Sunday, April 25, 2010

Perennial Geraniums

Long lived perennials, that are not related to the Pelargoniums that are often called Geranium but are not related, prefers milder dry climates and typically flower scarlet-red.
They often bloom over a long season, especially if old faded blooms are pinched off.
The perennial geraniums are easy to grow on humus-rich, fertile, well drained soil in partial shade or also full sun if kept moist. They are easy to grow and rarely bothered by pests or disease other than occasional leaf spot or rust.
Most perennial Geraniums are tolerant of heat, drought, salt, excessive wind and even fire.
Propagation is from division during autumn or spring and seed. It is recommended to divide the faster growing varieties every 3 years.
As for zone 4 Perennial Geranium cultivation..I very much recommend checking out the Vermont Perennial Geranium Trials 2001-2002 published by the University of Vermont.
Another excellent external link includes additional species of potential in cold climates:
http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=120&taxon_id=113475


* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


Geranium argenteum
A dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1 foot, that is native to Europe. The silky-hairy leaves, up to 1.3 inches across, are silvery.
The pink ( veined darker ) flowers, up to 1 inch across ) are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil.

Geranium x cantabrigiense
The hybrid between Geranium dalmaticum & G. macrorrhizum. It is a low growing, trailing perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 4 feet. These hybrids are tough and adaptable and can be used for groundcover.
The rounded leaves, up to 4 inches across, divide into 7 toothed lobes.
The aromatic foliage is glossy mid-green.
The pink flowers, up to 1 inch across, are sterile, appearing profusely during late spring, repeating for most of summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

'Biokovo'
A semi-evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 4 feet.
The attractive, aromatic foliage is glossy green turning fiery red in autumn.
The showy, white ( with a very light pink border ) flowers are borne early to mid summer. It is a natural hybrid, discovered growing in the wild in Yugoslavia.

* photos taken on April 20 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2016 in Annapolis, MD


'Cambridge'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 16 x 42 inches or possibly more, bearing showy bright lavender-pink flowers.
The foliage is luxuriant glossy mid-green.

* photos taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Dilys'
A spreading, mat forming, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 4 feet. It looks best where it can weave around other plants or trailing over a wall. The leaves are mid-green.
The abundant, large, purplish-pink flowers have purple veining and a deep purple eye. The flowers are borne early summer to late autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Deer resistant.

'Karmina'
An excellent, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 4 feet.
The leaves, up to 3 inches across, turn to red in autumn.
The flowers are deep pink.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on May 3 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD


'St Ola'
A low, creeping, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 5 feet. It is much more vigorous than 'Biokova'.
The leaves, up to 3 inches across, are deep green, turning to red during autumn.
The pure white flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Geranium cinereum ( Grayleaf Geranium )
A cushion forming, semi-evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 foot x 20 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, that is native to the Balkan region of southeast Europe and Turkey. It looks great in rock gardens, expecially planted with miniature conifers.
The 5 or 7 lobed leaves are up to 2 inches across.
The attractive foliage is gray-green, turning to red in autumn.
The profuse, deep pink ( with darker stripes and center ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne on small heads from late spring until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Extremely hardy, it thrives even in harsh climates such as Alberta, Canada.

'Ballerina'
A fast growing, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 2 feet.
The glaucous blue-green leaves turn to red in autumn.
The purplish-pink ( purplish-red centered and veined ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne all summer long.

'Giuseppe'
An extremely vigorous, low growing perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6 inches.
The purplish-pink flowers are borne late spring to late summer. The foliage is grayish.

'Laurence Flatman'
A vigorous but compact, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 1 foot.
The glaucous blue-green leaves turn to red in autumn.
The pinkish-white ( purplish-pink veined ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne all summer long.

'Orknet Cherry'
Reaches up to 8 x 11 inches.

'Purple Pillow'
Very compact with very showy, purplish-red flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Splendens'
Intense glowing, purplish-pink ( with darker eye ) flowers.

var. subcaulescens
Also known as Geranium subcaulescens. Reaching a maximum size of only 10 x 16 inches ( usually under 8 inches in height ), with deep purplish-pink ( with dark red stripes and a black center ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, borne late spring into early summer then repeating later in the season.
The rounded leaves are gray-green.

Geranium clarkei ( Clark's Cranesbill )
An attractive, vigorous, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 6.5 feet, though generally less than half that in spread. It is excellent for use in borders and woodland gardens. It is native to high mountains meadows of Kashmir in the Himalayas.
The deeply-cut ( usually 7 lobed ) leaves, up to 6 inches across, are green.
The large, white ( veined lilac-purple ), cup-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne during late spring, often repeating into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil.

'Kashmir Pink'
Reaches up to 20 inches x 2 feet with rosy-pink flowers.

'Kashmir Purple'
Reaches up to 2 feet with deep violet-purple flowers.

'Kashmir White'
Flowers are white with pale violet veining.

Geranium dalmaticum ( Dalmatian Geranium )
A fast growing, dense, low, rhizome-spreading, semi-evergreen, long-lived, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 9 inches x 3 feet, that is native to the Balkan Mountains in Yugoslavia and Albania. Looks great on top of landscape walls.
The deeply cut, palmetely 5 or 7-lobed, up to 2 inches across, are glossy, mid-green leaves turning intense orange and red in autumn.
The profuse, pink flowers, up to 1.3 inch across, are borne in 3s during late spring into mid-summer.
Hardy zone 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.
It is drought tolerant; deer and rabbit resistant.

Geranium endressii ( Pyrenees Cranesbill )
A fast growing, dense, semi-evergreen to evergreen, perennial, reaching up to 20 inches x 4 feet, that spreads by long rhizomes. It is native to the Pyrenees Mountains of France and Spain. It forms an excellent dense groundcover.
The deeply-toothed, 5-lobed, Maple-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 6 inches, are glossy, deep green.
The pale rose-pink ( veined darker ) flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne late spring into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, average, well drained soil. They can be cut back to 2 inches from the ground in mid summer after the first flush of blooms for renewal.

'Rose Clair'
Pinkish-orange flowers veined purple.

'Wargrave Pink'
A very vigorous, evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 5 feet. It trails and is best planted where it can trail and weave around other plants. It also looks great trailing over walls.
The pale pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. Disease resistant.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on May 14 2016 in Columbia, MD


Geranium erianthum ( Woolly Geranium )
A compact perennial, reaching up to 1.6 ( rarely over 1 ) feet in height, that is native to northeast Asia ( from eastern Siberia to the Kuril Islands; south to northern Japan ) as well as Alaska and British Columbia. It is found in mountain meadows in most of its range.
The leaves, up to 3.5 inches wide, are deeply divided into 7 or 9 toothed lobed. The foliage is glossy bright green.
The very light blue ( deeper blue veined ) flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne on a dense inflorescence during summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( est ) in full sun on well drained soil.

Geranium farreri
A slow growing, dense, mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 6 x 16 inches, that is native to China.
The leaves, up to 1 inch across, are gray-green.
The lilac-pink ( with black anthers ) flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil.

Geranium himalayense ( Himalayan Cranesbill )
A rhizomatous, spreading, groundcover perennial reaching a maximum size of 2 x 4 feet, that is native to meadows and open woodlands in mountains of central Asia ( from northern Afghanistan to Nepal ).
The toothed, very deeply 7-lobed leaves, up to 8 inches across, are green, coloring intense red during autumn.
The violet-blue ( veined red ) flowers, up to 2.3 inches across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is drought tolerant.

'Birch's Double'
Also called 'Plenum' and 'Flore Plena'. It is a rhizomatous perennial reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 4 feet. It is less vigorous than regular Geranium himalayense.
The leaves, up to 8 inches across, are green, coloring intense red during autumn.
The double, violet-blue flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne over a long season during early summer. The flowers are sterile.
Hardy zones 2 to 7.

Geranium ibericum
A clumping perennial, reaching up to 1.2 x 1.9 feet, that is native from northern Turkey to the Caucasus.
The deeply 9 to 11 lobed leaves are up to 8 inches wide.
The violet flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil.

* historic archive photo


Geranium x lindavicum

'Apple Blossom'
A moderate growing perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 1+ feet.
The delicate gray-green leaves form a mound up to 6 inches in height.
The clear pink flowers are borne over a long season.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Very drought tolerant.

Geranium macrorrhizum ( Bigroot Geranium )
A vigorous, rhizomtous, low, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 4.5 feet, that is native to eastern Europe ( from Romania and south ). It makes an excellent dense, semi-evergreen, groundcover, spreading at a rate up to 9 inches per year.
The extremely fragrant, soft, velvety, luxuriant green leaves, up to 8 ( rarely over 4.5 ) inches across, remain attractive and clean into September, turning intense red later in autumn.
The leaves are deeply toothed and 5 to 7 lobed.
The deep purplish-pink flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in dense heads from late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on average, well drained soil. Shade, heat and drought tolerant.
It even thrives in dry shade under trees. After first flush of blooms, shear off old blooms to encourage lush new growth. It is among the most deer and rabbit resistant of perennials.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mat 27 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON


'Bevens Variety'
An excellent thick rhizome, weed smothering groundcover, reaching up to 20 inches x 5 feet. The fragrant leaves, turn brilliant red in autumn. The flowers are deep purplish-pink with deep red sepals.

* photo taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Czakor'
An excellent thick rhizome, weed smothering groundcover, reaching up to 20 inches x 5 feet. The fragrant leaves, turn purplish in autumn. The deep red flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne early summer.

'Ingwersens Variety'
An excellent thick rhizome, weed smothering, semi-evergreen groundcover perennial, reaching up to 2 x 8 feet ( rarely over 5 feet in width ). The fragrant, glossy bright green leaves, turn excellent red color in autumn.
The intense mid-pink flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on April 20 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 10 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 2 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Spessart'
An excellent rapid rhizomatous spreader, weed smothering groundcover, reaching up to 20 inches x 5 feet. The fragrant leaves, turn purplish in autumn. The light pink flowers are borne early summer.

'Variegatum'
Reaches a maximum size of 15 x 15 inches with beautiful, spicily fragrant, deeply-lobed leaves that are mid green and heavily streaked and blotched creamy-yellow.
The intense purplish-pink flowers are borne late spring into autumn.

Geranium maculatum ( Wild Geranium )
A rhizomatous spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 3.5 feet, that is native to rich, moist woods and swamps in eastern North America ( from southern Manitoba to Rainy River, Ontario to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to near Lion's Head, Ontario ro southeast Quebec and Maine; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Georgia ). It is endangered in South Dakota and extinct in the wild in North Dakota. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The sharply-toothed, deeply 5 or 7-lobed leaves, up to 8 inches across, are glossy grayish-green, often turning scarlet-red during autumn.
The basal leaves are semi-evergreen and the foliage remains attractive all season long.
The pink flowers, up to 1.7 inches across, are borne in loose clusters from mid-spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade to full shade on almost any dry to moist, well drained soil. Heat tolerant and very tolerant of wet soil.
It may self seed in some gardens.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on May 7 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 2 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Album'
White flowers.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Beth Chatto'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 28 inches x 2 feet.
The deeply divided leaves are green.
The pale, lilac-pink are borne late spring into early summer.

'Elizabeth Ann'
Vigorous growing, forming a clump up to 40 inches across, making an excellent groundcover. Attractive chocolate-brown leaves, up to 6 inches across, contrasts with light pink flowers borne during late spring.

'Expresso'
Attractive reddish-brown leaves, up to 6 inches across, contrasts with light pink flowers borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 9

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on May 6 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


Geranium maderensis
A large, evergreen, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6 feet, that is native to the Madiera Islands.
The very large, deeply divided, 5 or 7 lobed, leathery leaves are up to 12 inches across. The foliage is bright green.
The purplish-pink ( darker veined ) flowers, up to 1.7 inches across, are borne on purple stemmed flowerheads from late spring to late summer.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Geranium x magnificum ( Showy Cranesbill )
The hybrid between Geranium ibericum & G. platypetalum. It is an aggressive, spreading, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 28 inches x 3.5 feet ( rarely over 2 feet in height ), originally found in the Caucasus and Iran.
The attractive, coarsely-toothed, 9 or 11 lobed leaves, up to 4 inches across, are deep green turning to red during autumn.
The abundant, violet-blue ( veined darker ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne early to mid summer. The flowers are sterile.
The stems are hairy.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil.

Geranium nepaulensis

var thunbergii
Reaches up to 3.5 feet in height with profuse white or pink flowers, borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Geranium x oxonianum
A vigorous, broad mounding, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 4 feet, that is the hybrid between Geranium endressii & G. versicolor. Many of the cultivars are valuable as weed smothering, large scale groundcover for commercial sites.
The shallow 5-lobed leaves are up to 4 inches across. The attractive foliage is glossy green.
The flowers, up to 1 inch across, come in various shades of pink with deeper veins and are borne early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. It is even tolerant of dry shade.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


'A.T. Johnson'
Bright pink flowers all summer long.

'Bressingham Delight'
, Reaches up to 1.5 x 3 feet, with soft pink flowers all summer long.

'Claridge Druce'
A fast growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 6.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 8 inches across, are deep green.
The rose-pink flowers, up to 2 inch across, are borne over a long season from late spring through summer, often persisting into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Rebecca Moss'
A vigorous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 6.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 8 inches across, are green.
The pale pink flowers, up to 1.3 inch across, are borne during early summer, repeating for the remainder of summer if old blooms are deadheaded.
Easy to grow.

'Sue Crug'
Forms a clump up to 2 x 2 feet. The large pink ( veined deep purple ) flowers are borne late spring to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and easy to grow.

Geranium palmatum
A very large perennial, reaching up to 6 x 5 feet.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, among the least hardy of the Geranium genus.

Geranium phaeum ( Dusky Cranesbill )
Also called Morning Widow. A strong growing, thickly rhizomatous, upright, bushy perennial forming large clumps, up to a maximum size of 4 feet x 32 inches ( rarely over 3 feet in height ). It is native to mountains in Europe ( from France to western Russia; south to Austria to northern Yugoslavia ). It has naturalized in the British Isles.
The finely-divided, 7 to 9-lobed leaves, up to 8 inches across, are mid-green often with red spotting.
The nodding, reddish-purple flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in heads late spring to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in sun or shade on average to moist, well drained soil. It is even tolerant of deep dry shade under trees.

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Album'
Reaches a maximum height of 4 feet with white flowers, up to 1 inch across, borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Lily Lovell'
Reaches a maximum height of 4 feet with bright green foliage.
The large, lavender-pink to violet flowers, up to 1 inch across, borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Lividum'
Deep lilac-gray flowers.

'Samobor'
Reaches a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 feet. The foliage clump, up to 1 foot in height, is composed of large maple-like leaves with purple center blotches.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.


* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Geranium platypetalum ( Broad-Petalled Geranium )
A moderate growing, mounding perennial, reaching a maximum size of 26 x 34 inches in size, that is native to Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus region in central Asia.
The 7 or 9 lobed leaves, are mid-green, turning reddish during autumn. The foliage is rough above.
The deep violet-purple ( darker veined ) flowers, up to 1.8 inches wide, are borne late spring into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

Geranium pratense ( Meadow Cranesbill )
A perennial reaching around 4 x 3.5 feet, that is native to meadows and grasslands in northern Eurasia ( Ireland to Siberia; south to Spain to the Caucasus to the Himalayas ). Some records include: tallest on record - 5 feet.
The attractive, deeply toothed and 7 or 9 lobed leaves, up to 6 x 9 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green, turning to bronze during autumn. The large foliage is almost tropical looking.
The small, bluish-purple ( veined red ) flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne late spring into early summer, then often again late summer into early autumn. The flowers are borne on sturdy stalks that do not need to be staked.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil. Extremely cold hardy, it thrives at least as far north as Red Deer in Alberta. It is tolerant of limestone soils. Deadheading of old blooms and flowerstalks is essential for blooming beyond early summer. If powdery mildew attacks after blooming, cut to ground as the replacing new foliage will be healthier. Propagation is easy and it often seeds itself.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Midnight Reiter'
Deep purple foliage contrasts with purplish-blue flowers.

'Mrs. Kendall Clarke'
Clear sky-blue flowers, otherwise identical.
It usually comes true from seed.

'Purpureum Plenum'
Also called 'Plenum Violaceum'. Deep violet-blue, double flowers, produces no seed.

'Splish Splash'
Forms a moderate growing clump, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 feet.
The flowers are purplish-blue ( with pure white flecks ), up to 1.3 inches across, are borne all summer long.

'Striatum'
Slightly less vigorous, only reaching a maximum height of 3 feet.
The flowers are pure white with violet-blue splatters and splatters.

'Victor Reiter'
Forming a semi-evergreen clump, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.3 feet. This excellent foliage plant has deep purple leaves that hold their color very well.
The deep lilac-purple flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne all summer long.

Geranium psilostemon ( Armenian Cranesbill )
Also called Geranium armenum. A fast growing, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4 feet. It is native to meadows and open woodlands in mountains from northeast Turkey to southwestern Caucasus region.
The very large, deeply cut, palmately-lobed leaves, up to 8 x 9 inches in size. The mid-green foliage is reddish at first and turns to intense scarlet-red in autumn.
The intense purplish-pink ( with black center ) flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on deep, fertile, moist, well drained soil. It thrives where summers are cool.
This plant should be planted on a site protected from excessive wind which may flatten it.

'Bressingham Flare'
Sterile, dusty pink ( with darker eye ) flowers borne over a very long season.

Geranium pylzowianum
A pretty, rhizome spreading perennial, reaching up to 12 x 16 inches, that is native to mountain meadows in western China.
The coarsely-toothed, palmately-lobed, Maple-shaped, feathery leaves, up to 1 inch wide, are bright green.
The clear pink flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on a soil that is well drained.

Geranium renardii ( Renard's Geranium )
A fast growing, dense, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet, that is native from eastern Europe to the Caucasus. It is excellent for use in edging.
The attractive, puckered, crinkled, toothed and 5 or 7 lobed leaves, up to 4 inches across, are soft, velvety gray-green.
The white to pale lavender ( veined violet ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in clusters all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained, light soil.
In milder climates, it is best grown in dry shade. It is more sun tolerant in the north.

'Terra Franche'
Deeply lobed, fuzzy, gray-green leaves and violet flowers.

'White Knights'
Deeply-veined, gray-green leaves and flowers that are white with deep lilac veins.

Geranium x riversleaianum

'Mavis Simpson'
An attractive groundcover perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 4 feet.
The gray-green, 7-lobed leaves, up to 4 inches across, are blotched with brown during spring.
The flowers are light pink with deep purple veins. They are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Geranium robertianum ( Herb Robert )
An annual or biennial, reaching up to 20 inches, that is native to Europe into western Asia. It is also naturalized over much of northeastern North America to as far north as Sault Ste Marie and Haliburton, Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it has become abundant in the Point Pelee and Leamington area.
The deeply palmate-lobed leaves are bright green, turning to red towards autumn.
The pink flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, appear late spring into early autumn.
Hardy zone 3 to 8.


* photo taken on Oct 17 2013 in Olney, MD


Geranium sanguineum ( Bloody Cranesbill )
A long-lived perennial forming a vigorous, low, dense, spreading mat, up to 20 inches x 4 feet, that is native to Eurasia ( from Ireland to the Caucasus ). It is locally naturalized in North America in Sauble Beach, Ontario. It is excellent for edging and groundcover.
The deeply-cut, 5 to 7 lobed leaves, up to 4 inches across, are deep green, turning to bright red in autumn.
The very showy, glowing purplish-pink flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne late spring to late summer ( often lasting up to 8 weeks ).
Hardy zones 3 to 8, tolerating as low as -40 F, in full sun to partial shade ( prefers afternoon shade in zone 7 and 8 or where drought occurs ) on average to moist, well drained soil. Heat, drought, limestone and sand tolerant, it is not often bothered by pests or disease. Easy to grow. Cut back in early summer for better repeat bloom.

* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photo taken on Dec 3 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Alan Bloom'
Reaches up to 1 foot in height, with bright pink ( subtly striped ) flowers borne over a long season.
The luxuriant deep green foliage turns intense red during autumn.

* photos taken on May 21 2014 in Harford Co., MD


'Album'
Forms a large clump, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3 feet.
The flowers, up to 1 inch across, are pure pristine white.
Less sun tolerant, preferring partial shade in a woodland garden.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Cedric Morris'
Vigorous growing, forming a clump, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 4 feet.
The rosy-red flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne heavily during late spring then sporadically through to early autumn.

'John Elsley'
An excellent, vigorous, trailing, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2.5 feet with deep green leaves that turn intense red in autumn.
The bright pink ( veined darker ) flowers, borne over a long season during early and mid summer.

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Kahn'
Reaches up to 20 inches x 3 feet, with purplish-pink flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, that are borne heavily during early summer then sporadically into early autumn.

'Lancustriense'
Very pale pink flowers; otherwise identical to species.

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photo taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Max Frei'
An excellent, attractive, fast growing groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3 feet.
The deep purplish-pink flowers borne early summer into early autumn.

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 24 2017 in Columbia, MD


'New Hampshire Purple'
Forms a clump, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3 feet, with attractive foliage that turns red in autumn.
The intense deep reddish-purple flowers are borne over a long season.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on May 10 2012 in Columbia, MD


'Purple Flame'
Forms a clump, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3.5 feet. The purple flowers, are borne profusely early to mid summer, then sporadically later in the season.

'Striatum'
Forms a creeping mat, up to 1.5 x 3+ feet ( rarely over 7 inches in height ). The mid pink ( veined deep red ) flowers, are borne profusely early to mid summer then sporadically into late summer.

* photo taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 20 2012 in Columbia, MD


Geranium shikokianum ( Shikoku Geranium )
A slow rhizome spreading perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1 foot, that is native to meadows at high elevations of central and southern Japan.
The softly hairy, deeply 5-lobed leaves, up to 4 inches wide, are bright green and lightly marbled yellow.
The white ( with purple veins ) flowers, up to 1.2 inch across, are borne mid summer until the first hard frost during autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil.

var yoshiianum
A groundcover variety, reaching only up to 6 inches in height.

Geranium sinense
A vigorous, mounded perennial, reaching up to 2+ x 2 feet, that is native to open woodlands in southwest China ( Sichuan & Yunnan Province ).
The deeply-cut, 7-lobed leaves are lightly marbled.
The flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are very deep red to almost black, borne during late summer, often persisting until mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 6b to 9 in dappled or partial shade on moist soil. Easy to grow.
Division is difficult and it is better to leave established clumps alone.

Geranium soboliferum
An upright, mounding, clumping perennial, reaching up to 32 x 22 inches, that is a widespread native to moist, alpine meadows in Asia from Russia to Manchuria, Korea and Japan.
The finely-textured leaves, up to 4 inches wide, are lobed and deeply divided. The mid-green foliage turns intense red during autumn.
The deep red to purple flowers, up to 1.6 inches wide, are borne during mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 4b to 9 in full sun to partial shade. Soil PH, drought, clay and seashore tolerant. Easy to grow. Deer resistant.

Geranium sylvaticum ( Woods Cranebill )
A deeply-rooted perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 2.8 feet ( rarely over 3 feet ), that is native to grasslands and open woodlands in Eurasia ( from Ireland to Siberia; south to Turkey and the Caucasus ).
The toothed, deeply 7 or 9 lobed leaves, up to 8 inches across, are grayish-green.
The violet ( centered white ), cupped flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne on hairy stems, during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil. Tolerant of woodland conditions and really grows best in a semi-shaded woodland garden. Cut back to 4 inches from the ground after flowering.

'Album'
Very attractive with large, white flowers. It usually comes true from seed.

'Mayflower'
Flowers are rich violet-blue with a white eye.

'Silva'
Deep green leaves contrast with bright pink flowers.

Geranium traversii var. elegans
A small, compact perennial, reaching up to 10 inches x 2 feet, that is native to New Zealand and Australia. Great for use in rock gardens.
The small, Maple-leaf shape leaves are soft silvery-gray.
The silvery-pink ( with white center ) flowers are borne late spring into early autumn.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun on very well drained soil.

Geranium versicolor
A perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet, that is native to southeastern Europe ( from Italy to Yugoslavia and south ). It has naturalized in much of Rngland.
The deeply 5-lobed leaves, up to 8 inches across, often have brown patches. The basal leaves are evergreen.
The flowers are white ( veined purplish-pink ), are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on dry to moderately moist, well drained soil.

Geranium wallichianum
A semi-prostrate, spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 8 feet ( rarely over 4 feet in width ), that is native to the Himalayas ( northeastern Afghanistan to Kashmir ).
The coarsely-toothed, deeply 5-lobed, maple-shaped leaves, up to 6 inches across, are mid-green.
The flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are light blue with a white center. They are borne early summer into mid-autumn.
The blooms have dark stamens and are borne on hairy stems.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun or shade on cool, moist, fertile, well drained soil.

'Buxtons Variety'
Flowers slightly deeper blue and still having the white center.

Geranium wlazzovianum ( Siberian Cranesbill )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2 feet, that is native to from Mongolia to eastern Siberia; south to northeastern China. It is great for perennial borders.
The velvety foliage is gray-green with brown markings, turning bronze and red during late summer into autumn. The stems are soft hairy and the leaf stalks are short.
The abundant, dark violet ( with purple veining ) flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Tolerant of both extreme cold and hot summers.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


GERANIUM HYBRIDS

Geranium 'Alaska'
A vigorous perennial, reaching up to 2 feet, that is a hybrid of Alaskan origin.
The creeping stems die back to the point of origin each winter.
The blue flowers are borne late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Geranium 'Ann Folkard'
A vigorous, open, groundcover perennial, with creeping stems reaching up to 6+ feet in length, forming clumps as large as 1 x 12 feet. It is the hybrid between Geranium procurrens & G. psilostemon. It is best used to weave around other plants.
The large, 5-lobed leaves are yellowish-green.
The abundant, intense, purplish-pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average, well drained soil. In climates with hot summers, it is best in partial shade as its foliage may burn in hot sun.

Geranium 'Brookside'
The hybrid between Geranium clarkei 'Kashmir Purple' & G. pratense.
A vigorous but compact, clump forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3.2 feet.
The finely-cut, lacy leaves, up to 7 inches across, are green, turning intense red in autumn.
The bowl-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, are intense mid blue with a white eye. The flowers are borne late spring to mid-summer, often repeating early to late autumn if cut back after the first flush of blooms.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on average to moist, well drained soil. Drought tolerant and deer resistant.


* photo taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 10 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD


Geranium 'Dragon Heart'
A dense, spreading, clumping perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 2.5 feet in size.
The very large leaves are similar in shape to 'Rozanne' but double the size.
The intense purplish-pink ( veined and centered black ) flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil. It is tolerant of sandy soil as well as drought once established. It is very resistant to deer and rabbits.

Geranium 'Johnson's Blue'
Hybrid between Geranium himalayense & G. pratense. Forms a fast growing clump, up to 3 x 3.3 ( rarely over 2 feet ) feet, bearing large, bright blue ( darker veined ), cup-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across. They are borne late spring into early summer. The flowers are sterile.
The deeply-cut, 7-lobed leaves are deep green.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on average, well drained soil.

Geranium 'Jolly Bee'
A perennial, reaching up to 3 x 7.5 ( rarely over 2 x 5 ) feet, bearing bright blue ( with white center ) flowers borne late spring though to mid-autumn. It is very similar to Geranium 'Rozanne', looking almost identical and growing only slightly larger.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park


Geranium 'Orion'
Reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 6 feet, this geranium has deeply cut, mid-green leaves and purplish-blue flowers. The flowers, up to 2 inches wide, are borne late spring then sporadically to mid-autumn ( especially if cut back hard during mid summer ). The flowers are among the largest of any perennial Geranium cultivar.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

Geranium 'Patricia'
Reaches a maximum size of 5 x 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet with deep green foliage. It has Geranium psilostemon as one of its parents.
The purple-pink flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, with a starry black center, are borne over a very long season from early summer to late autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade

Gernaium 'Phillippe Vapelle'
A moderate growing perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet; it is the hybrid between Geranium platypetalum & G. renardii. It has attractive, rough, gray-green leaves, up to 4 inches across.
The purplish-blue flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, with darker veins, are borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. Very drought tolerant.

Geranium 'Rozanne'
Very vigorous growing, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 6.5 ( rarely over 2 x 3 ) feet. The attractive, healthy foliage is deep green, turning intense red during autumn.
The profuse, deep blue ( with tiny white center ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne late spring through late autumn. It is among the longest blooming of all Geranium.
The flowers attract butterflies.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Heat, drought and humidity tolerant.
Resistant to rabbits.

* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on July 15 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photos taken on June 7 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Jul 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON


Geranium 'Russell Prichard'
A spreading, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 foot x 40 inches, that is a hybrid including Geranium traversii in its parentage. The long trailing stems die back to the main crown each winter.
The deeply-cut, Maple-shaped leaves are gray-green.
The pink flowers are borne over a very long season from early summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on a warm sheltered site.

Geranium 'Spinners'
Forms a large clump, up to 4 x 3 feet, with deeply divided foliage.
The deep purplish-blue, bowl-shape flowers, up to 1.5 inch across, are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade.

RELATED PLANTS

Erodium

* photo taken on Mar 20 2012 in Columbia, MD


Erodium chrysanthum ( Yellow Storksbill )
A perennial, reaching up to 10 inches x 2 feet. It is great for the rock garden and along paths.
The fine-textured foliage is bluish-gray.
The pale yellow flowers are borne mid-spring through the summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It thrives in harsh climates such as in Denver, Colorado.

Erodium manescaui ( Pyrenees Heronbill )
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches in height, that is native to mountain meadows in the Pyrenees Mountains in France and northern Spain.
The pinnate leaves are composed of toothed, ovate leaflets. The foliage is hairy mid-green.
The magenta-pink flowers are borne late spring into summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on moist, light, well drained soil.

Erodium petraeum
A perennial, reaching up to 10 x 20 inches in size, that is native to Portugal and Spain.
The finely-dissected leaves are gray-green.
The white or pink flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne during summer and autumn.

Erodium x reichardii
A low, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 feet.
The small, soft pink flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

'Bishops Form'
Taller, reaching up to 2 feet.

'Flore Plena'
Double flowers, otherwise identical.

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