Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Fleece Flower & Knotweed

Persicaria

A variable genus of landscape plants with many uses. Most are very easy to grow, thriving on any moist, fertile soil. Propagation is from seed or division.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Persicaria affinis ( Himalayan Knotweed )
A spreading, mat-forming, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 5 feet, that is native to high mountains in Nepal. Excellent for groundcover, large rock gardens and the front of a border.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in length, are deep green above ( pale blue-green beneath ), turning to red in autumn and winter.
The pink to deep red flowers are borne on erect dense spikes, up to 3 inches in length, all summer long and often into autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade. It prefers maritime climates or regions with cool summers.

'Border Jewel'
A groundcover perennial, reaching up to 1 x 5 feet. The leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are deep green, turning to red in autumn.
The reddish flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial to full shade.

'Darjeeling Red'
A vigorous, spreading groundcover perennial, reaching up to 20 inches x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are glossy deep green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The pinkish-red flowers are borne in spikes, up to 8 inches in length, during late summer through mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

* video found on youtube


'Dimity' ( Dwarf Fleeceflower )
A low carpet-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 5 feet.
The leathery green leaves turn to bronze during autumn.
The red ( fading to pink ) flowers are borne in short spikes.
More hardy than regular Persicaria affinis and more reliably perennial.
Very drought tolerant.

'Donald Lowndes'
Compact in habit, only reaching up to 10 inches in height.
The foliage is bright green and the flowers are reddish-pink to rose-red.

Persicaria amplexicaule ( Mountain Fleece )
An attractive, vigorous, upright, dense, bushy perennial reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet ( rarely over 5 feet ), forming large dense but non-invasive clumps, that is native to mountains in the Himalayas from Afghanistan to southwest China.
The pointed, oval leaves, up to 7 ( rarely 10 ) inches in length, are deep green above, downy beneath.
The white to deep red flowers are borne in spikes, up to 6 inches in length, are borne early summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Tolerant of flooding.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA


* video found on youtube


'Album'
Pure white flowers.

'Firetail'
Similar except with deep green foliage and scarlet red flowers borne in larger spikes.

* photos taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on Nov 25 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

'Golden Arrow'
Reaches up to 3 feet with golden-green foliage and deep red flower spikes.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Pendula'
Reaches up to 4 x 4 feet with hanging tassels of bright pink flowers.

'Speciosa'
Showy deep red flowers.

'Taurus'
Vigorous but compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 5 feet. The flowers are intense scarlet-red.

Persicaria bistorta ( Bistort )
A fast growing perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 2.5 feet, that is native from northern Europe into northern Asia.
The wavy-edged, oval, oblong to triangular leaves are up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is mid-green with a white midrib.
The white to rose-pink flowers are borne on dense, cylindrical spikes during summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. It thrives in harsh climates, including Alberta, Canada.
Plants may dieback during summer if soil becomes excessively dry. The plants often only become dormant, re-appearing the following spring.

* historical archive photo

* video found on youtube


'Superbum'
A fast growing to invasive, rhizome-spreading perennial, reaching up to 3.5 x 4 feet.
The large, oval, semi-evergreen leaves, up to 12 x 6 inches, are glossy deep green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The bright pink flowers are borne in large spikes, up to 6 inches in length, during early summer often repeating later in the season.
Stunning and great for borders or as a tall groundcover perennial.

Persicaria campanulata ( Bell-Flowered Knotweed )
A fast growing to invasive, rhizomatous, bushy, upright to spreading perennial, reaching up to 5 x 6 feet ( typically under 4 feet ), that is native to coniferous forests in the Himalayas. On moist sites, it typically spreads to form a large clump.
The pointed, ovate or elliptical leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are mid-green above, white beneath.
The pink, bell-shaped flowers are borne in fluffy panicles, up to 6 inches in length, from early summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soil.

Persicaria capitata ( Pink Head Knotweed )
A spreading, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching up to 6 inches x 3.3 + feet, that is native to the Himalayas. Can be invasive. Annual in cold climates.
Great for groundcover.
The oval or heart-shaped leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are silvery-green with deep red-purple bands.
The pink to red flowers are borne on dense heads from summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in partial to full shade. Drought tolerant.

'Magic Carpet'
A groundcover perennial, only reaching up to 6 inches in height, but spreading indefinately by rooting stems. The oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are bronze.
The reddish-pink flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in full sun to full shade.

Persicaria cuspidatum ( Japanese Knotweed )
Also called Fallopia japonica. A very fast growing to invasive, massive, rhizome spreading, clump forming perennial, reaching up to 13 x 50 feet. The roots can go as much as 60 feet deep and spread as much as 25 feet in all directions. The invasive roots can damage foundations, asphalt and landscape walls.
Japanese Knotweed is native to China, Korea and Japan.
The leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are green.
The white to creamy-white flowers are borne in showy erect racemes, up to 6 inches in length, from late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial to full shade in partial shade on moist soil. Propagation is from seed, root division and cuttings.
Due to invasive tendencies, I do not recommend Japanese Knotweed as a landscape plant. If it already exists, you can control its vigor by cutting young stems during early spring and eating them. They are edible and tasting mildly like Rhubard, are great for pies and muffins. The shoots can be eaten until they are a foot in height, or up to 3 feet if the outer skin is peeled off. They are rich in antioxidents and store well in the freezer. The young leaves can be used as a pot herb if cooked with one change of water.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA




* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* historical archive photo


'Compactum'
A lower, slightly less invasive form of Persicaria cuspidatum, forming a spreading, shrubby perennial forming clumps up to 4 x 5+ feet. Can be used as a tall groundcover, especially in industrial areas.
The rounded, leathery leaves, up to 6 inches in length, turn to red in autumn.
The abundant, tiny white ( fading to pink ) flowers are borne in racemes from mid summer through to mid autumn.
The flowers are followed by reddish seed heads.
The attractive stems are red.

* photos taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD


'Crimson Beauty'
Smaller growing, reaching a maximum height of 7 feet and is not invasive unlike the species.
The flowers are scarlet-red.

* photos taken on Oct 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 9 2013 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Sep 20 2014 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 7 2016 in Harford Co., MD

* photos taken on Oct 11 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source


'Variegata' ( Variegated Japanese Knotweed )
Also called 'Freckles'. Reaches up to 7 x 7 feet with stunning white splashed foliage. It is fast growing, however not invasive unlike regular Persicaria cuspidatum. The new growth is pinkish-red. The white flowers are borne during late summer.

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticultural Society garden tour, Howard Co.

* historical archive photo

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Persicaria macrophyllum
An erect perennial, reaching up to 2 feet x 20 inches, that is native to the Himalayas. The wavy, strap-like leaves, up to 9 inches in length, are green.
The pink flowers are borne in blunt spikes, up to 3.2 inches in length, are borne early summer through mid autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, requires consistantly moist soil.

Persicaria microcephalos
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. The colorful foliage of many of the cultivars may fade in full sun.

'Chocolate Dragon'
Similar to 'Red Dragon' but only reaches 3 x 5 feet and doesn't creep or fall open.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Red Dragon'
A stunning perennial, reaching up to 4.5 x 7 feet with deep red foliage that is marked with a silvery-gray chevron in the middle.
The tiny white flowers are borne in clusters during late summer into early autumn.
Looks stunning with variegated Acorus.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Silver Dragon'
Reaches up to 4 x 5 feet with silvery-gray leaves that are margined red.

Persicaria milettii
A fast growing, rhizomatous spreading perennial, reaching up to 32 x 32 inches, that is native to Nepal. The narrow leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches, are deep green.
The rich red flowers are borne in spikes, up to 3.2 inches in length, all summer long.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial to full shade.

Persicaria paniculatum
Also called Persicaria molle. A bushy, woody-based perennial, reaching up to 8 x 5 ( rarely over 5 x 4 ) foot, that is native to the Himalayas.
The narrow, elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 2.5 inches in size, are bright green above, lightly downy beneath.
The very small creamy-white flowers are borne in tall feathery sprays during late summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soil. Propagation is from division or seed.

Persicaria polymorpha ( White Fleeceflower )
A bold, upright, bushy clump-forming perennial, reaching up to 6 x 6.6 feet.
The very strong sturdy root system goes deep to over 3 feet in depth. Unlike some other species of Persicaria, this one is not invasive.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are deep green. The attractive foliage turns yellow and red during autumn. The stems also turn attractive pinkish-red during autumn.
The white flowers are borne in large, fluffy, Astilbe-like plumes from mid summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. Drought tolerant.
Very tolerant of hot humid summers.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Persicaria sachalinense ( Sakhalin Knotweed )
Also called Fallopia sachalinensis. A potentially extremely invasive perennial, forming clumps up to 13 x 10 feet, that is native to woodlands in far eastern Siberia, Sakhalin and northern Japan.
On ideal sites, the strong vigorous rhizomes form large colonies. The stems are up to 1.5 inches in diameter.
The very large, wavy-edged, nearly heart-shaped leaves, up to 16 x 11 inches, are luxuriant mid green. The young shoots are tender and edible. The Persicarias are actually distant relatives of the Rhubarb.
The white flowers are borne on panicles up to 6 inches in length.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it thrives even in cold maritime climates such as Juneau, Alaska and Newfoundland.

* photo of unknown internet source


Persicaria sphaerocephala
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 1 foot.
The narrow leaves are bright green.
The bright reddish-pink flowers are borne in spikes, up to 3.2 inches in length, early summer into autumn if deadheaded.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial to full shade.

Persicaria tenuicaulis
A long lived, low, rhizomatous, mat-forming, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 10 inches x 2 feet, that is a widespread native to Japan.
The broad leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
The foliage appears very early during spring and is deep green.
The profuse, pure white flowers are borne in spikes, up to 2 inches in length, from mid spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( mulch heavily in 4 & 5 ) in full sun. Pest and disease problems do not normally occur. Propagation is from dividing the rhizomatous root system during early spring.

Persicaria thunbergii 'Langthron's Variety'
A very attractive, fast growing but potentially invasive groundcover perennial, reaching up to 6 inches x 3 feet. The creeping deep red stems root as they touch the ground.
The pointed, heart-shaped leaves are mid green with bronze and silver V-shaped markings. The profuse but small pale pink flowers are borne mid summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Persicaria vaccinifolia
A dense, woody, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 6 feet, that is native to high mountains in the Himalayas from Pakistan to Bhutan.
The stems are woody and trailing.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 1 inch ( usually half that ) in length, are deep green, tinged with red during autumn and winter.
The deep pink flowers are borne in dense spikes, up to 4 inches in length, from mid summer into early autumn.
The stems are woody and red.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( protected sites north of 6b ) in full sun to partial shade on moist but well drained soil though it is somewhat drought tolerant. Prefers cool summers.
Propagation is from early summer softwood cuttings and separating natural layers from parent clump.

Persicaria virginianum ( Virginia Tovara )
A dense, mounding perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 ( rarely over 4 ) x 5 feet, that is native to rich woods in the central and eastern U.S. ( from eastern Nebraska to southeast Minnesota to central Michigan to southern Quebec & Vermont; south to central Oklahoma to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was considered locally common at Point Pelee as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Generally not invasive but may self sow.
The broad, pointed oval leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are luxuriant green.
The small white flowers are borne in spikes during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade ( tolerates sun or shade ) on moist soil. Tolerant of clay and dry shade.

* photo taken on July 13 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 30 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Brushstrokes'
Leaves are yellowish-green with a black chevron marking in the leaf center.
Flowers appear during autumn.

'Lance Corperal'
Reaches up to 3 x 5 feet, with attractive large leaves that are yellowish-green
with a deep red chevron marking in the leaf center.
The small red flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 9

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour


'Painter's Palette'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 4 x 6 feet. The very attractive large leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are deep green with a distinct reddish-brown V-shape chevron marking and pink and white marbling towards the tip and . The foliage is slow to emerge in spring. Attractive when used as a tall groundcover.
The flowers are red to pinkish-orange.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticultural Society garden tour, Howard Co.

* photo taken on Aug 4 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Variegata'
Nearly identical to 'Painters Palette' except without the reddish-brown chevron markings on the leaf.

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photo taken on Aug 4 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario


Persicaria wallichii ( Himalayan Knotweed )
A huge, dense, bushy, woody-based perennial, reaching up to 7 x 7 feet, that is native from the Himalayas to western China. It can spread aggressively however can be planted surrounded by turf grass where the mower will keep it in check. It has naturalized locally on the Pacific Coast to as far north as Juneau, Alaska.
The pointed, narrowly-ovate leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches, are mid-green with a red midrib. The attractive foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
The creamy-white to pink flowers are borne on flowerheads up to 12 inches in length, during early autumn.

Persicaria weyrichii ( Weyrich's Knotweed )
An attractive, bushy, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet, that is native to rocky talus in high mountains from Sakhalin to northern Japan.
The narrowly-ovate leaves, up to 12 x 3.5 inches in size, are mid-green above, hairy white beneath.
The greenish-white flowers are borne on upright heads, up to 16 inches long, during late summer. They later fade to pale pink.
They are followed by attractive, papery, reddish-brown seeds.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Propagation is from division or seed.

RELATED PLANTS

Fallopia aubertii ( Silver-Lace Vine )
An extremely fast growing, twining, deciduous woody vine, reaching a maximum height of 70 feet, that is native from Tibet into western China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 33 feet. It is a great choice for a fast covering of fences and stumps.
The oval leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are bright green. They often turn to red during autumn.
The tiny, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches, are borne on drooping clusters, up to 6 inches in length, from summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( often dies back to ground during winter in 4 & 5 ) in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, well drained soil. Drought tolerant, do not fertilize plants once they are well established since this will decrease blooming. Cut back hard during early spring. It blooms on current seasons growth so cutting it back while dormant will cause no loss in blooms. Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* video found on youtube


Fallopia baldschuanica ( Silver-Lace Vine )
An extremely fast growing, twining, deciduous woody vine, reaching a maximum height of 60 feet, that is native from Iran to Uzbekistan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 33 feet; first year - 20 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are mid-green.
The tiny, white to pinkish-white flowers are borne on drooping clusters from summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, well drained soil. Drought tolerant, do not fertilize plants once they are well established since this will decrease blooming.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* historical archive photo

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