems are rare.
Bugbanes can be propagated from seed or division ( division preferrable for cultivars ). Seed should be sown outdoors during autumn as they need a long period of cold before they will germinate. Bugbanes do not like root disturbance and should not be divided unless necessary for reproduction. Another method of propagation is from root cuttings...dig up pieces of the rhizome roots very carefully then replant at the same depth.
These sturdy plants rarely need to be staked. Bugbane is NOT eaten by deer.

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Cimifuga acerina
A sturdy perennial reaching up to 4 feet in height. It is similar to Cimifuga racemosa but more compact in habit.
The low basal leaves, up to 30 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 8 x 7 inches. The lacy foliage borne on wiry stems is luxuriant bright green.
The white flowers are borne atop leafless spikes, up to 4 feet in height, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Cimifuga americana ( Mountain Bugbane )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 3.3 ( rarely over 6.5 ) feet, that is native to eastern North America ( eastern Kentucky to central Pennsylvania; south to central Tennessee to far northern Georgia ).
The leaves are composed of often heart-shaped leaflets, up to 10 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green.
The fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne in loose inflorescences, up to 2 feet in length, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade. Heat tolerant.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Cimifuga arizonica ( Arizona Bugbane )
Also called Actaea arizonica. A perennial, reaching up to 6 x 2.5 feet, that is native to the mountains of northern Arizona.
The very attractive foliage is bright green, later turning to blue-green.
The white flowers are borne on erect spikes during early to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 preferring shade, however it is more sun and drought tolerant than most species.

Cimifuga dahurica ( Dahurian Bugbane )
A very large perennial, reaching up to 10 x 5 ( rarely over 7 x 3.3 ) feet and forming impressive colonies, that is native to northeast Asia ( Siberia, Kamchatka; south to eastern Mongolia to northeastern China ).
The much divided leaves are up to 3 x 1.8 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in size.
The creamy-white flowers are borne on showy, branched spikes up to 28 inches in length, mid to late summer, lasting up to 4 weeks.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( 3 on protected sites ) in partial to full shade.

Cimifuga elata ( Tall Bugbane )
A perennial reaching up to 6 feet in height, that is native to mature coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest ( from the Chilliwack River Valley in southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon ). It is critically endangered in Canada.
The leaves, up to 16 inches in length, are composed of up to 27 3-lobed leaflets, up to 7 x 9 inches in size.
Up to 900 small white flowers may be borne on an inflorescence during summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, tolerant of dry summers but will not grow in the hot humid summers of the southeast.

Cimifuga foetida ( Foetid Bugbane )
A large perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 4 ( rarely over 6 ) feet, that is native to woodlands in southeastern Siberia as well as Mongolia.
The divided leaves, up to 26 x 24 inches in size, are luxuriant mid-green. The greenish-yellow flowers are borne in arching spikes, up to 2 feet long, during mid to late summer, with a season lasting up to 4 weeks.
They are followed by attractive green seedpods.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial or full shade. This plant smells bad however it can be used in your landscape beds to scare bugs away.

Cimifuga heracleifolia
A stately perennial, reaching up to 8 feet, that is native to far eastern Russia, Manchuria and Korea.
The substantial leathery leaves are 3 X ternately compound. The leaflets are thick and broad.
The fragrant, white flowers are borne on panicles.
Hardy north to zone 3

Cimifuga japonica ( Japanese Bugbane )
Also called Actaea japonica. A moderate spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3.3 feet, that is native to mountain forests in central & eastern China, Korea and Japan. The roots are fibrous.
The leaves, up to 12 inches wide, are composed of lobed, prominently-veined, rounded leafets, up to 4 inches in length. The glossy green foliage forms a clump up to 15 inches high.
The white flowers are borne in long spikes during late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on moist, fertile soil. Easy to grow.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historical archive photo


Cimifuga laciniata
A very endangered perennial, reaching up to 6 feet, that is native to the base of Mount Hood in Oregon.
The leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 5 x 5 inches.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it thrives in very wet soil and is tolerant of standing water.

Cimifuga mairei
A bold stately perennial, reaching up to 8 feet, that is native to high mountains in southwest China.
The large bipinnate leaves are up to 3 feet in length.
The flowers are yellow to orange.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it is more sun and drought tolerant than most species.

Cimifuga purpurea
An extremely rare perennial from China.
Purple-black flowers.

Cimifuga racemosa ( Black Snakeroot )
Also called Actaea racemosa. A very large, long lived, vigorous perennial, reaching up to 10 x 5 ( rarely over 8 x 4 ) feet, that is native to moist deciduous forests in eastern North America ( from southwest Missouri to far eastern Iowa to northern Illinois to Goderich, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to northern New York State to Massachusetts; south to Missouri to Tennessee to Georgia ). It is endangered in the wild in Mississippi, Illinois, Massachusetts and Ontario where it has declined considerably. It is extinct in the wild in Iowa and also Michigan if indeed native there. It was considered to be common on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The bipinnate leaves, up to 2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet in length, are composed of many lobed, toothed, hearth-shaped leaflets, up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is fresh deep green.
The pure white flowers are borne in narrow, bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 4 feet in length, during mid to late summmer.
The white, "bottlebrush-like" flowers are borne mid to late summer.
They are followed by fruit capsules that remain attractive into early winter.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, acidic soil.
It can tolerate the occasional drought once established.
Propagation is from division which should be done during mid spring.

* photos taken on June 29 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 6 2015 @ Cypressmeade Park, Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photos


'Dissecta'
A now extinct variety with 4 x ternately compound leaves.

Cimifuga ramosa
A vigorous hybrid between Cimifuga americana & C. simplex, reaching up to 8 x 4 feet.
The white flowers are borne late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade.

'Brunette'
Reaches up to 7 x 5 feet, with rich, deep purple foliage contrasting with fragrant, creamy-white flowers from late summer to mid autumn.
Looks great planted with yellow Liriope or especially Sum & Substance Hosta.

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario


* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Hillside Black Beauty'
Reaches up to 7 x 5 feet with purplish-black foliage contrasting with fragrant, pinkish-white flowers.
The foliage even keeps its color in hot mid-Atlantic summers. Looks great with large golden foliaged Hosta such as Sum & Substance.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Cimifuga simplex ( Kamchatka Bugbane )
Also called Autumn Snakeroot. A vigorous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to mountain forests in northeast Asia ( from eastern Siberia to Kamchatka; south to Mongolia to central China to Manchuria to Korea and Japan ).
The bipinnate leaves, up to 22 inches long, are composed of toothed, ovate leaflets, up to 4 x 2.3 inches in size. The lacy foliage is bright green later turning to deep green.
The fragrant, white flowers are borne on arching, long, bottlebrush-like spikes, up to 12 inches in length, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile, acidic, humus-rich soil.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Black Negligee'
Reaching up to 5 x 3 feet, with deep purple foliage; it is otherwise identical to species.

* photo taken on Sep 23 in Burtonsville, MD


'Elstead Variety'
The flowers are deep pink in bud, opening to white.
The stems are purple.

'Prichard's Giant'
A massive imposing perennial, reaching up to 11 ( averaging closer to 7 ) feet with very fragrant, white flowers borne on very long bottlebrushes up to 32 inches in length.
The foliage is glossy mid-green.
Heat tolerant.

'White Pearl'
Reaches up to 6 x 3 feet. The showy white flower spikes are borne during early to mid autumn.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2012 in Clarksville, MD

Cimifuga yunnanensis ( Yunnan Bugbane )
Also called Actaea yunnanensis. A perennial, reaching up to 7 x 2.5 feet, that is native to Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in western China.
The pale yellow flowers are borne on tall spikes during late summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial shade.

RELATED PLANTS

Actaea

Actaea pachypoda ( White Baneberry )
Also called Actaea alba. A rhizomatous, long-lived perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet, that is native to moist woodland in eastern North America ( from southeast Nebraska to northeast Minnesota to Hearst, Ontario to the southern tip of James Bay to southern Quebec to Gaspe and Nova Scotia; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Georgia to central North Carolina ). In the Windspr/Essex County, Ontario region; it was noted as occurring abundantly on the Ohio shore though probably also locally elsewhere during the 1800s. It occurred sporadically at Detroit during presettlement era.
The leaves are composed of 5 deeply-toothed, ovate to elliptical leaflets.
The attractive, elegant foliage is luxuriant mid-green, turning to deep golden-yellow during autumn.
The small, white flowers are borne during late spring.
The flowers are followed by showy, persistent, white berries, up to 0.4 inches across, during late summer. The berries are borne on scarlet-red stems.
They are poisonous and should never be eaten.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in cool shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed or division.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


* photo taken by Jennifer Anderson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


'Misty Blue'
Intensely bluish foliage; otherwise identical to species.

Actaea rubra ( Red Baneberry )
A long-lived perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 ( averaging 2 ) feet, that is native to swamps and rich forest in northern North America ( from central Alaska to western Northwest Territories to far northeast Saskatchewan to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to southern California to central Idaho to southern New Mexico to Nebraska to New Jersey ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common at Cedar Point on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are composed of toothed, ovate to elliptical leaflets. The handsome foliage is rich green.
The white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by thick clusters of glossy scarlet-red berries, up to 0.4 inches across, borne during late summer.
They are poisonous and should never be eaten.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil. Pest and disease resistant.
Propagation is from seed or division.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Actaea spicata ( European Black Baneberry )
A long-lived perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet, that is native to northern Eurasia.
The leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are composed of toothed, elliptical leaflets, up to 2 inches in length. The handsome foliage is rich bright green.
The white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by thick clusters of glossy black berries, up to 0.4 inches across, borne during late summer.
They are poisonous and should never be eaten. It is even more poisonous than other species of Baneberry.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in shade on moist, fertile, humus-rich, well drained soil. Pest and disease resistant. Propagation is from seed or division.

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