Wednesday, April 7, 2010

Ornamental Pears - Pyrus

All pears are deciduous unless otherwise noted. Most Pears are deep rooted, drought and pollution tolerant and grow in most fertile soils. Many Pyrus tolerate heavy clay soil.
While clones are reproduced by grafting; the species are easily grown from seeds sown while fresh.
Many ornamental Pears need to be trained to a desirable shape when young but need little pruning beyond that.

Pyrus amygdaliformis ( Almond-Leaf Pear )

Native to coastal areas in the northeast Mediterranean Region of southern Europe and Asia. This is a small tree reaching a maximum size of 40 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of up to 2 feet.
The smooth-edged to shallowly-toothed, oblanceolate leaves are up to 3 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is silvery at first, turning to glossy gray-green.
The white flowers appear with the foliage during mid-spring.
They are followed by yellow-brown, rounded fruits, up to 1.5 inches wide.
The branches are sometimes spiny.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 tolerating as low as -25 F. Rarely seen in North America; this is a very attractive ornamental tree looking somewhat like Salix alba

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id512027/

Pyrus balansae
A moderate growing, small tree that is native to central Asia. Some records include: 20 years - 30 feet; largest on record being 50 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 1.1 foot.. It is closely related to Pyrus communis.
The broad-oblong leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The foliage turns to purple during autumn.
The yellowish-brown fruits are up to 1.5 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 4 tolerating as low as -30 F

Pyrus betulifolia ( Birchleaf Pear )
A fast growing, small tree, reaching up to 30 feet, that is native to northern China. The Birchleaf Pear is strong growing with slightly pendulous branches. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 66 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.8 feet.
The strongly-toothed, slender-tipped, oval to rounded leaves are up to 3.3 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is gray-green in spring turning to glossy green.
The rounded pea sizes fruits are dark brown in color.
Hardy zones 3 to 7; it thrives in most of Midwestern and Northeastern North America.

* historic archive photo


'Edgedell'
Fire blight resistant with purplish spring foliage.

Pyrus bourgaeana ( Iberian Pear )
A close relative of Pyrus communis, forming a deciduous, small tree, reachiing up to 33 x 33 feet. It is native to southern Portugal, Spain and northern Morocco. It is endangered in the wild where it is often found along streamsides.
The ovate leaves, up to 1.6 inches in length, are hairy at first, turning to smooth mid-green.
The white flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, appear during mid-spring with the foliage.
They are followed by yellow to brown fruits up to 1 inch wide.
The twigs are spiny.
Hardy zones 9 to 10. It is very disease resistant, rarely getting fire blight.

Pyrus bretschneideri
An upright medium-sized tree, reaching up to 53 x 25 feet in size, that is native to northern China. It is related to Pyrus ussuriensis.
The broad-oval or elliptical leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne on loose clusters.
They are followed by yellowish-green, rounded or oval pears, up to 1.3 inches wide. It has been planted for its juicy fruits for hundreds of years in China.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

Pyrus calleryana ( Callery Pear )
A fast growing, upright to rounded, medium-sized, deciduous tree that is native to central China, Korea & Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 70 x 60 feet with trunk diameter of 3 feet; 20 years - 50 x 40 feet; fastest growth rate - 4 feet with trunk diameter increase of 0.7 inches
The finely-toothed, oval leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy green. The foliage turns to red-purple during late fall to early winter.
The unpleasantly scented white flowers are up to an inch across and are borne in early spring in clusters up to 3 inches across. They have 5 petals and red anthers.
The fruits are brown, fleshy, small up to an inch across, and rounded on slender stalks.
The stout twigs large, whitish hairy buds.
The branches are often thorny. The bark is pale gray and cracks into scaly ridges.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( var tomentella has proven fully hardy at zone 4b Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada, all other clones have not ) preferring full sun on fertile, well drained soil. The Callery Pear is tolerant of flooding, clay, heat, drought and urban conditions. Young trees should be trained to a central leader with branches well spaced or else this tree may become very susceptlble to storms with age.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C


* photo taken on June 6 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos of noxious weed Bradford Pear invasion taken on Apr 16 2015


'Aristocrat'
Fast growing to 40 x 40 feet and more open and pyramidal in habit with a strong central leader and strong horizontal branches. Some records include: 7 years - 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.3 inches. It is less prone to breakage in wind storms than the regular Bradford Pear.
The foliage turns to orange during autumn.
It is prone to fireblight.

'Autumn Blaze'
Exceptionally cold hardy ( to -35 F ) with strong wide crotches causing the tree to be wind resistant.
Excellent scarlet, early but long lasting autumn color.

* photos taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Bradford'
Identical to species but thornless. Vigorous growing, forming a strongly ascending, dome-shaped tree. Flowers heavily in spring with white flowers and has excellent red autumn foliage color. Commonly planted as a street tree though unfortunately older trees very easily split in storms if not trained correctly when young.

* photos taken on April 11 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken in Columbia, MD on April 5 2010












* photo taken on Nov 2 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 1 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Chanticleer'
Very vigorous, upright and narrowly conical, to 46 x 18 feet in 20 years with the record being 70 x 25 feet. An excellent tree for confined spaces.
The dark green foliage turns to deep red during autumn 3 weeks before Pyrus calleryana 'Bradford'. Resistant to fireblight and less prone to breaking during storms.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 10 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 12 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 20 2017 in Columbia, MD


Pyrus communis ( Common Pear )
Native to western Asia, the Common Pear is a fast growing, domed tree to 50 feet; some records include: largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet; longest lived - 384 years.
The smooth-edged, oval to rounded leaves are up to 6 x 4 ( rarely over 3.5 ) inches in size. The leathery, glossy deep green foliage often reddens during autumn.
The often thorny branches are covered in white ( with red anthers ) flowers during mid-spring. The flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne in clusters with the emerging foliage.
The following fruits are edible, sweet tasting and large up to 5 inches in length. This is the Pear most often found in grocery stores.
The dark gray bark cracks into small plates. The stems are usually reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 9
Prune to a single leader when young, feather, thin and remove lower branches.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* historic archive photos


'Bartlett'
Fruit is bright green sometimes slightly red cheeked and ripening to yellow. They keep poorly but are very juicy and excellent tasting.

* historic archive photo


'Beurre d'Anjou'
Late bearing with smooth red tinged green fruit with sweet juicy flesh.

* historic archive photo


'Bosc'

* historic archive photo


'Cascade'
Heavy bearing with bright red globular fruits. The flesh is juicy and sweet.
br />'Clapp's Liebling'
Very juicy, delicious small fruits

'Comice' ( Christmas Pear )
fruits are smooth, pale green skinned and very juicy and aromatic

'Conference'
Brown skinned fruit with faintly pink tinged sweet juicy flesh

'Gellerts Butterbirne'
From Germany. The very juicy, delicious fruits are yellowish-green with bronze-orange cheeks

'Red Bartlett'
less vigorous and lower yielding. Fruits are bright red

Pyrus cordata ( Portugese Pear )

Native to southwestern England ( extremely rare and known as "Plymouth Pear" ) and southern Europe. It is a fast growing, suckering, thorny small tree to 30 x 30 feet. The fastest growth rate is an incredible 12 feet being the fastest of any Pyrus. The canopy is dense with densely thorny branches.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 1.8 inches in length have scalloped margins. The glossy deep green foliage turns to red in fall.
The abundant white flowers appear with the foliage in spring.
The rounded fruits are small ( up to 0.8 inches across ), glossy brownish-red.
Twigs are purplish
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( tolerating as low as 5 F ). A report of zone 4 hardiness is unverified - this tree has not been well tested in North America. Both drought and flood tolerant.

Pyrus cossonii
Also known as Pyrus longipes. A small tree, reaching up to 30 feet, that is native to Algeria. Some records include: largest on record - 55 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The attractive toothed, broad-oblong leaves, are up to 2 x 1.5 inches in size. They are pale gray felted in spring turning to glossy green in summer.
The white ( pink in bud ) flowers up to 1.5 inches across are borne in clusters during spring.
The rounded fruits are small ( up to 0.6 inches wide ) and brown.
The branches have occasional thorns.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Pyrus 'Early Gold'
A Pear specifically bred for hardiness that even thrives in Alberta where it can reach up to 14 x 11.5 feet in just 5 years, topping out around 30 feet.
The fruit are excellent for eating. Needs another variety for pollination.


Pyrus elaeagnifolia

A medium-growing, thorny, slender, small tree to 25 feet in height, that is native from southeast Europe to Russia; south to Turkey. The largest on record is 50 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is closely related to Pyrus nivalis.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is silvery-gray.
The fruits, up to 0.5 inches long, are hard, green and rounded.
The branches are thorny.
Native zones 4 to 9

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id100164/?taxonid=449584

Pyrus faurei ( Korean Pear )
Moderate growing up to 3 feet per year, reaching up to 30 feet on average with the largest recorded being 45 x 50 feet. The Korean Pear is usually pyramidal in habit.
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 3 inches in length. The foliage colors early ( usually deep red ) during autumn.
The white flowers appear after the foliage emerges during late spring. They are followed by small fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and urban tolerant.

Pyrus glabra ( Iranian Pear )
Also called Pyrus syriaca var. glabra. A very rare, small tree reaching up to 46 feet in height though usually under 20 feet, that is native to Iran.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 x 0.7 inches in size.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne in clusters of 5 to 8.
The stems are tipped in spines.

Pyrus kawakamii ( Evergreen Pear )
Native to Taiwan. Fast growing up to 3 feet per year with the record being 7 feet. Grows up to 30 feet in size in 15 years and eventually reaching up to 40 x 40 feet with a dense upright canopy. There is no listed world record but trunk diameters up to 2 feet are known.
The leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The glossy mid-green foliage is evergreen in mild climates, semi-evergreen in temperate climates. The leaves turn to red before falling.
The white flowers appear during early spring.
They are followed by small, pea-sized fruits.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, tolerating hot summers though can be prone to leaf scorch with reflected sun in southern Arizona.

Pyrus korshinskyi ( Bukharan Pear )
A rounded, small to medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 25 x 35 feet, that is native to high elevations of Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is critically endangered with extinction despite having high potential as a landscape tree as well as for use in breeding hardier fruit trees. It is considered by some to be a subspecies of Pyrus communis.
The attractive, elliptical leaves are glossy mid-green, turning to scarlet-red during autumn.
The rounded fruits are golden-yellow.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun on well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.arkive.org/pyrus/pyrus-korshinskyi/

Pyrus nivalis ( Snow Pear )
A very attractive, ascending, thornless, medium-sized tree native from southern Europe, north to Austria to Hungary to Romania. Some records include: 20 years - 50 x 40 feet; largest recorded - 70 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.2 feet. It is very long-lived, persisting up to 300 years.
The smooth-edged, oval leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The leaves are covered in white down in early spring turning dark green in summer then to deep red during autumn.
The abundant white flowers up to 2 inches across are borne in racemes in early spring as the leaves begin to emerge.
The rounded fruits, up to 2 inches long, are yellowish-green in color.
Hardy zones 3 to 9.

Pyrus pashia ( Himalayan Pear )

A fast growing, oval-crowned, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 40 feet, that is native from Iraq and Kashmir to southern China; south to northern India & Vietnam. Some records include: 8 years - trunk diameter of 1 foot; largest on record - 60 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches. It is one of the most ornamental of all Pears. Despite its native range, it is reported to thrive in parts of the Midwest including Chicago. It is long-lived, often exceeding 80 years.
The finely-toothed, ovate leaves are up to 6 x 2 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size.
The white or pale pink flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid-spring.
The brown fruits are up to 2 x 1.5 inches in size.
The bark is brownish-black.
Hardy north to zone 5. It requires 30 + inches of average yearly rainfall but is prone to scab in humid climates.

* photo of unknown internet source


Pyrus pyrifolia ( Sand Pear )
A dense, rounded, medium-size tree native to China and Japan. The largest on record is 70 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. Moderate growing with the fastest rate record being 3 feet. Long-lived, it can persist as long as 300 years.
The toothed, oval leaves are up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green during summer and turns to orange and crimson in fall.
The white flowers are produced in spring just before or with the emerging foliage.
The fruits, up to 1.5 inches across, are small, brown and hard with gritty flesh.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photo taken on April 10 2010 in Howard County, MD

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id217638/

'Shinko'
Sweet tasting and aromatic. Rounded medium size fruit.

'Shinseiki'
A handsome tree, reaching up to 30 feet. It is self fruiting with smooth, pale yellow fruit with sweet tasting, juicy, white flesh. The fruit ripen during early.

Pyrus pyraster ( European Wild Pear )
Also called Pyrus communis subsp. pyraster. A moderate growing, upright, oval, medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum size of 87 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.3 feet. It is long-lived, persisting as long as 304 years. It is a native to most of central and eastern Europe into western Asia and Iran. Besides the edible fruit, this tree is also prized for the wood which is valuable for making musical instruments.
The broadly-oval leaves resemble that of Pyrus communis.
The yellowish-brown pears are usually small, to only 1.5 x 1.5 inches in size.
The brown twigs are often spiny.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

* photo of unknown internet source


Pyrus regelii ( Turkestan Pear )
A xerophytic, fast growing, spiny, small tree, reaching up to 30 x 20 feet, that is native to central Russia and Turkestan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
It is great for reforestation in dry climates.
The pinnate leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.5 inches in size, are composed of 3 to 7 deep lobes or leaflets. The leathery foliage is glossy bright green.
The white flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne during mid-spring.
They are followed by fruits up to 1 inch across.
The thorny stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it is extremely drought tolerant and also heat and clay tolerant. Propagation is from seed, though unfortunately it is very slow growing for the first few years.

Pyrus salicifolia ( Willow-Leaf Pear )
A small graceful tree with slender drooping branches, native to the southeastern Europe, the Caucasus and northeast Turkey. Typically reaching around 25 feet in 20 years; the largest on record is 50 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. The fastest growth rate recorded is 4 feet.
The willow-like, lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is silky and silvery at first; turning to glossy, gray-green. The foliage turns to deep red ( golden-yellow in milder regions ) during autumn.
The flowers are creamy-white and up to 0.7 inches across.
The flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are usually borne in April in clusters, have 5 petals and deep pink anthers.
The hard, brown, pear-shaped fruits are up to 1.5 inches across.
The smooth plated bark is pale gray-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. Drought tolerant. It thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada but is still mostly unknown in northeastern North America. It may be prone to black spot and mildew on sites that are hot and humid and lacking in air circulation.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id77243/?taxonid=618247

'Pendula'
Broadly weeping with silvery foliage

Pyrus serotina ( Asian Pear )

Upright, rounded, small to medium-sized, deciduous trees. Some records include: largest on record - 57 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.1 feet. It is usually moderate growing, averaging up to 2.5 feet per year on younger trees.
The fruits are rounded and somewhat resemble Apples. They have yellowish-brown to brownish skin. They are sweet-tasting and juicy. 'Chojuro', 'Hosui' and 'Shinseiki' are among the best cultivars and cross pollinate each other. These have high quality fruit that can be kept months in the refridgerator. Hardy to -40 F. It is drought tolerant once established. Mulch heavily and water deeply once weekly during the first summer. Trees grafted on 'Bartlett' rootstock tend to be very prone to fire blight. A good, very disease resistant, hardy rootstock is Pyrus 'Old Home; x 'Farmingdale'. Pyrus calleryana may be an excellent disease resistant rootstock for the southeast.

* historic archive photo


Pyrus serrulata
A medium-sized, deciduous tree that is native to central China. Some records include: largest on record is 80 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet.
The very minutely-toothed, broadly-ovate leaves, up to 4.5 inches in length, are deep green above.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( may prove more cold hardy with testing ).

Pyrus syriaca
A dense, small, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 40 ( rarely over 20 ) feet, that is native to mountain grassland and scrub. It is endangered with extinction in its native range. It also grows wild in Malta where it is assumed to have naturalized centuries ago. Some records include: largest on record - trunk diameter of 1.3 feet.
The toothed, oval or elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 1 inch in size, are glossy bright green above, grayish beneath. The white flowers appear during early to mid spring with the emerging foliage.
The brownish-yellow fruits are edible but small and seedy compared to the somewhat similar Pyrus communis. They ripen during early autumn.
The plated bark is gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -20 F ). It is very drought tolerant and may be used for that reason as rootstock for commercial pears in dry climates.

* excellent photo link below.
http://www.flowersinisrael.com/Pyrussyriaca_page.htm

Pyrus ussuriensis ( Ussurian Pear )
A fast growing, broad conical-crowned, medium-size tree to 60 feet, that is native to northeast China, Korea and northern Japan. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; size in 20 years - 50 x 40 feet, largest recorded - 100 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. It makes a great street tree for cold climates.
The leathery, bristle-toothed leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The leathery yellowish-green foliage turns to brilliant scarlet-red during autumn.
The white flowers up to 1.5 inches across are borne in broad clusters during early spring. The flowers have many prominent stamens.
The green-brown fruits, up to 1.5 inches across, ripen during autumn and persist into winter.
Hardy zones 1 to 7. Resistant to Fire Blight, it grows without irrigation in climates with over 25 inches of precip per year and grows very well in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photos taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id217639/

'McDermand'

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


'Prairie Gem'
An outstanding selection for the northern Great Plains, with beautiful glossy green thick foliage. It is otherwise similar to the species.

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