Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Peonies

Paeonia
Extremely durable and very long lived, exceeding 100 years in age; the Peonies emerge early in spring, throw a spectacular show and retain an interesting show of foliage the remainder of the season. There are approximately 30 species native to Europe and Asia, most are perennials but some are shrubs.
Peonies require partial shade ( full sun in cool summer climates ) on moist, deep, fertile, well drained soil and actually would rather weather a drought than be excessively wet. Excessive nitrogen will cause floppy growth and delayed blooming on herbaceous species.
The plants taste bitter and are therefore usually left alone by deer, rodents and rabbits.
Some species of Peony's may be prone to mildew fungus which can make the foliage very unsightly during late summer. Ants may appear on Peonies but cause no harm.
It is less common on plants installed on sites with good air circulation and where the old shoots are removed and disposed during autumn after the foliage dies down. If plants still become infected, then a well timed application of a good fungicide during following growing seasons will help keep the foliage lush and green.
Seedlings are slow to develop and must not be planted out in the landscape until 4 years of age. Paeonies grown from seed typically also flower in their 4th year, however division source plants often bloom heavily the next summer. Division is best done during early autumn.
If you purchase Tree Peonies that are grafted on herbaceous stock, it is important to plant the graft union 4 to 6 inches below the ground so that the graft forms its own roots ( herbaceous Peonies should be planted with the crown 1.5 inches deep ). Peonies establish better if planted during autumn from September to December. If you purchase plants during the spring; keep them in the pot and well watered until planting them in autumn. Peonies are very long lived and the soil conditions will influence vigor and blooming considerably. It is important to dig a deep hole, up to 1.5 feet deep, that is 2 or more feet across and mix lots of compost into good soil. Place bonemeal in the bottom of the hole with a thin layer of soil on top so that the roots grow down into it rather than have an immediate shock. Mulch the soil, at least for the first winter to protect the roots from excessive freeze and thaw.
Peonies are easily manipulated into improved growth with a 10-10-10 fertilizer during early spring when the new shoots are about 3 inches high. Paeonies dislike competition with weeds as well as root disturbance.
As for pruning; remove old blooms, also:
Herbaceous Peonies: Cut back to about 3 inches from ground level after the foliage dies back from frosts in autumn.
Shrub Peonies: Just remove withered foliage in autumn but leave the woody stems alone.
Herbaceous Peonies are easily divided during mid autumn as the foliage yellows with the divisions replanted at the same depth and fertilized heavily with bonemeal or high phosphorous fertilizer to stimilate root growth - they should grow vigorously come spring. To divide plants, dig up the clump and divide it into pieces, each with 3 or maybe 4 eyes. Paeonies rarely actually need dividing, they can go up to 15 years without and maintin vigor however how can you resist spreading these beautiful plants around the yard.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* historic archive photo


Paeonia anomala
A very beautiful perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to central Asia ( from the Ural Mountains to Siberia; south to Kazachistan to Xinjiang ).
The pinnate leaves are finely-divided into leaflets, up to 4 x 1 inches.
The foliage is deep green.
The abundant, intense deep-red ( with yellow stamens ) flowers, up to 6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches across, are borne during late spring. It will take at least 3 years for it to bloom from seed.
Hardy zones 2 to 8. It is drought tolerant due to its deep taproot.

Paeonia arietina
A perennial, forming a spreading clump, up to 3 x 3 feet, that is native to southeast Europe ( Italy to Turkey, excluding Greece ).
The foliage is mid-green above, hairy beneath. The pinnate leaves are composed of 9 ovate leaflets.
The reddish-pink ( with creamy-yellow stamens ) flowers, up to 4.7 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

'Rose Gem'
Flowers are red.

Paeonia brownii ( Brown's Peony )
A bushy perennial, reaching up to 3.3 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet in height, that is native to western North America ( from British Columbia to Wyoming; south to California to Nevada to Utah ).
The deep-red, gold and green flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, in partial shade on very well drained, alkaline soil.
It is very drought tolerant and parts of its native range get as little as 10 inches of yearly precip.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Paeonia cambessedesii ( Balearic Island Peony )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2 feet, that is native to the Balearic Islands where it is endangered.
The leathery leaves, up to 11 inches in length, are composed of lance-shaped leaflets, up to 7 x 3 inches. The foliage is glossy gray-green above, purplish-red beneath.
The deep rose-pink flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. Drought tolerant and actually prefers dry soil, especially during summer.

Paeonia caucasica
Forms a perennial clump up to 3.5 x 3 feet with very red stems and spring foliage, that is native to the Caucasus.
The leaves are biternate and the flowers, up to 4 inches across, are scarlet-red.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is drought tolerant due to its deep taproot. Propagation is from seed sown immediately.

Paeonia coriacea
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 feet, that is native to southern Spain, the Mediterranean Islands and the Atlas Mountains in Morocco.
The leathery, dissected leaves are gray-green.
The rose-pink flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Paeonia daurica
A long-lived perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet in height, that is native to mountain forests from Crimea to northwest Caucasus.
The foliage is triternate.
The large, intense-red flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil.

Paeonia delavayi ( Maroon Tree Peony )
A vigorous, suckering, open and upright, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 5 feet, that is native to Yunnan Province in China. Some records include: largest on record - 8 x 8 feet.
It sometimes forms dense, suckering thickets.
The graceful, deeply-cut, double-divided leaves, up to 18 x 10 inches ( rarely over 12 x 10 inches ), are composed of oval leaflets, up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, blue-green beneath.
The nodding, intense deep red ( with golden-yellow anthers ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 4 inches, are borne during late spring. A mature bush may have up to 200 or more flowers at a time.
The flowers are followed by large pods.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 in full sun to partial shade preferring a site protected from excessive wind. Very heat and drought tolerant and also tolerant of chalky soil.
It is not prone to botrytis rot. Overgrown or freeze damaged plants can be cut close to the base during early spring and will resprout vigorously.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer or seed sown in autumn.

'Anne Rossee'
A hybrid with Paeonia lutea with lemon-yellow flowers streaked red on the reverse.

'Black Pirate'
A hybrid with very deep red flowers.

Paeonia emodi ( Himalayan Peony )
A perennial reaching up to 2.5 feet, that is native to the Himalayas ( from northern Pakistan to southwestern Tibet; south to northwest India and Nepal ).
The dissected foliage is glossy deep green.
The fragrant, white ( with golden-yellow stamens ) flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

'White Innocence'
A hybrid between Paeonia emodi and P. lactiflora. Reaching up to 5 x 4 feet and sturdy in habit, it is the tallest herbaceous Peony.
The abundant, single, pure white flowers are borne during late spring.

Paeonia japonica
A woodland Peony, reaching up to 2 x 2.5 feet, that is native to mountain forests of Korea and northern Japan.
The gray-green foliage is divided into broad oval to obovate leaflets. The foliage is generally disease resistant and remains attractive all season until mid autumn. The leafstalks and stems are reddish.
The extremely showy fragrant, single, white flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during late spring. The flowers are borne over a period lasting around 10 days.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade.


* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 19 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Paeonia lactiflora ( Chinese Paeony )
A perennial, forming a clump reaching as large as 4 x 4 feet ( rarely over 3 feet ), that is native to Siberia and central Mongolia; south to Tibet, China and Korea.
The pinnate leaves are composed of leaflets, up to 7.5 x 2 inches.
The foliage is often bronze-red at first, turning to deep green.
The fragrant, silky-white ( with yellow stamens ) flowers, up to 7 (rarely over 4 ) inches across, are borne during late spring lasting up to 3 weeks.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 tolerating as low as -60 F. Prefers full sun. Older clumps may decrease in blooming due to overcrowding, they can be divided during autumn upon going dormant with the pips ( small reddish buds )placed about 1.5 inches below the soil surface. Each division should have 3 or more pips. Overheaded irrigagion should be avoided as it can contribute to leaf blotch, remove old foliage during autumn. While attracted to blooming Peonies, ants have no effect on the health of the plant. Spraying the ants absolutely should not be done as it can kill beneficial pollinating insects.

* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on June 7 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on Oct 27 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


'Amabilis'
Reaching up to 3 x 4 feet with very light pink, double, mid-season flowers, up to 9 inches across.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


'Barrington Belle'
Reaches up to 3 feet with double purple mid-season flowers.

'Beersheba'
Fragrant, single, rose-pink flowers.

'Best Man'
Reaches up to 3 x 2.5 feet with showy, doublered flowers.

'Bonanza'
Double deep red flowers

'Bowl of Beauty'
Vigorous growing, reaching up to 4 x 3 feet with fragrant, single, light pink ( yellow centered ), early season flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 23 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Bowl of Cream'
Vigorous growing, reaching up to 3 feet, with very large, fragrant, single, light pink ( with showy yellow stamens ), mid-season flowers.

* photo taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Buckeye Belle'
Reaches up to 3 feet with semi-double, deep red, early-season flowers.

'Bunker Hill'
Reaches up to 3 feet with bright pinkish-red flowers borne early summer.

'Charlie's White'
Reaches up to 4 feet with lightly fragrant, semi-double, white, early-season flowers. Attractive foliage.

'Chocolate Soldier'
Fragrant, semi-double flowers, are purplish-red centered with yellow mottling.

'Claire de Lune'
Fragrant, single, creamy-yellow flowers appear mid to late spring.

'Claire Dubois'
Very fragrant, double, satiny pink flowers.

'Constance'
Flowers are pink ( with yellow stamens ) borne mid spring.

'Coral Fay'
Reaches up to 32 inches x 3 feet with semi-double, deep pink flowers, borne early spring. It has finely cut foliage resembling this hybrids other parent - Paeonia tenuifolia.

'Dinner Plate'
Very large, fragrant, double, mid-pink flowers.

'Doreen'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet with single, deep pink ( with yellow fringed center ) flowers borne early summer.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Dr. Alexander Fleming'
Reaches up to 3.5 feet with large, double, deep pink, mid-season flowers.

* photos taken on May 25 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Duchesse de Nemours'
Forms a large clump up to 3 x 3 feet with abundant, fragrant, double, white ( centered yellow ), early-season flowers lasting up to 10 days.

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Eden's Temptation'
Reaches up to 3 feet with strong stems bearing double, white, mid-season flowers.

'Edulus Superbus'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 4 feet with very profuse, very fragrant, pink, early season flowers.
Tolerates as low as -40 F and is very clay tolerant.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Emma Klehm'
Forms an upright clump, up to 2.5 feet with fragrant, double, intense deep pink, late-season flowers. Foliage is deep green.

'F.D. Roosevelt'
Very fragrant, double, deep pink flowers.

'Felix Crousse'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet with intense, scarlet-red flowers borne late spring into early summer. The deep green foliage stays lush and attractive all summer long.

'Felix Supreme'
Double, deep red flowers.

'Festiva Maxima'
Reaches up to 3.3 x 4 feet with fragrant, double, white ( flecked deep-red ), early-season flowers.
Hardy north to zone 2, even in Peace River in northern Alberta.

* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Flame'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet with deep green foliage and intense scarlet-red, mid-season flowers.

'General MacMahon'
Reaches up to 3 feet with double, red, mid-season flowers.

'Globe of Light'
Fragrant, semi-double, rose-pink ( with golden-yellow center ) flowers.

'Honey Gold'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with creamy-yellow, mid-season flowers.

'Jay Cee'
Rich green foliage contrasts with fragrant, double, intense red flowers.

'Kansas'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with strong stems bearing sweetly fragrant, double, deep red, early-season flowers.

'Karl Rosenfield'
Reaches up to 38 inches x 4 feet with strong stems bearing double, intense deep purplish-red, mid-season flowers. The foliage is deep green.

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 24 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Kelway's Glorious'
Reaches up to 3 feet with strong stems bearing very abundant, very fragrant, double, white flowers.

'Krinkled White'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet with strong stems bearing very large, white ( with yellow center ), early-season flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Lillian Wild'
Double flowers that are white flushed with pink.

'Lord Kitchener'
Single, deep red flowers.

'Monsieur Jules Elie'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 4 feet with huge, fragrant, double, light red-pink flowers borne early summer.

'Nancy Nora'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with double, intense pinkish-red flowers borne late spring.

'Nippon Beauty'
Late season flowers that are deep red with yellow stamens.

'Nymphe'
Reaches up to 34 inches with single, light red-pink ( centered yellow ) flowers borne mid-season.

'Okinawa'
Deep red flowers ( with yellow stamens ) borne during late spring.

'Paula Fay'
Reaches up to 3 feet with semi-double, deep pink, early-season flowers.

'Peter Brand'
Reaches up to 3 feet with double, deep red, late-season flowers.

'Pillow Talk'
Strong growing, reaching up to 3 feet with glossy leaves and double, pink, mid-season flowers.

'Pink Cameo'
Reaches up to 3 feet with early summer flowers that are deep pink on the outside, light pink on the inside.

'Pink Jazz'
Reaches up to 32 inches with double, hot pink, late season flowers.

'President Poincare'
Fragrant, double, ruby-red flowers.

'Primevere'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with fragrant, double, creamy-white ( centered yellow ) flowers, borne late spring.

'Prince of Darkness'
Double, very deep red flowers borne late spring.

'Queen Wilhelmina'
Fast growing, reaching up to 32 inches with semi-double, mid-season flowers that are deep pink with white edges and showy yellow stamens.

'Raspberry Sundae'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with very fragrant, mid-season flowers that are white dripped in deep red topping.

'Red Charm'
Intense red, double flowers borne earlier than average.

* photo taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD


'Romance'
Large, pink flowers borne during late spring.

'Sarah Bernhardt'
Very reliable, reaching up to 3.5 x 5 feet with fragrant, double, pale pink, late-season flowers.

* photos taken on June 1 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 30 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 21 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Scarlet O'Hara'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet with single, mid-red flowers.

'Shirley Temple'
Vigorous growing, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet with flowers, up to 5 inches across, that are light pinkish-red fading to white.

* photo taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD







* photos taken on May 18 2011 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on May 20 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Sorbet'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 4 feet with mid-season, double flowers that are pink on the outside and pale pink and yellow on the inside.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Sword Dance'
Semi-double, intense red flowers.

'Top Brass'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 4 feet with double, creamy-white, late-season flowers.

'Victoire de la Marne'
Reaches up to 3 feet with mid-season, double flowers that are purplish-red with lighter edges.

'White Wings'
Reaches up to 3 feet with fragrant, white flowers that are centered yellow, during late spring to early summer.

'Whopper'
Very large, fragrant, double, soft pink flowers.

Paeonia x lemoinei
A shrub that is the hybrid between Paeonia lutea & P. suffruiticosa. It grows taller than Peonia suffruticosa, reaching up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet.
The divided foliage is bright green.
The single to double flowers, up to 8 inches across, come in a mix of colors.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Alkaline soil tolerant.
Propagate from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer.

'L'Esperance'
Semi-double flowers, up to 8 inches across, are pale yellow with deep red markings in the center. The foliage is mid-green.

'Roman Child'
Flowers are semi-double and yellow with deep red blotches at the petal bases.

'Shirley Temple'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet, with double, pure white flowers, borne late spring into early summer.

'Souvenir de Maxime Cornu'
Fragrant, double, yellow, double flowers, up to 8 inches across. The flowers have ruffled petal margins that are red-orange.

Paeonia lobata
A spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 3.3 feet.
The deeply-cut leaves are glossy green.
The deep red ( with red stamens ), cup-shaped flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Fire King'
Intense scarlet-red flowers.

Paeonia lutea ( Yellow tree Peony )
A shrub, reaching up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet, that is native from Tibet to Yunnan Province in China.
Some records include: largest on record - 7 x 8 feet.
The deeply-cut leaves, up to 15 x 10 inches, are composed of deeply-cut leaflets, up to 7 x 0.8 inches in length. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep green above, blue-green beneath.
The orange-yellow, cup-shaped flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne in clusters of 2 to 3 during spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.
Overgrown or freeze damaged plants can be cut back to near the base during early spring and will resprout. Otherwise, old stems that lost their vigor can be cut back at that time to make room for new vigorous shoots. Deadheading old blooms will give the shrub a neater appearance.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer. It can also be grown from seed sown during autumn however this is much slower as the seed may take a few years to germinate.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on May 11 2011 in Columbia, MD







var ludlowii ( Tibetan Peony )
A vigorous subspecies, native to western China, that is larger growing than regular Paeonia lutea. Some records include: 3 years - 7 feet; largest on record - 15 x 17 feet.
It may be extinct in the wild, surviving only in gardens around the world.
The leaves are composed of larger leaflets, up to 7 x 0.8 inches, otherwise similar.
The very large golden-yellow flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne during mid-spring with the emerging foliage.

Paeonia macrophylla
A perennial, reaching up to 4 feet in height, that is native to the Caucasus.
The deep green, biternate foliage is composed of obovate lobes or leaflets.
The creamy-white to bright yellow flowers, up to 5.5 inches across, are borne during late spring over a period lasting 3 weeks.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil.

Paeonia mairei
A perennial, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to deciduous forests in the mountains of southwestern China.
The leaves are composed of 3 leaflets that are deep green above and paler beneath.
The single, rose-pink ( with golden stamens ) flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Very shade tolerant.

Paeonia mascula
A bushy perennial, native from France to the Caucasus; south to the Mediterranean, Turkey and northern Iran. It forms large clumps reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet.
The bold foliage is blue-green above, fuzzy blue-green beneath. The leaves are divided into 7 to usually 9, elliptical leaflets.
The single, red flowers, as much as 5.5 inches across, are borne mid to late spring.
Seed grown plants take up to 5 years to bloom.
Hardy zones 5b to 10 in full sun on well drained soil that is somewhat dry during summer.

ssp hellenica
A very rare native to a few sites in Greece as well as in Sicily, having large, crinkly white flowers contrasting with blue-green foliage.

ssp russi
Native to the islands of Sardinia, Sicily and Corsica. It is a very early bloomer with red stems bearing large, pale-pink flowers during mid-spring.
The foliage is blue-green above, red beneath. The obovate leaflets are hairy below.

Paeonia mlokosewitschii ( Caucasian Peony )
A very attractive perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 3.3 feet, that is native to the southeast Caucasus in western Asia.
The pinnate leaves, are composed of 9 obovate leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The attractive foliage is soft gray-green above, downy beneath, coloring well in fall.
The lemon-yellow ( with golden-yellow stamens ), up to 5 inches across, are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Very clay tolerant.

Paeonia obovata ( Japanese Peony )
A rare perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet, that is native to woodlands of Siberia, Manchuria and northern China.
The pinnate leaves, up to 14 inches long, are composed of 9 leaflets, up to 6 x 4 inches. The deep green foliage is resistant to mildew and often turns to deep red during autumn.
The single, pure white flowers, up to 4 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on fertile, light, well drained soil. Propagation is easy and seedlings sometimes naturally appear in the garden.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Alba'
Identical except for the flowers being pure white with golden stamens.

'Grandiflora'
Larger creamy-white flowers.

Paeonia officinalis ( European Wild Peony )
A spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 4 feet, that is native to Europe ( southern France to Hungary; south to the Balkans ).
The deeply-cut leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are mid to deep green. The 9 leaf lobes are oblong.
The deep red ( with red stamens ) flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, tolerating as low as -40 F, It is tolerant of limestone soils.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


'Alba Plena'
Reaches up to 28 inches x 3 feet, with double, white, early-season flowers. The flowers are pale pink in bud.

'Mollis'
Reaches up to 20 inches with early-season flowers that are pink with a yellow eye.

'Rosea Plena'
Reaches up to 28 inches x 3 feet, with double, red-pink flowers borne late spring.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Rubra Plena'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet with double, deep red flowers borne mid spring.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'White Innocence'
Reaches up to 5 feet with white flowers. A spectacular specimen plant, it is the tallest of all herbaceous Paeonies.

Paeonia ostii
A small shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet, that is native to deciduous forests in Gansu and Henan Province of central China. It is endangered in the wild.
The leaves up to 21 inches in length, are composed of leaflets up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The very abundant, very fragrant, white to pinkish-white flowers, up to 6 ( rarely 8 ) inches wide, appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is very tolerant of hot humid summers.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


Paeonia peregrina ( Balkan Paeony )
A clump forming perennial, reaching up to 32 inches x 2.5 feet, that is native to southeast Europe from the Romania and the Balkans to Turkey.
The biternate leaves are divided into up to 18 segments.
The foliage is glossy deep green above, turning to yellow in fall.
The single, intense deep red, cup-shaped flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=2771

'Fireking'
Glossy scarlet-red flowers.

'Sunbeam'
Orange-red flowers.

Paeonia potaninii
A Chinese native shrub, very similar to Peonia delavayi but smaller, reaching only up to 4 feet in height and spreading by stolons. The leaves are more finely divided and the flowers are smaller.

'Alba'
Creamy-white flowers.

Paeonia x smouthii
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.5 x 2.5 feet.
The finely dissected leaves remain healthy deep green all summer long.
The fragrant, deep red flowers, up to 3.2 inches across, are borne during late spring.

Paeonia steveniana
A perennial, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to open hillside forests in the country of Georgia in central Asia.
The foliage resembles that of P. lactiflora and is glossy mid-green, however is tinged red on some plants.
The white or very pale pink flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Paeonia suffruticosa ( Moutan Paeony )
A dense, upright, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 5+ feet, that is native from Bhutan to northwestern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 15 x 17 feet ( rarely over 5 feet in height ). Very long-lived, it can persist for hundreds of years.
The deeply-cut, double-pinnate leaves, up to 18 x 10 inches, are composed of leaflets, up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is smooth deep green above, blue-green beneath.
The foliage appears early during spring.
The varible white, pink or red or violet ( with golden-yellow anthers ), saucer-shaped flowers, up to 8 inches, are borne during mid-spring. Some cultivars have even larger flowers up to 12+ inches across. A single plant may bear up to 100 blooms.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. They are PH adaptable though preferring neutral but good drainage is a must.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during late summer. Transplanting or installing new plants must be planted during early autumn in order to give plants time to establish before rapidly flushing with new growth the following spring. Plants installed during spring often fail to establish or rapidly weaken and die. Plant deep enough to make sure all shoots are underground ( planting for herbaceous peonies is different ). Mulch with organic compost ( ex. shredded leaves ) during late autumn during the first few winters to prevent frost heave damage and feed the roots come spring. It is important to buy from a reputable growing as woody peonies are often grafted onto herbaceous peonies to speed up the production process. Purchasing from a good grower who does not leave the graft intact or not cutting away the herbaceous peony roots later on, risk you ending up with the herbaceous understock coming up and devouring your prize tree peony. Non-cultivars can be grown from seed but may take up to 7 years to bloom.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo taken on Oct 14 2015 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 4 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photos


'Banksii'
The double flowers are purplish-red shading to near white.

'Bijou de Chusan'
Flowers are blush-white with a rose-pink center.

'Chinese Dragon'

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Companion of Serenity

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Elizabeth'
Fragrant deep red flowers

'Ezra Pound'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 5 feet tall.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The abundant, showy, single to semi-double flowers are white with purple flairs coming from the center.

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Gauguin'

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Godaishu'
Also called 'Five Continents'. Reaches up to 5 x 4 feet with HUGE white flowers, up to 10 inches across.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Hana Kisoi'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet and bearing large, double, bright pink flowers.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Higurashi'

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Purple Lotus'
Reaches up to 8 x 10 feet, with huge, pure white ( with purple flares ) flowers up to 10 inches wide.

'Reine Elizabeth'
Large, salmon-pink, double flowers with ruffled petal edges.

'Rock's Variety'
Also called Paeonia rockii, is an ultra-hardy subspecies native to north-central China ( southern Gansu, w Henan, w Hubei & sc Shaanxi ). Forms an imposing, vigorous, upright, dense shrub up to 8 x 13 feet ( average is around 5 x 7 feet ), with fragrant, semi-double flowers, up to 7.5 inches across, that are white with a deep red blotch. The very abundant, fragrant flowers are borne during late spring.
The leaves are composed of 3 or 5 lobed lance-shaped leaflets, up to 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 x 1.5 ) inches. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to deep blue-green.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it thrives in both the maritime Pacific Northwest as well as the eastern U.S. as far north as Michigan and even central Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. It can tolerate as low as -40 F and even colder if plants are protected and grown on their own roots. A site with good drainage and good air circulation is recommended.
Full sun is preferred in cool climates, light afternoon shade where summers are hot.
Planting in groups may aggrevate leaf blight susceptibility and is not recommended though this Peony isn't particularly disease prone. Drought resistant for a Peony.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Rosea Plena'
Fragrant, double, pink flowers.

'Seidai'
A very vigorous form, reaching up to 5 feet, that produces abundant, semi-double flowers, up to 8 inches across.

* photo taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 25 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Taiyo'

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Toichi Ruby'
Intense red, double flowers.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Yaguno'

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Paeonia tenuifolia ( Fernleaf Peony )
A spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 ( rarely over 2.5 ) x 4 feet, that is native to central and southeastern Europe, east to the western Russia and the Caucasus.
The dense, ferny foliage is biternate and very finely cut. The foliage is deep green.
The single flowers, up to 4 inches across, are shiny deep red ( with golden stamens ) borne slightly above the foliage. They are borne during early summer over a period lasting 2 weeks.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Plena'
Double red flowers.

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Rosea'
Pink flowers

Paeonia tomentosa
Also called Paeonia wittmanniana var. tomentosa. A very attractive, compact perennial, reaching up to 3 feet in height, that is native from Iran to Azerbaijan.
The biternate leaves are composed of broad obovate leaflets/lobes. The foliage is glossy bright green though some plants are deeper in color with a reddish tinge.
The large, white flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 on protected sites ) in full sun on well drained soils.

Paeonia veitchii
A rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial, reaching up to 4 x 4 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet, that is native to mountain meadows in northwest and central China.
The deeply-divided leaves are bronze-green during summer, coloring attractively during autumn. The leaves are divided into pointed narrow segments.
The nodding, single, pink flowers, up to 3.5 inches across, are borne during mid spring - 3 weeks before the P. lactiflora hybrids.
Hardy north to zone 3, requiring partial shade. Seedling grown plants take 3 or sometimes more years to bloom. They may self seed in the garden.

Paeonia wittmanniana ( Wittmann's Peony )
A clumping perennial, up to 5 x 3 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet, that is native to mountain forests in the Caucasus.
The leaves are divided into obovate leaflets, up to 6.5 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, bright green beneath.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 4.3 inches across, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. It is drought tolerant due to its deep taproot.

Intersectional Hybrids
Hybrids between herbaceous and tree Peonies with attractive divided foliage and very large showy flowers.
They prefer full sun ( prefers light to moderate afternoon shade in hot summer regions ) on fertile, moist, deep, humus rich, well drained soil. Bonemeal application is recommended during early fall to stimulate root growth and an all purpose fertilizer recommended during early and late spring.
As for pruning, it is recommended to cut woody stems to 2 inches in height above the ground during late autumn. Do NOT cut off any buds that are slightly above ground level. Highly disease resistant, however botrytis can sometimes be a pest.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer. It is recommended to plant the eyes at a depth of 1.5 to 2 inches. Transplanting during the growing season is NOT recommended.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD









* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Paeonia 'Ballerena de Saval'
Reaches up to 32 inches, with pale lavender flowers borne mid-season.

Paeonia 'Bartzella'
Herbaceous in habit, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet with huge, 9 inch, fragrant, double yellow lemon-flowers with hints of red in the center. A single plant may bear up to 60 blooms at a time and the blooming may last for up to 1 1/2 months.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

* photos taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Paeonia 'Border Charm'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with single, yellow flowers with large red flares in the center. The flowers are borne mid-season. The attractive dense foliage is deep blue-green.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Paeonia 'Callie's Memory'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 6 feet, with lightly fragrant, semi-double flowers that are pastel creamy-pink with deeper central flare. The flowers are borne mid-season.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Canary Brilliants'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 3 feet, with lightly fragrant flowers, up to 7 inches across, that are creamy-yellow with an apricot center. The flowers are borne mid-season.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Cora Louise'
Reaches up to 3 feet with lightly fragrant, huge, semi-double flowers, up to 10 inches across, that are white with deep lavender flares.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'First Arrival'
Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with lightly fragrant, semi-double flowers, up to 8 inches across that are lavender-pink.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



Paeonia 'Garden Treasure'
The hybrid between P. lactiflora x P. lutea, reaching up to 3 x 5 feet, with large golden-yellow, semi-double flowers with red petal bases. The large leaves last well into autumn.

Paeonia 'Going Bananas'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 2.5 x 2.5 feet, with huge, semi-double, intense yellow flowers with red central flares.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Hillary'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with striking, semi-double flowers, up to 7 inches across, that are mid-pink with a darker center, that later fade to cream.
The mid-season flowers are borne over an extended period.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Julia Rose'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 3 x 3.5 feet with spectacular, fragrant, semi-double flowers up to 8 inches across, that open red, fading to orange then yellow. Often all 3 colors occur at a time on a plant.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Kopper Kettle'
Extremely vigorous, reaching up to 4 x 3.5 feet, with semi-double flowers that are red and orange. The flowers are borne midseason and up to 80 flowers may be occur on a plant. Very resistant to botrytis disease.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Paeonia 'Lafayette Escadrille'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 2.5 feet, with single, deep red flowers.
The dense foliage is deep red at first during spring, later turning to green.

Paeonia 'Lemon Dream'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with semi-double, yellow flowers borne mid-season. The deeply-cut leaves is glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

Paeonia 'Lollipop'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with very profuse, double flowers that are yellow with red candy stripes.

Paeonia 'May Lilac'

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Paeonia 'Morning Lilac'
Reaches up to 3 x 3.5 feet, with very abundant, lightly fragrant, semi-double flowers, up to 6 inches across, that are fuschia-purple in color. The foliage is deep purplish-green at first during spring, quickly turning to gray-green or mid-green.
In autumn the foliage turns intense bright orange to red.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



'Norwegian Blush'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with single to semi-double flowers that are light rose, deepening towards the center. The deep green foliage is heavy textured.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Paeonia 'Old Rose Dan'
Very fast growing with single brick-red flowers borne midseason.

Paeonia 'Pastel Splendor'
Extremely vigorous, reaching up to 3 x 5 feet, with up to 70 or more stems per plant.
The single flowers are pale lavender with deep purple flares. The flowers later fade to cream.

Paeonia 'Pink Double Dandy'
Also called 'Keiko'. Reaches up to 3 x 3 feet, with very profuse ( up to 50 + per plant ), double flowers, up to 6 inches across, that are lavender-pink becoming much deeper towards the center. The flowers are borne over a long season.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



* photos taken on May 14 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


Paeonia 'Prairie Charm'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with lightly fragrant, semi-double flowers that are yellow with red flares at the petal bases. The flowers are borne midseason.

Paeonia 'Raggedy Ann'
Light pink flowers with large, deeply cut petals borne midseason.

Paeonia 'Rosy Prospects'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, with semi-double flowers up to 8 inches across. The flowers are white with ruffled petal edges and wine-red flares. The flowers sometimes produce seed. The rich green leaves are large.

Paeonia 'Royal Blush'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet, with semi-double flowers that are pink in bud, opening to soft pink with reddish highlights.

'Scarlet Heaven'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with lightly fragrant, single, scarlet-red flowers.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'Sequestered Sunshine'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 3.5 x 3.5 feet, with semi-double, bright yellow flowers.

Paeonia 'Shining Light'
Reaches up to 2.5 x 3 feet, with semi-double, yellow flowers.

Paeonia 'Singing in the Rain'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with semi-double, peachy-yellow flowers.

Paeonia 'Sonoma Amethyst'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with profuse, semi-double, midseason flowers that are lavender in color.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



'Sonoma Apricot'
Reaches up to 3 feet, with lightly fragrant, single flowers that are apricot-orange fading to yellow with red flares. The flowers are borne midseason.

'Sonoma Sun'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with single flowers that are yellow with small red center flares. The flowers are borne during mid season.

'Sonoma Velvet Ruby'
Single, deep red flowers borne during midseason. The foliage dies down during mid summer.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


'Sonoma Welcome'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with profuse, single flowers that open apricot-orange later fading to pale yellow. The flowers are borne midseason.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


'Sunshine Sensation'
Single, orange-gold flowers that later fade to cream with pink tones. The flowers are borne during midseason.

'Unique'
Very vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with fragrant, single, red flowers. The deep green foliage is much finer than most cultivars.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


'Viking Full Moon'
Robust in habit, reaching up to 3 feet, with single, lightly fragrant, soft yellow flowers with light red center flares. The flowers are borne midseason.
Hardy north to zone 2

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Paeonia 'White Emperor'
Reaches up to 2.5 feet, with semi-double, white flowers with light purple flares.

Paeonia 'Yankee Doodle Dandy'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet, with profuse, very fragrant, large, semi-double, deep pink flowers. The foliage lasts well into autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD


Other Hybrids

Paeonia 'Stardust'
Reaches up to 3 feet with excellent foliage and large white flowers with golden-yellow stamens.

* photo taken at Brookside Gardens - Party with the Peonies tour on May 21 2011 in Fulton, MD



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