Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Blueberries, Cranberries, Bilberries & Huckleberries

Vaccinium

A very variable genus of over 400 species of plants that is native and widespread in the Northern Hemisphere.
Though often highly ornamental plants, Blueberries are most commonly grown, often commmercially for their tasty fruit which is among the richest in anti-oxidents of all fruits.
Most species prefer cool, moist, well drained soil that is acidic and high in organic content. Some species tolerate wet boggy soil though the greater majority enjoy the same condition as Azaleas and Rhodos which are related. They prefer some shade to protect from hot summer sun.
Ultraviolet light kills roots - be careful when planting. Blueberries do not like root disturbance and may take some time to establish and grow with vigor. Small plants transplant much better than larger plants and should be planted into 1/2 soil & 1/2 peat moss in an area at least twice the width of existing root ball.
The Blueberrries enjoy deep mulch ( esp. shredded oak leaves, pine bark or pine needles ) to keep the soil cool. Keep the soil consistantly moist and fertilize occasionally with some extra nitrogen ( NEVER USE NITRATES..many Azalea formulas are ok ). Fertilize early in spring and you will be rewarded with vigorous growth.
Netting may be required during the fruiting season to protect your crop from birds and animals.
Most species can be cut back hard to renovate if they grow to large. Otherwise little pruning is needed and can be done in late summer or just after bloom if fruit is not desired.
Propagation is from seed in autumn, semi-ripe cuttings taken in summer and layering. Division can be used for some species. Seeds of most Vaccinium species are not dormant and do not require pretreatment for germination,

* photos of unknown internet source












Vaccinium angustifolium ( Lowbush Blueberry )
Also called Vaccinium pensylvanicum. A slow growing, low, bushy, suckering deciduous shrub native to open woods in eastern North America ( from northern Alberta to Saskatchewan to far northern Ontario to Newfoundland; south to central Minnesota to northeast Iowa to northern Illinois to central Ohio to Virginia ). It is endangered in Iowa, North Carolina and Delaware. It is also found on sand barrens in the northern Great Plains. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. It was also common around Detroit during the presettlement era but was rare on the Ohio shore. Some records include: 10 years - 3 feet in width; largest on record - 2.5 x 5 feet. They grow in large colonies in the wild which are harvested and burnt every 4 years for renewal. It makes a great groundcover.
The hairy, finely-toothed, oblong leaves are up to 1.7 x 1 inches. The glossy blue-green foliage turns to brilliant red to purple in autumn.
The very small, white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.2 inches long, are borne on clusters up to 2 inches in length, during mid-spring.
They are followed by very sweet, edible, blue-black berries up to 0.5 inches across.Lowbush Blueberry is a commercial food crop ( 70 million pounds were harvested in Quebec, Canada during 2006 ). The berries are great eaten fresh or also dried in the same way as raisons ( approx 5 hours in oven at 210 F ). They are great for jellies or also added to muffins, pancakes and bread.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in sun or shade on moist, sandy or peaty, acidic well drained soil. Drought tolerant. 2 or more plants of the same variety are required in close proximity for good fruit production.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA



* photos taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Apr 14 2017 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


'Burgundy'
Red new foliage; otherwise identical to species.

'North Sky'
A hybrid between V. angustifolium x V. corymbosum, reaching up to 4 feet with light blue edible fruits.

'Top Hat'
A dwarf hybrid between V. angustifolium x V. corymbosum reaching only up to 1.5 x 1.5 feet in 10 years, eventually 2 x 2 feet. Abundant white flowers in spring are followed by blue berries.
Hardy zone 3 to 7

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Vaccinium arboreum ( Tree Sparkleberry )
A very handsome, picturesque trunked small tree native to the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Kansas to central Missouri to southern Indiana to northern Virginia; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is endangered in Kansas and Indiana. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 65 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The oval to oblong, leathery leaves, up to 3 x 1.5 inches, are mostly deciduous though may be evergreen in the very warmest parts of its natural range.
The foliage is glossy deep green during summer turning to bright scarlet-red in autumn.
The abundant, white, bell-shaped flowers are borne in axilliary racemes during spring.
They are followed by round, shiny black berries up to 0.3 inches wide. The berries are edible though dry and bitter.
The slender twigs are orangish-brown.
The shredded and ridged bark is orange brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( reports as far as zone 3 though it is largely untested north of 6 ). The Sparkleberry prefers full sun to partial shade on sandy acidic soil. It is heat and very drought tolerant and is even tolerant of lime. Propagation is from seed only but well worth the wait.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* historic archive photo


'Rosea'
Pink flowering form

Vaccinium arctostaphylos ( Caucasian Whortleberry )
A slow growing, large spreading shrub or rarely small tree that is native to mountainous regions of eastern Europe and western Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 20 feet.
The elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to dull dark green then to red late in autumn.
The white flowers ( often tinged purplish ) are borne in clusters up to 2 inches in length during early summer and often re-blooming in September. They are followed by shiny purple-black fruits up to 0.4 inches across.
Hardy zone 6 to 8

* excellent video found on youtube


Vaccinium ashei ( Rabbit Eye Blueberry )
Also called Vaccinium virgatum. A rapid growing, large, deciduous shrub reaching around 13 feet that is native from Texas to North Carolina; south to Florida. Some records include: largest on record - 25 x 10 feet.
The spirally arranged, narrow elliptic leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length. The blue-green foliage turns to bright orange or red during autumn.
The white, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, are borne during early to mid spring.
The dark blue-black fruit, up to 0.25 ( rarely 0.5 ) inches wide are edible and tasty. Plants may yield as much as 40 pounds in a season. This Blueberry requires pollinating ( more than one plant is needed for fruit as in many other species ). The native Southeastern Blueberry Bee often does the pollinating task for the Rabbiteye Blueberry.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -20 F ). It loves hot summers and is not fussy about soil PH. If it ever got cold that the plant did freeze to the ground, there is no need to panic since it will often resprout. Rarely bothered by pests or disease.

* photo of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Centurion'
Late season fruit on a large shrub that is more clay tolerant than the species.

'Climax'
Sweet-tasting, large fruits borne early in the season.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

'Premiere'
Abundant, large fruits are borne mid to late season.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

'Sunshine Blue'
A moderate growing, compact, heavily branched evergreen ( where winters are mild ) shrub reaching up to 4 x 4 feet in 10 years with an eventual maximum size of 5 x 5 feet.
The attractive blue-green foliage often turns deep rich red-purple during the winter. <
It can produce up to 10 pounds of mid-sized fruit per plant and is self-pollinating. The sweet-tasting fruits are borne over a long ( 1 + month ) season lasting mid to late summer. br />Hardy zone 5 to 9 ( tolerating -20 F ), it is heat, drought and alkaline soil tolerant. Having low chilling requirements, it is among the better cultivars for regions with mild winters.

'Tifblue'
An attractive shrub, bearing tasty, medium-sized berries late in the season.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

Vaccinium atrococcum ( Black Highbush Blueberry )
Also called Vaccinium fuscatum. An arching, large deciduous shrub native to wet to boggy areas in eastern North America ( from Michigan to Maine; south to eastern Texas to Florida ). Some records include: largest on record - 17 x 10 feet.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are bright green.
The small white to pink flowers are borne in dense clusters during mid-spring with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by tasty, edible, small dull bluish-black fruits during late summer.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 on any soil that is acidic and persistently moist during summer.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Vaccinium bracteatum ( Sea Bilberry )
A dense, large evergreen shrub or small tree reaching around 10 to 20 feet that is native to southeast Asia ( from southern China to korea & southern Japan; south into Malaysia and Indonesia ). Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 10 feet.
The minutely-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 3.4 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The tiny creamy-white flowers, up to 0.3 inches long, are borne in clusters up to 4 inches in length during late spring.
They are followed by red to purple, edible berries, up to 0.3 inches across, during late summer into mid-autumn.
The smooth bark is deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zone 7 to 10

Vaccinium caesariense ( New Jersey Blueberry )
A large shrub native to the east coast from Maine to far northeast Florida, reaching a maximum size of 17 feet though usually no taller than 10. It is endangered in Georgia and Maine, extinct in the wild in Delaware and Connecticut.

Vaccinium caespitosum ( Dwarf Bilberry )
A fast spreading, dense, small deciduous, carpet-like shrub native to the far north near the Arctic Circle in North America as well as further south in the Rockies to northern Arizona to central Saskatchewan to central Minnesota to central Wisconsin Sault Ste Marie to northern New York State to Maine. It is found on exposed mountain ridges and open pine woods in the wild. Some records include: largest on record - 20 inches x 6 ( usually half that ) feet.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 2 x 0.5 ( rarely over 1.2 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy reddish-green to deep green.
The white or pink flowers, up to 0.3 x 0.2 inches in size, appear during late spring.
They are followed by edible, sweet-tasting, blue-black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, borne in early summer.
Hardy zone 2 to 7 in partial shade on moist, acidic, humus-rich, well drained soil. It prefers a pine needle or chopped oak leaf mulch.

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium calycinum
A medium size shrub native to the mountains of Hawaii. Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 6 feet.
The sharply-toothed, leathery leaves are up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green.
the white to light pink flowers are borne in small terminal clusters.
Medium size, deep pink-red berries follow.
Hardy zone 9 to 10 preferring subtropical to tropical climates.

Vaccinium canadensis
Looks very similar to Vaccinium angustifolium but only reaches about 10 inches in height and prefers very wet ground.
Hardy north to zone 2, it even grows in Labrador.
Cut back by 2/3 every 3 rd year for vigor and flowers.

Vaccinium corymbosum ( Highbush Blueberry )
A dense, upright, deciduous large shrub reaching around 12 feet that is native to the eastern North America ( from southern Wisconsin to central Michigan to Chatham, Ontario to London, Ontario to Brampton, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to Quebec City to Nova Scotia; south to Alabama to Georgia ). It is endangered in the wild in Oklahoma, Missouri, Illinois and Wisconsin. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Windsor during the 1800s through is now extinct there. On the Ohio shore; it was very abundant in swampland at Axtel ( south of Vermillion ) during that time but was generally considered uncommon and sporadic elsewhere. It also occurred sporadically around Detroit during presettlement era. This is the "Common Blueberry" of commercial production. It has also been introduced to British Columbia, Washington, Great Britain and Australia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 20 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches. It is found in upland woods, pine savanna and bog edges in the wild.
The oval to elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2.5 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns intense orange and red over a long season during autumn.
The white to pale pink, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.4 inches in length, are borne in clusters during mid-spring.
They are followed by very sweet, edible, blue-black berries, up to 0.5 inches in width. Yields may run as high as 20 pounds of fruit per year on an individual plant.
Hardy zone 2 to 8 and prefers acidic, well drained soils with soil PH around 4.5 ( they love pine needle mulch ) though tolerating up to 6.5. Established plants are tolerant of both temporary flooding and drought. Hybrids with Vaccinium darrowii often called "Southern Highbush Blueberry" are more heat tolerant and thrive in zones 8 and 9 where V. corymbosum may suffer during extreme summer heat.
Propagated from seed sown during autumn or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 in Howard County, MD




* photos taken on Aug 2010 in Thamesville, Ontario



* photos taken on Aug 4 2012 in Lambton Co., Ontario

* photo taken on Jul 18 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on on July 23 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia

* photo taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo

* videos found on Youtube


'Avonblue'
A very attractive, very dense landscape shrub, reaching up to 4 feet in height.
The high quality fruits are borne early season. It is self-fertile.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

'Beckyblue'
A medium size deciduous hybrid Blueberry shrub.
The blue-green leaves turn to yellow in autumn.
The medium size blue fruits are borne early season.
The stems are reddish-green.
Hardy zone 2 to 9

'Berkeley'
Bears large fruit around the middle of July.
An upright, rounded, medium-sized shrub. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; average mature size - 5 x 5 feet.
Hardy zones 5 to 7.

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Bluecrop'
It forms a medium-sized shrub with cane-like stems. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 feet
The foliage turns attractively to red during autumn.
It bears sweet-tasting, large fruit in the middle of July. It can produce up to 20 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Bluegold'
Bears tasty, medium-sized fruit in early July.
Dense and compact in habit, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet.
The foliage turns to intense scarlet-red during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 +.

* photos taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Blue Haven'
Bears large, very sweet fruit early in July.
It makes an attractive landscape shrub. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; average mature size - 5 x 5 feet

'Blue Jay'
Very fast growing, it grows as much as twice the average rate of many other cultivars reaching up to 7 + feet in height.
Some records include: largest on record - 12 x 8 feet.
The large, bright green foliage turns to orange or golden-yellow in autumn.
It fruits early to mid season over a long period with abundant medium-size fruits.
It can produce up to 20 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
The winter stems are bright yellow.
Hardy zone 4 to 7

'Blue Ray'
Upright in habit, forming a medium-sized shrub. Some records include: 3 years - 7 x 6 feet; largest on record - 8 x 5 feet
The foliage is deep green turning to purple in autumn.
The very abundant berries are large, medium blue and very sweet. It can produce up to 20 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( tolerating as low as -40 F ).


'Blue Ridge'
Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 10 feet

'Cara's Choice'
Bears medium size fruit during July. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; average mature size - 5 x 5 feet

'Chandler'
Very vigorous reaching up to 7 x 7 feet with sweet, cherry-sized fruit over a long season up to 6 weeks. The mid to late season fruits are among the largest of all Blueberries. Self pollinating.
Hardy zone 4 to 7

'Chippewa'
A very attractive shrub reaching around 4 x 5 feet that originated at the University of Minnesota.
Bears sweet large light blue fruit in early July. Up to 7 pounds of fruit may be produced per year.
The oval glossy deep green leaves turn intense orange or red in fall.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; average mature size -
Hardy zone 3 to 7 tolerating -40 F

'Collins'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 6.5 x 5 feet, with long-lasting stunning scarlet-red fall color.
The sweet tasting, large, bright blue berries are borne mid-season.
Hardy zones 5 +.

'Duke'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 6 feet.
The foliage is very attractive.
The large, sweet-tasting fruits appear early in the season.
It can produce up to 20 + pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Earliblue'
A tall vigorous shrub, up to 5 x 5 feet or more, with excellent, large, sweet tasting fruit up to an inch across.
Very early fruiting and self pollinating.
Hardy zone 5 to 7.

* photo taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 22 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Elliott'
Fast growing and upright in habit, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet.
The bluish foliage turns spectacular orange-red over a long season in autumn.
Bears large sky blue berries and is often used in commmercial production.
It abundantly bears fruit very late lasting through September. It can produce up to 20 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zone 2 to 7

* photo taken on Nov 30 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Friendship'
An attractive, dense, bushy landscape shrub, reaching up to 4 feet in height.
The sweet tasting, medium-sized berries are borne mid-season.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Hannah's Choice'
Bears medium fruit late in June.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; average mature size - 5 x 5 feet

'Jersey'
Vigorous, very dense and upright in habit, reaching up to 8 x 5 feet.
Abundantly, bears flavorful, medium-size fruit, up to 0.5 inches wide, during the middle of June. It can produce up to 10 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Late Blue'
Some records include: largest on record - 6 x 6 feet

'Legacy'
A vigorous, upright to spreading shrub to 6 x 7 feet with large, very tasty, light blue berries and evergreen foliage that often turns bright orange during the winter. Self pollinating and heavy producing.
Hardy zone 5 to 8

'Nelson'
Reaches up to 6 feet, abundantly bearing tasty, large, deep blue fruits. It can produce up to 15 pounds of fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

'Northland'
Some records include: largest on record - 4 x 5 feet

'O'Neal'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet, with abundant, very early, large, very sweet tasting fruit. It can produce up to 10 pounds of mid-sized fruit per plant and is self-pollinating.
It is evergreen except for in colder climates where its foliage turns brilliant red during late autumn.
Less hardy than species but fruits better in the Deep South. Hardy zones 6 to 9

'Ozark Blue'
Reaching up to 6 feet in height with attractive foliage that turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The abundant, small, light blue berries are borne late in the season. 'Ozark Blue' is self-pollinating.
Hardy zones 5 +.

'Patriot'
Reaching up to 6 x 6 feet, it makes an attractive landscape plant with intense orange-red fall color.
Originating at the University of Maine, it bears large, medium blue, sweet berries early in July. Very heavy producing with up to 20 pounds possible on a single plant in the course of the year. Self pollinating.
Hardy zone 3 to 7 tolerating -40 F. Tolerates wet soil and resists root rot.


* photo taken on Oct 21 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Nov 5 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Pioneer'
A slightly arching, dense upright shrub reaching the same size as the species with edible sweet blue-black fruit covered in a lighter blue bloom.
Foliage is deep green turning intense scarlet-red in autumn.

'Polaris'

* photo taken on Jul 12 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 27 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Sharp Blue'
Reaches up to 6 feet with abundant, 0.5 inch wide, sweet tasting, deep blue fruit. In mild climates it may flower and fruit nearly year round. It can produce up to 15 pounds of fruit per plant in a year. This is an excellent Blueberry for the Deep South. Hardy zone 7 to 10 tolerating 0 F

'Sierra'
Extremely vigorous, abundantly bearing tasty, large blue, mid-season berries. Some records include: average mature size - 5 x 5 feet
Hardy zones 5 to 7.

'Southmoon'
Reaches up to 6 feet, bearing very tasty, large, mid-season fruits.
Hardy zones 6 +, it does not require much winter chilling.

'Spartan'
Vigorous and upright in habit, reaching up to 6 x 5 feet.
The large, glossy deep green leaves turn to orange during autumn.
Very large ( quarter sized ) fruits ripen early during the season.
The foliage turns to orange during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 7.

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Tomahawk'
Intense orange fall color

'Tophat'
A dwarf Blueberry, reaching 2 x 2 feet in size, that makes an attractive compact landscape shrub.
It is self-fertile and produces small berries.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

'Toro'
An attractive, dense, stocky shrub bearing striking massive clusters of large sky blue berries.
Some records include: 10 years - 6 x 6 feet.
The foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep green in summer then to scarlet-red in autumn.
The flowers are pink at first, turning to white.
Hardy zone 4 to 7

Vaccinium crassifolium ( Creeping Blueberry )
A very spreading, low-growing evergreen shrub native to pine barrens from southeast Virginia, south to southeast Georgia & South Carolina with stems rooting as they grow. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet ( spread ); largest on record - 2 x 6 + feet. Makes an excellent groundcover in the southeastern U.S. It is endangered in Virginia and extinct in Georgia.
The minutely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 1.5 x 1 ( rarely over 0.7 x 0.5 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green, turning to bronze during winter.
The pinkish-red flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, are borne during late spring.
The black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, aren't very tasty but are great for attracting birds.
Hardy zone 6 to 9 in sun or shade ( tolerates deep shade ) on acidic, sandy, well drained soil. It is drought tolerant but can be prone to root rot in any but ideal conditions.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Bloodstone'
A beautiful groundcover shrub, reaching up to 8 inches in height.
The foliage is bronze-red at first, turning to glossy deep green. The foliage turns reddish during the winter.
Zones 5b to 9.

'Well's Delight'
Broad-elliptical foliage, that is bronze-red at first, turning to glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -27 F ).

Vaccinium cylindraceum ( Azores Blueberry )
A very attractive, medium size deciduous shrub native to the Azores Islands. Some records include: largest on record - 15 x 7 feet.
The toothed, conspicuous veined, narrowish leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
The yellow-green, tubular flowers are borne in clusters late spring to autumn.
They are followed by showy displays of blue-black berries up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zone 8 to 11 on acidic soil on a site protected from wind.

Vaccinium darrowii ( Evergreen Blueberry )
A small shrub native to pine forests eastern Texas to central ALabama to southern Georgia; south to southern Florida. Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet. It makes an attractive plant for the rock garden.
The elliptical leaves are up to 0.6 x 0.2 inches in size. The foliage is silvery at first turning to deep blue-green above, bright green below. The foliage may be evergreen in zone 8, deciduous in colder regions.
The white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.3 inches in length, are borne during early spring.
The fruits, up to 0.25 inches across, are blue-black with a whitish bloom.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 preferring full sun. It's drought and alkaline soil tolerance extend this species to areas where other Blueberries will not grow.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


'Blue Ridge'
A very attractive, vigorous, very dense, small shrub, reaching up to 4 feet.
The foliage is small and bluish-green.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

'Cape Fear'
A very attractive, small shrub, reaching a maximum height of 4 feet, makes a great addition to the landscape garden.
The early season fruits are large.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

O'Neal'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 5 feet in height.
The foliage is very attractive.
it is self-fertile and the early season fruit is of great quality.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Vaccinium delavayi ( Delavay's Blueberry )
A compact, small evergreen shrub reaching up to 3 x 3 feet that is native to southwest China, Burma and Taiwan. Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 4 feet. It makes an attractive landscape shrub, however the fruits are too acidic for commercial fruit production. It is great for containers and rock gardens.
The leathery, tough, rounded leaves are up to 0.6 x 0.3 inches.
The flowers are tiny and white, borne in clusters up to an inch in length during late spring.
They are followed by purple fruits up to 0.3 inches in length.
Hardy zone 5 to 8 in partial shade.

Vaccinium deliciosum ( Rainier Bilberry )
Also called Cascades Blueberry. A rhizomatous, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to western North America ( from Bella Coola, British Columbia to Penticton, B.C. to eastern Idaho; south to northern California ). It is found in alpine meadows and coniferous forests at high elevations where it sometimes forms large colonies.
The finely-toothed, elliptical or obovate leaves are up to 2 x 0.7 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant bright green to blue-green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The pinkish-white to pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, appear during late spring.
The tasty, edible, bright blue berries, up to 0.5 inches wide, are of high quality.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( estimate ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It does not enjoy hot humid summers. It has a dense root system and transplants easily.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Vaccinium elliotii ( Elliott's Blueberry )
A very beautiful large deciduous shrub reaching up to 6 feet that is native to the southeast U.S. ( from central Arkansas to central Tennessee to southeast Virginia; south to eastern Texas and northern Florida ). It is critically endangered in Tennessee. Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 12 feet.
The finely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 1.3 x1 inches in size, The very glossy rich green foliage turns to scarlet-red late in autumn.
The pale-pink, bell shaped flowers up to 0.3 inches in length are borne in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The blue-black berries, borne in early summer, are up to 0.3 inches in width and are edible though somewhat sour. Large yields may occur.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Very drought tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium glaucoalbum
A dense, suckering evergreen small shrub to around 3.5 feet in height that is native to northeast India, Nepal, Burma as well as se. Xizang and western Yunnan Provinces in China. Some records include: 10 years - 40 x 40 inches; largest on record - 10 x 5 feet.
The bristly to finely tooth-edged, oblong, hard, leathery leaves are up to 3 x 1.3 inches in size. The leaves are deep blue-green above, hairy blue-white beneath. The foliage turns to deep reddish-purple during winter.
The flowers are pinkish-white, borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by edible berries, up to 0.3 inches across, that are blue-black or purple and covered in a white bloom. The berries often persist from August into December.
Hardy zone 6 to 9 in partial shade on moist, sandy or peaty, acidic well drained soil.

Vaccinium hirsutum ( Hairy Blueberry )
Native from eastern Tennessee to North Carolina to northern Georgia and western South Carolina; this is a suckering shrub to 3 feet in height that can form thickets. It is found in dry upland pine-oak forests in the wild. Hairy Blueberry is endangered.
The elliptical leaves are up to 2.5 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green turning showy deep orange-red during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, appear during early summer.
They are followed by black berries, up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 in partial shade on acidic, very well drained soil.

* wikipedia photo


Vaccinium macrocarpon ( Cranberry )
A moderate growing, low mounding evergreen shrub that roots as it spreads that is native to sphagnum bogs in northern Asia and eastern North America ( from Lake of the Woods to International Falls to Lake Nipigon, Ontario to White River, Ontario to North Bay, Ontario to Temagami, Ontario to Sept-Iles, Quebec to Newfoundland; south to southern Minnesota to northern Illinois to Tennessee ( mtns. ) to Virginia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in marshland around Point Pelee during the 1800s through no longer occurs due to drainage and fire. On the Ohio shore, it was formerly very abundant in swampland in the Milan and Axtel areas but is now almost extinct from that region. Some records include: largest on record - 3 x 10 feet though it is often under 6 inches in height.
The oblong leaves, up to 1 x 0.2 inches in size, are deep green above, lighter green or whitish beneath. The leathery foliage turns scarlet-red during winter.
The pink flowers, up to 0.4 inches in length, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, bright red berries, up to 0.8 inches wide, that ripen mid-autumn and persist thru the winter.
These are the Cranberries used in jellies, juices, preserves and alongside Turkey on Thanksgiving. The berries are also often dried ( in oven at 230 F for 4 hours ) and eaten in the same way as raisons ( excellent healthy snack ). The fruits are rich in Vitamin C and a strong antiseptic called Arbutin. Cranberry extract is used to treat Cystitis and other urinary tract infections.
The Cranberry is an excellent crop for marshy land where few other food crops can be grown commerically. When well grown, Cranberry can be highly productive, with yields up to 400 bushels on an acre.
Some commercial cultivars are very heavy fruiting.
Mixing varieties may increase fruit yields though Cranberry is generally self-fertile.
Hardy zone 2 to 6 tolerating as low as -50 F in partial shade. Flood tolerant and in very cold climates need protection of water or snow during winter to protect the roots from freezing.
The Cranberry requires its roots moist or wet and cool and prefers very acidic, humus rich soil with a PH from 3 to 5.5. Cranberry is considered deer resistant. Propagation is generally done from seed though can also be done from seed which is much more difficult.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Ben Lear'
A clone originating from the wild in Wisconsin.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

'Stevens'
Cultivar for commercial production adapted to the maritime climates such as the Pacific Northwest.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

Vaccinium membranaceum ( Mountain Huckleberry )
Also called Thinleaf Huckleberry. A deciduous, small shrub reaching a maximum height of 10 ( rarely over 5 ) feet. It is native to coniferous woods and alpine areas from Alaska to Atlin, British Columbia to southwest Northwest Territories to Fort McMurray, Alberta to Ontario, south to California & Arizona ( mtns. ) to Minnesota and the Michigan Upper Peninsula. It spreads slowly by rhizomes and may resprout rapidly after fire.
The minutely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 2 x 1 inches in size. The thick, deep green foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The pale pink flowers, up to 0.25 inches in length, appear during late spring.
The very tasty, edible fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, are black and may appear on plants as young as 3 years and a pollinator is not needed. They ripen late summer into early autumn and are great eaten fresh or used in pies, cakes and jellies.
The bark is peeling and gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 ( tolerates -30 F though some clones from north and east may be much more hardy ) in full sun. This is among the most drought tolerant cool climate Blueberries. It is unfortunately difficult to transplant and propagate.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken by E.H. Reid @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by J.T. Jardine @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium moupinense ( Himalayan Blueberry )
A moderate growing, dense, domed, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 feet that is native to Sichuan, ne Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces in western China.
The elliptical leaves are up to 0.6 x 0.3 inches in size. The leathery foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green, then finally to deep red during winter.
The reddish-brown flowers are borne on short racemes up to 1 inch long.
The showy fruits, up to 0.25 inches wide, are blackish-purple.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist acidic, well drained soil.

Vaccinium myrsinites ( Florida Evergreen Blueberry )
A moderate growing, deciduous low spreading shrub up to 40 inches x 4 feet that is native from central Alabama to northeast South Carolina; south to southern Florida. Some records include: tallest on record - 5 feet; largest on record - covering 1 km ( clone ); longest lived - 1000 years ( clone ). It is found in open pine woods in the wild.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 0.8 x 0.2 inches in size. The foliage is very glossy mid-green.
The white to pale-pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, appear during early spring.
They are followed by edible, bluish-black berries, up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in full sun on moist, acidic, well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Vaccinium myrtilloides ( Velvet Leaf Blueberry )
A low spreading decidous shrub up to 4 ( rarely over 1.8 ) feet in height, that is native to northern North America ( from the Yukon to Fort Nelson, British Columbia to Slave Lake, Alberta to to central Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Labrador, south to Washington to Montana to Minnesota to northern Illinois to northern Ohio, as well as mountains of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia and New York ). It is endangered in Maryland. It is found in open coniferous woods with dry sandy acidic soil in the wild and is grown commercially in Canada and Maine. Spreading by rhizomes, it may form a sizeable colony after many years. Some records include: largest on record - 3 x 33 feet. It forms an extensive network of roots to as deep as 3 feet depending on soil conditions. Fire tolerant, it often resprouts after fire and may depend on fire for its survival in parts of its natural range. It is endangered in Montana, Iowa, Indiana, Ohio, North Carolina, Virginia and Maryland. It is extinct in Connecticut.
The smooth edged, alternately-arranged, elliptical leaves are up to 2 x 1 ( rarely over 1.5 x 0.6 ) inches in size. The foliage is bright green, turning to red during autumn.
The drooping, bell-shaped, white to pinkish-white flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
The berries, up to 0.4 inches in width, are medium to deep blue and covered in a glaucous bloom.
The fruit is among the sweetest of all Blueberries and is used for pie filling, muffins, wines, pastries, jams and ice cream.
The Velvet Leaf Blueberry begins fruiting during the third or 4th year.
This species of Blueberry requires pollination to set fruits. Multiple plants and Bees ( especially Bumblebees ) are required as this plant is self sterile.
With pollination, fruit set is usually abundant and most fruit contain viable seed.
Hardy north to zone 2. While preferring full sun and moist, sandy, well drained soil it is soil tolerant as long as the PH is between 3 and 6. They do tolerate full shade but plants may lack vigor as well as fruit. It is very sensitive to sulfur dioxide pollution and does not appreciate acid rain. Plants may grow very slow with competition from grasses and other plants however may also spread vigorously with ideal conditions. Mulch is essential during winter where snowcover is not consistant as well as in summer to keep soil cool. Propagation can be either from seed or hardwood cuttings.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo of unknown internet source


Vaccinium myrtillus ( Whortleberry )
A vigorous, rhizomatous, low growing shrub reaching a maximum of 3.3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in height that is native to coniferous forests on wet and acidic soil in western North America ( from Smithers, British Columbia to Jasper National Park, Alberta to central Montana; south in mountains to northern Arizona & N.M. ), southwest Greenland, northern Europe and Russia as well as Mongolia.
The papery elliptical leaves are up to 1.5 x 1 ( rarely over 1.3 x 0.5 ) inches in size. The semi-evergreen foliage is glossy bright green, turning to yellow and red during autumn.
The pink flowers are borne during summer.
The bluish-black fruits, up to 0.3 inches across, are edible and very tasty. They are great fresh or used in jams and jellies.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 ( some strains tolerate as low as -70 F ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, very acidic, well drained soil.

* excellent video found on internet


Vaccinium nummularia
A small arching evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 3 feet that is native to the Himalayas from the Sikkim Province in India, Nepal, Bhutan, northern Burma as well as se. Xizang & nw. Yunnan Provinces in China. Some records include: largest on record - 28 inches.
The finely serrated, rounded glossy leathery leaves are up to 1 x 0.5 inches in size.
The tiny pink to rose-red flowers are borne in clusters up to 2 inches in length.
They are followed in late summer by edible glossy deep blue-black berries up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zone 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic, well drained soil.

Vaccinium oldhamii ( Oldham Blueberry )
A vigorous, upright, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum height of 12 feet, that is native to far eastern China, Korea and most of Japan.
The papery, lance-shaped to oval leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The attractive, bristly foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy mid-green above, bright green beneath. The leaves turn to red during autumn.
The pale yellow ( with red corollas ) flowers, up to 0.2 inches long, are borne on clusters, up to 2.4 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by deep purple to black berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Vaccinium ovalifolium ( Mountain Huckleberry )
Also called Ovalleaf Blueberry. A rhizomatous shrub, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet tall, that is native to both northwestern North America ( from Aleutian Islands to Bethel, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to western Northwest Territories to Dawson Creek, British Columbia to near Banff National Park, Alberta; south to Oregon to the Black Hills of South Dakota ) and northeastern North America ( from Wawa, Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Labrador ). In Ontario it is most often found around the north shore of Lake Superior where common, it is extremely rare to absent elsewhere. It is found in moist, coniferous forests in the wild where it sometimes forms extensive colonies.
The oval leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.8 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant bright green, turning to bright red during autumn. The leaves make a great herbal tea.
The greenish-white to pink flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, appear during early to mid summer.
They are followed by edible bright blue berries, up to 0.4 inches wide, of high quality. They are great for making jellies.
The twigs are reddish.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 in partial shade on moist, very acidic, sandy or peaty soil. It prefers a mulch of pine needles or chopped oak leaves.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium ovatum ( California Huckleberry )
Also called Evergreen Huckleberry. A moderate growing, dense, compact, medium-size evergreen shrub native to western North America ( from southwestern British Columbia to California ). It is nearly extinct in the wild in much of its native range. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3.3 feet; 15 years - 4.6 x 4.6 feet; largest on record - 15 x 10 ( usually half that ) feet. The California Huckleberry is a very beautiful landscape shrub where adapted and also makes a great hedge.
The finely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 2 x 0.5 inches in size. The thick, leathery foliage is downy and pinkish at first, turning to glossy deep green above, pale green beneath. The foliage often turns purplish during winter.
The small white flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne in small clusters during late spring. The flowers attract hummingbirds.
They are followed by edible rounded berries, up to 0.3 inches across that are red ripening to bluish-black. The edible fruits are of high quality and are eaten fresh or used in jellies and pie filling.
Hardy zone 7 to 9 ( 6 on protected sites ) in sun or shade, tolerating as low as -10 F. Prefers soil PH from 4 to 6 growing where yearly precip exceeds 37 inches. Drought tolerant once established. It is also tolerant of salt spray and coastal winds.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


'Thunderbird'
The foliage is bronze-red at first during spring.
The flavorful fruits are unusually large.

'Wonderlich'
Much more vigorous

Vaccinium oxycoccos ( Wild Cranberry )
A low growing evergreen shrub with wiry stems that native to northern Eurasia and the cooler regions of North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northern Yukon to southern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to Washington to northern Idaho to Sask. to Minnesota to northern Indiana to Sarnia, Ontario to Niagara Falls to mountains of West Virginia ). Some records include: largest on record - 8 inches x 7 feet. It is found on tundra and peat bogs in the wild.
The small, oblong, evergreen leaves are up to 0.5 x 0.2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, light green to silvery beneath.
The small, pink flowers appear during early summer.
They are followed by edible but sour, deep red fruits up to 0.4 inches across.
Hardy zone 2 to 6 in full sun on moist to wet, acidic, peaty or sandy soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium padifolium ( Madiera Whortleberry )
A small evergreen tree or shrub native to the island of Madiera. Typically reaching around 8 feet, some records include: largest on record - 20 feet.
The deep green leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size.
The flowers, borne in clusters up to 2 inches in length during early summer, are soft yellow finely striped red.
They are followed by dark blue-black fruits up to 0.5 inches in width.
Hardy zone 8 to 10

Vaccinium pallidum ( Blue Ridge Blueberry )
A small shrub reaching up to 3 feet in height that is native to dry pine or oak-hickory woodlands in eastern North America ( from far southeast Kansas to far southeast Minnesota to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Windsor, Ontario to Stratford, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to Kingston, Ontario to Brockville, Ontario to central Maine; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Alabama to central South Carolina ). It is extinct in Minnesota and endangered in Wisconsin, Kansas and Mississippi. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore and at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The broad-oval to rounded leaves are up to 2.3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, bright green beneath; turning to red during autumn.
The pale green flowers, up to 0.4 inches wide, appear with the emerging foliage during mid-spring.
They are followed by sweet, blue berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic, well drained soil, preferrably sandy. Drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Aug 29 2016 in Luzerne Co., PA

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium palustris
A low, creeping shrub, that forms vast colonies in the wild where it is found in swamps and bogs. It may be a subspecies of Vaccinium oxycoccos.
The leaves, up to 0.6 x 0.2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is deep green above, grayish beneath.
The flowers are red.
The red fruits, up to 0.7 inches across, are juicy and sour.

Vaccinium parviflorum ( Red Huckleberry )
A dense, upright, medium size shrub to around 10 x 5 feet that is native to western North America ( from Skagway, Alaska to Prince George, British Columbia to Cranbrook, B.C.; south to central California ). Some records include: largest on record - 25 x 6 feet.
The smooth edged, deciduous, oval leaves are up to 1.3 x 0.6 inches. The deep green foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The 0.2 inch white to pinkish, bell shaped flowers are borne in late spring
The attractive, acidic but edible, translucent, coral-red berries are up to 0.5 inches in width. Cooking improves the taste of the fruits which are otherwise sour.
The stems are bright green.
Hardy zone 5 to 8 in sun or shade on moist, sandy or peaty, acidic well drained soil.

* photos taken by Jennifer Wheeler @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Vaccinium 'Pink Lemonade'
A vigorous, dense, upright shrub reaching up to 5 x 5.5 feet.
The lance-shaped foliage is very glossy, bright green, turning to golden-yellow transitioning through orange then finally intense orange-red in autumn.
This is the only pink fruiting blueberry and it is also self pollinating.
The showy, pinkish-white, bell-shaped flowers during spring are followed by very sweet, tasty, glossy deep pink berries.
The red-brown stems are attractive during winter.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 on moist, acidic, well drained soil.

Vaccinium scoparium ( Grouseberry )
An rhizomatous, deciduous, groundcover shrub, reaching up to 1 foot, that is native to open lodgepole pine forests and high mountain meadows in western North America ( from British Columbia to Alberta to western South Dakota; south to far northern California to northeast Nevada to north-central New Mexico ). It often forms extensive colonies in the wild.
The lance-shaped to elliptical leaves, up to 0.4 x 0.25 inches in size, are bright green.
The pink, urn-shaped flowers appear during early summer.
They are followed by somewhat tasty, tart, small, bright red berries up to 0.25 inches wide.
The twigs are green giving it some winter color.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on acidic, well drained soil.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium smallii
A deciduous, medium-sized shrub to small tree, that is native to Sakhalin, the Kurile Islands and northern Japan.
The alternately-arranged, finely-toothed, oval leaves are bright green, turning to red during autumn.
The greenish-white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, black fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on moist, very acidic, well drained soil.

Vaccinium stamineum ( Deerberry )
Also called Squaw Huckleberry. A large deciduous shrub reaching around 10 feet that is native to sandy and rocky woodlands & bottomlands in the eastern U.S. ( from southeast Kansas to central Missouri to southern Illinois to southern Ontario to Vermont; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). It is now critically endangered in Canada where it was once common in black oak savanna in the Niagara Peninsula and still persists near Niagara Falls as well as between Kingston and Brockville on the eastern end of Lake Ontario. It previously occurred around London and Hamilton in Ontario but has become extinct in those regions for over 100 years. It is also endangered in Kansas, Illinois and Vermont. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 15 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 1.7 inches in size. The very attractive foliage is blue-green, turning to red during autumn.
The small, white, bell-shaped flowers are borne in sprays during late spring.
Deerberry sometimes will bloom again in mid autumn.
They are followed by bluish-green berries, up to 0.3 inches across, during early autumn. The acid tasting fruits can be improved in taste by cooking along with sweetener.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on just about any acidic, well drained soil. It is a host for the blueberry maggot fly which can be a pest of blueberry crops. Deerberry is tolerant of temporary flooding as found on floodplains but not swampy sites.

* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora


Vaccinium uliginosum ( Bog Bilberry )
Also called Northern Bilberry. An upright, deciduous shrub reaching a maximum size of 4.6 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet ( usually much lower ). It is native to northern Eurasia and northern North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwestern Northwest Territories to southern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to far northern Quebec and Baffin Island to Labrador & Newfoundland; south in the Sierra Nevadas in California, the Rocky Mountains in Utah to central Saskatchewan to the north shore of Lake Superior to Matagami, Quebec to northern New England ). In Ontario, it is most abundant in the northern 1/3 and also on the northern shore of Lake Superior. In Eurasia it is found south to the Pyrenees, Alps and Caucasus Mountains at high altitudes; also south to the mountains of Mongolia, northern China, Korea and central Japan. It is usually found in swamps and wet coniferous forests in the wild.
The smooth-edged, oblong leaves are up to 1.5 x 1 ( rarely over 1.3 x o.6 ) inches in size. The foliage is blue-green above, somewhat downy beneath; turning to intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The pale pink, pendulous, urn-shaped flowers, up to 0.25 inches, are borne in clusters in mid spring.
They are followed by edible, sweet-tasting, nutritious, bluish-black fruits up to 0.3 inches across. The berries are great eaten fresh, dried or added to muffins and pancakes.
Hardy zone 2 to 6.

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Vaccinium vitis-idaea ( Lingonberry )
Also called Cowberry and Mountain Cranberry. A moderate growing, long-lived, low creeping evergreen shrub native over much of the cooler parts of North America ( from northern Alaska to northern Yukon to Baffin Island to far northern Ontario to far northern Quebec to Labrador, Newfoundland and southern Greenland; south to British Columbia to northern Minnesota to the Michigan Upper Peninsula to Matagami, Quebec to Maine ) and Eurasia, and also further south in mountains south to Mongolia, northern China and Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 1 foot; largest on record - 2 x 8 ( rarely over 1 ) feet. It slowly spreads via underground rhizomes to form dense colonies. It is found on tundra, dry rocky ground and open jack pine woods in the wild. It makes an excellent multipurpose groundcover and can be used along pathways and under larger shrubs such as Rhododendrons.
The smooth-edged, notch-tipped, oval leaves are up to 1.3 x o.5 inches. The thick, leathery, glossy deep green foliage turns to burgundy-red late in autumn. The leaves have been used to make tea.
The white or pale pink flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by acidic tasting, edible, scarlet-red berries, up to 0.5 x 0.4 inches in size, during late summer to autumn, often persisting well into winter. A plant can bear up to 2 pounds of fruits per year. The fruits are very rich in vitamins and nutrients and actually taste better than Cranberries. The Lingonberry has potential as a crop further north than just about any other fruit crop will grow. The fruits can be use in ice cream, preserves and wine.
The stems are light brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 preferring partial shade on constantly moist ACIDIC soil. Lingonberry can tolerate temperatures well below -40 F but grows poorly in regions with hot summers. It can tolerate poor but not alkaline soils. Competes poorly with weeds. Plants can be mowed to 1 inch in height every 3 or 4 years to renew vigor. 2 or more plants of the same variety growing in close proximity are required for good fruit production.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* historic archive photo


'Koralle'
Reaches up to 1 foot in height, and bears good crops of tasty, scarlet-red berries twice yearly.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


subsp 'Major'
leaves up to 1.6 inches in length.

subsp. 'Minus' ( Mountain Cranberry )
Low growing, reaching a maximum of 12 inches x 8 feet. The glossy green leaves are tiny, only reaching up to 0.7 inches in length.
The light pink bell shaped flowers borne in late spring are followed by scarlet-red berries.
An excellent Rhodo/Azalea companion plant in cool shady areas.

'Red Pearl'
Originated in Germany. Vigorous growing, up to 20 inches in height. Heavy bearing and disease resistant.

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