Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Parthenocissus - Virginia Creeper

A small genus of deciduous vines, all with very attractive autumn color, that belong to the greater Vitaceae family and are distant relatives of the Grapes.

Parthenocissus henryana ( Silvervein Virginia Creeper )
A very vigorous, woody-stemmed, self-clinging, tendril climbing ( with adhesive pads ) vine reaching a maximum size of 70 x 30 feet, that is native to moist woodlands in China.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 3 to 5 toothed, oval leaflets, up to 4.7 x 2 inches, that are velvety and deep green with bold white veining. The foliage turns to intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The flowers are tiny and yellowish-green.
They are followed by bright blue fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, that are borne in clusters during autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in sun or shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.
This vine is not generally bothered by insect or disease.
Propagation is from hardwood cuttings taken during spring or softwood cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


Parthenocissus himalayana ( Himalayan Virginia Creeper )
A rapid growing vine reaching a maximum height of 70 feet.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, up to 6 inches in length.
The foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Parthenocissus inserta
A rapid growing vine, reaching a maximum height of 70 feet, that is native to moist woods in eastern North America. It is similar to Parthenocissus quinquefolia except that it is not self-clinging and not having the suction cups. It ranges further north than P. quinguefolia, north to Winnipeg, Manitoba to Ignace, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Batchewana, Ontario to Temagami, Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant both around Windsor and at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s. It is found in both swamps and upland forest in the wild.
The palmately compound leaves are composed of 5 leaflets, up to 10 inches in length, that are glossy green. The foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


Parthenocissus laetvirens
The Asian equivalent of our native Parthenocissus quinquefolia, of equal vigor and size. It is native to China.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 5 toothed, oval leaflets, up to 5 x 2 inches, that are yellow-green. The foliage turns to deep-red during autumn.
The flowers are tiny and yellowish-green.
They are followed by large clusters, up to 10 inches across, of dark blue fruits.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun or shade on fertile soil.

Parthenocissus quinquefolia ( Virginia Creeper )
A rapid growing, self-clinging, tendril climbing, woody vine, reaching a maximum height of 155 feet, that is native to rich woods and swamps of eastern North America ( from Minnesota to central Michigan to Wiarton, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to Massachussetts; south to Texas to Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant throughout southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time.
The tendrils have adhesive pads which stick to tree trunks and walls. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet; record trunk diameter - 9 inches.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 5 toothed, oval leaflets, up to 8 x 3 inches, that are glossy green. The foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The flowers are tiny and yellowish-green.
They are followed by dark blue fruits.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 in full sun or shade on fertile soil. Tolerant of extreme heat, wind, pollution, salt and clay. It is hardy far north of its native range and is one of the best landscape vines for use on the Canadian Prairie Provinces. It may be prone to munching Japanese Beetles in some regions.
Propagation is from seed for the species; the cultivars are from hardwood cuttings taken early spring or softwood cuttings in summer.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos of unknown internet origin



* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 27 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Aug 24 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


'Variegata'
A spectacular variegated cultivar, turning multicolor pink and red during autumn.

Parthenocissus thompsonii
A tendril climbing, woody vine reaching a maximum height of 33 feet, that is native to western to central China.
The palmately-compound leaves are composed of 3 to 5 sharply-toothed leaflets, up to 4.7 inches in length. The very attractive foliage is reddish-purple at first during spring, turning to glossy purplish-green with bold white veining. It turns to deep reddish-purple during autumn.
The flowers are tiny but are followed by showy black berries during autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on fertile well drained soil with adundant organic matter.

Parthenocissus tricuspidata ( Boston Ivy )
A fast growing to rampant, self-clinging tendril-climbing, woody vine, reaching up to 100 + feet in height, that is native to China, Korea and Japan. The tendrils have adhasive pads which stick to tree trunks and walls. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 20 feet; largest on record - 2 inch trunk diameter.
The 3 triangular lobed, "Maple-shaped" leaves, up to 7 x 8 inches, are luxuriant mid-green. The foliage turns to brilliant scarlet to deep red during late autumn.
Boston Ivy may become semi-evergreen in mild climates.
The flowers are tiny and yellowish-green.
They are followed by dull blue fruits.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( clones from northern China are the hardiest ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile soil.
Propagation is from seed for the species; the cultivars are from hardwood cuttings taken early spring or softwood cuttings in summer.

* photo from family photo album taken on July 1973

* photos of unknown internet origin




* photo taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario
* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* historic archive photos

* interesting video found on Youtube


'Beverly Brooks'
Leaves are larger than that of regular P. tricuspidata on average, otherwise similar.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Fenway Park'
Vigorous with foliage that is glowing yellow during spring, turning to bright greenish-yellow. The foliage turns to red and orange during autumn.

'Ginza Lights'
The foliage is splashed white and pink. The leaves turn to red during autumn.
'Green Showers'
Larger leaves, up to 10 inches across. The bright green foliage turns to red during autumn.

'Lowii'
Deeply cut and crinkled leaves with 3 to 7 lobes. The foliage is deep green, turning to intense deep red during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

'Purpurea'
Deep purple leaves

'Veitchii'
Leaves are slightly smaller and purplish during spring before turning to luxuriant green. Foliage turns intense reddish-purple in fall.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

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