Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Primula

A very large genus of rosette/clump forming perennials that are grown in temperate climates around the world. Most species require consistently moist soil as they are not drought tolerant.
They are propagated from seed or division done during early autumn.
Where winters are severe, it is recommended to mulch during autumn to protect the roots from frost heaving.

* photos of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Mar 10 2012 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on May 13 2015 in Columbia, MD


Primula allionii ( Allion's Primrose )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 inches, that is native to mountain cliffs in southern France.
The sticky leaves, up to 1.8 inches in length, are green.
The white, rosey-red or purple flowers, are borne in umbels of up to 7, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, alkaline, very well drained soil. It does not enjoy winter wetness.

'Bill Martin'
A vigorous, fast multiplying clone that is profuse flowering.

Primula alpicola ( Moonlight Primula )
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 feet x 16 inches ( rarely over 2 feet ), that is native to high mountains in southeast Tibet.
The wrinkled, toothed, oval leaves, up to 6 x 3.2 inches, are green.
The fragrant, nodding, white, pale yellow, red-purple to purple, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne in elegant umbels, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist to wet, peaty soil.
Flood tolerant.

Primula amoena
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot, that is native from Turkey to the Caucasus.
The small, crinkled leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid green.
The lavender ( with yellow eye ) flowers, are borne in clusters of 6 to 10, during spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial shade on humus rich soil.

Primula aurantiaca
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 1 feet, that is native to western China.
The ragged, toothed, oval leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are mid-green.
The yellow to orange-red flowers, are borne in clusters atop deep red stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.

'Bonfire'
Intense orange-red flowers.

Primula aureata
An evergeen clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of inches, that is native to Nepal.
The leaves are farinose during winter only.
The large, creamy-yellow ( with orange flushed centers ) flowers, are borne in small umbels, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool shade on very humus rich, consistantly moist, well drained soil. It dislikes both dry summers and excessive winter wetness.

Primula auriculata
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 16 ( rarely over 12 ) inches, that is native to mountains of central Europe.
The smooth-edged, thick, oval leaves are blue-gray and often farinose. The foliage is evergreen in mild climates.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne in large umbels, throughout spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, very well drained soil.

'Alicia'
Deep purple-red flowers with a lighter edge.

'Beatrice'
Flowers are purple with a purplish-pink border and creamy-white center.

'Blairside Yellow'
Fragant, rich yellow flowers.

'Blue Fire'
Fragrant blue flowers.

'Butterwick'
Reddish-brown flowers that have a golden-yellow center.

'C.W. Needham'
Deep purplish-blue flowers that are yellow-green in the center.

'Lavender lady'
Flowers are bright purple with a white center.

'Red Dusty'
Farinose foliage and red flowers.

Primula beesiana ( Bee's Primrose )
A vigorous, semi-evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2.5 feet, that is native to Yunnan Province in China.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 20 x 2.5 inches, are bright green and slightly farinose.
The profuse, slightly fragrant, reddish-purple ( yellow eyed ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne in clusters, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.

Primula x bileckii
A tufted, miniature, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2 inches, that is native to Europe.
The toothed leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are deep green.
The deep rosey-pink ( white eyed ) flowers, are borne in umbels of 2 to 5, during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, very well drained soil.

Primula x bullesiana
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 20 inches.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 20 x 2.5 inches, are bright green and slightly farinose.
The cream, yellow, orange, pink red or purple flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.

Primula bulleyana
A vigorous, deciduous to semi-evergreen clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 40 x 27 inches, that is native to Yunnan Province in western China.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 14 x 4 inches in length, are deep green with a red midrib.
The orange, tubular flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to shade on fertile, light, consistantly moist to wet soil.
Tolerant of wet boggy soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


Primula burmanica
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 28 x 18 inches, that is native to Yunnan Province in China.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 12 x 3 inches in length, are green.
The reddish-purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.
Easy to grow.

Primula capitata
A compact rosette, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 1.5 feet, that is native to Yunnan Province in China as well as northwest Burma.
The coarsely-toothed, crinkled, farinose leaves are up to 6 x 0.8 inches in size.
The foliage is bright green above, powdery-white beneath.
The small, purplish-blue, tubular flowers, are borne in globular heads, from mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool light shade on moist, humus-rich, light, well drained soil.

var 'mooreana'
The attractive foliage is white beneath. The flowers are richly colored.

Primula chionantha
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2.5 (rarely over 1.5 ) feet, that is native to mountain meadows in northwest Yunnan Province in China.
The leathery, strap-shaped leaves, up to 12 ( rarely over 10 ) inches in length, are farinose turning to gray-green.
The fragrant, white ( yellow eyed ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in clusters, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool partial shade on moist but light, very well drained soil. It does not grow well in dry climates.

Primula chungensis
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2 feet, that is native to Yunnan Province in China.
The shallow-lobed, oval leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches, are green.
The bright orange ( with red eye ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stems, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.
Tolerant of wet boggy soil.

Primula clarkei
A tufted, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2 inches, that is native to
The small leaves are bright green.
The rose-pink flowers, are borne in small umbels, during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.
Divide every 3 years.

Primula cockburniana
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 1 feet, that is native to the southwest Sichuan in the Himalayas.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 6 x 1.6 inches in length, are green.
The intense orange-red flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stems, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist but well drained soil.

Primula cortusoides
A clumping,evergreen perennial, reaching a maximum height of 1.5 ( rarely over 1 ) feet, that is native to Siberia and Mongolia.
The attractive leaves, up to 8 ( usually half that ) inches in length, are crinkly and hairy.
The reddish-purple flowers, are borne in large umbels, during late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in partial to full shade on moist, light, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Primula denticulata ( Drumstick Primula )
A vigorous, tough, long-lived, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 2.2 feet, that is native from Afghanistan to Bhutan.
The toothed, long, strong, leathery leaves, up to 12 x 3 inches in size, are farinose.
The foliage is downy white beneath.
The white, blue, pale lilac-pink to deep purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne in dense globular heads, up to 3.2 inches across, atop a strong stalk, during spring. The flowers are borne before or with the emerging spring foliage.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, deep, fertile, acidic, humus-rich soil. Resistant to frost and easy to grow. The foliage is evergreen to 10 F. Mulch during winter is essential in cold climates where winter snowfall does not reliably occur.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Alba'
White flowers

'Bressingham Beauty'
Powdery-blue flowers

'Blue'
Blue flowers

'Pritchard's Ruby'
Deep red flowers.

'Rubin'
Red flowers.

Primula edgeworthii
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 14 inches, that is native to the Himalayas.
The leaves, up to 7 inches in length, are farinose at first, later turning to green.
The soft bluish-pink ( with white or yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne in clusters, late winter to early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool shade on very humus rich, consistantly moist, well drained soil. It dislikes both dry summers and excessive winter wetness.

Primula elatior ( Oxlip )
A vigorous, clumping perennial, reaching up to 15 inches x 1.5 feet, that is native to moist woods from northern Europe to the Caucasus.
The irregularly toothed, elliptical to rounded leaves, up to 10 x 3 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are mid-green above, hairy beneath.
The abundant, nodding, pale yellow, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne in umbels of 10 to 30 on stems up to 14 inches high, during early to late spring.
The are also clones in cultivation that bloom white, deep yellow, rosey-pink, red and blue-violet.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, neutral to alkaline, well drained soil.

* historical archive photo


'Pacific Hybrids'
Vigorous clones with very intense colored flowers. Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 4 & 5 on very sheltered sites ). In mild climates they will bloom during mild spells from late autumn through mid spring.

Primula farinosa ( Bird's Eye Primrose )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot, that is native from Scotland to the Kamchatka peninsula in northeast Asia. It is generally not long lived.
The farinose leaves, up to 4 x 0.8 inches, are silvery above, powdery-white beneath.
The leaves are wavy-edged and spatulate.
The pink to violet-blue ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in large umbels, during early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula florindae ( Giant Cowslip )
Also called Tibetan Primrose. A vigorous, long lived, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 3.3 feet, that is native to southern Tibet and China. It makes an excellent groundcover for wet sites and look great planted next to the water.
The long stalked, toothed, heart-shaped leaves, up to 20 x 6 inches, are glossy deep green.
The fragrant, nodding, pale-yellow ( rarely orange or red ), bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne in huge heads of 20 to 40. The flowers are borne over a long season during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on consistantly moist to wet, fertile, neutral to alkaline soil. Tolerant of wet soil and will even grow in shallow water. It is tolerant of harsh climates and thrives in Calgary, AB, Canada however not much further north.

Primula forrestii
A long lived, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 32 inches, that is native to Yunnan. This Primula spreads via woody rhizomes that can be up to several feet long. This Primula is great for planting in rock crevices.
The crinkled, leathery, leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are deep green.
The fragrant, golden-yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches, are borne in clusters of 10 to 25, during late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on dryish, alkaline, well drained soil.

Primula frondosa
A rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 10 inches, that is native to
The farinose leaves, up to inches in length, are silvery beneath.
The pinkish-blue to red-purple flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in umbels of 10 to 30, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil. Easy to grow.

Primula gracilipes
A tight rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 12 inches, that is native to Sikkim.
The serrated leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are not farinose.
The abundant, deep pink ( white eyed ) flowers, are borne in clusters, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool shade on very humus rich, consistantly moist, well drained soil. It dislikes both dry summers and excessive winter wetness.

Primula helodoxa ( Amber Primrose )
A vigorous, semi-evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3.3 feet, that is native to the Himalayas.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 15 x 3 ( rarely over 12 ) inches, are glossy bright green.
The bright golden-yellow flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on consistantly moist, fertile, alkaline soil. It is very clay tolerant.

Primula intercedens
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot, that is native to
North America. It is generally not long lived.
The farinose leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are silvery.
The pink to purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in large umbels, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula japonica ( Japanese Primrose )
A rapid spreading, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 3.5 feet, that is a widespread native to swamps at high elevations in much of Japan.
The coarsely-toothed, oval leaves, up to 16 x 9 ( rarely over 12 x 4 ) inches, are luxuriant bright green.
The reddish-purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on deep, fertile, consistantly moist soil.
Very wet soil and clay tolerant. Tough and easy to grow. The cultivars generally breed true from seed.

* photos taken on May 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Album'
White flowers

'Carmina'
Reaches a maximum size of 3.5 x 3.5 feet, with rosey-red flowers borne over a long season from late spring to early summer.

'Miller's Crimson'
Flowers are deep red with a black eye.

'Postford White'
Flowers are white with a yellow eye.

'Redfield Strain'
Reaches a maximum of 3.5 feet in height with flowers of varying color though very often red.
Exceptionally hardy, zones 3 to 8.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Rosea'
Deep pink flowers.

'Valley Red'
Glowing pinkish red flowers.

Primula juliae
A vigorous, rhizomatous, creeping, evergreen, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 inches x 1 foot, that is native to the Caucasus in western Asia.
The toothed, rounded leaves, up to 10 x 1.3 inches, are deep green.
The abundant, bright purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne in clusters, for up to 5 weeks during mid spring. The flowers often appear before the foliage during spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial shade on cool, moist, humus-rich, well drained soil. Divide regularly to maintain vigor.

'Wanda'
More vigorous, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 16 inches, with bright green foliage and very profuse, purplish-pink flowers borne during early to mid spring.

'Wanda Hybrid Mix'
An excellent seed strain that is identical to 'Wanda' except coming in a variety of colors including white, yellow, pink and red.

Primula x juliana ( Juliana Primrose )
A vigorous, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 inches x 1 foot.
The crinkled leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are mid green.
The abundant, flowers, are borne during late winter into spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade on cool, humus rich soil. Divide regularly to maintain vigor.

'Ariel'
Deep red flowers that are specked with white.

'Blue Riband'
Flowers are blue.

'Garryarde Guinevere'
Attractive bronze foliage contrasts with soft pink flowers borne in large heads.

'Jay Jay'
Reaches a maximum height of 8 inches, with purple ( centered yellow ) flowers borne mid to late spring.

'Kinlough Beauty'
Reaches a maximum height of 8 inches, with intense mid-pink flowers borne during early spring.

'Victory'
Purple flowers.

Primula kisoana
A fast growing, stoloniferous, loose mat-forming, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum 8 inches x 4 feet ( usually under 2 foot width ), that is native to mountain woodlands of Japan. The Geranium-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 5 inches, are hairy deep green.
The purplish-pink flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in umbels from early to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial shade on moist, cool, humus-rich, well drained soil.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Alba'
White flowers, otherwise identical to species.

Primula laurentiana ( Laurentian Primula )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 inches x 1 foot, that is native to North America ( from Winisk, Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. It is endangered in Maine. It is generally not long lived.
The farinose leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are silvery.
The pink to purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in large umbels, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula macrophylla
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 1 foot, that is native to
The leathery, strap-shaped leaves, up to inches in length, are farinose beneath.
The lilac to violet ( deep red eyed ) flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in large umbels, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool partial shade on very well drained soil. It does not grow well in dry climates.

Primula malacoides ( Baby Primrose )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 1.5 feet.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are glossy green.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

Primula marginata
A woody based, evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 12 inches, that is native to mountain cliffs in southwestern Europe. It is great planted on a wall or rock crevice.
The toothed, obovate, mid-green leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are silvery-edged and farinose.
The fragrant, bright blue flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in umbels of up to 20, during early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, alkaline, very well drained soil.

* historical archive photo


'Hyacintha'
Flowers are deep purplish-blue.

'Linda Pope'
The large flowers are lavender-blue.

'Shipton'
Bright blue flowers.

Primula minima
A miniature, rosette forming perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2 inches, that is native to Europe. It is best planted in rock crevices. Some records include: x 3 feet.
The toothed leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are glossy green.
The rosey-pink flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne singly or paired on a stem during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, very well drained soil.

Primula mistassinica ( Lake Mistassini Primrose )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 6 inches, that is native to northern North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Nunavut to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Terrace, British Columbia to south-central B.C. to Banff, Alberta to Minnesota to Michigan to Sauble Beach, Ontario to Midland, Ontario to New York State ). It is generally not long lived. It is found in open coniferous woods and lakeshores in the wild.
The farinose, oblong leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are silvery.
The pink to purple ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne in large umbels on stalks up to 1 foot high, during early spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula nutans
A rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 ( rarely over 12 ) inches, that is native to Yunnan.
The hairy, velvety, leaves, up to 8 x 2 inches in size, are gray-green.
The fragrant, pendant, light purple, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1.3 inches wide, are borne on spikes, during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, requiring cool partial shade on gritty, peaty, moist soil.
Easy to grow.

Primula obconica ( Poison Primrose )
A perennial, reaching up to 8 x 16 inches, that is native to southern China.
The broad, elliptical leaves are downy beneath. The foliage often causes contact dermatitis.
The lavender or purple flowers are borne on heads of up to 15 during winter.
Hardy zones 9 to 10

Primula palinuri
Reaches a maximum size of 8 x 12 inches, with leaves up to 8 inches.

Primula parryi

* historical archive photos


Primula poissonii
A vigorous, rosette forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 12 inches, that is native to Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces in western China.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 8 x 1.6 inches, are glossy blue-green.
The purplish-red flowers, up to 1 inches across, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.
Tolerant of sun, wet soil and some drought.

Primula x polyantha ( Polyantha Primrose )
A vigorous, semi-evergreen clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 1.5 feet.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 10 x 4 inches in length, are bright to mid green.
The bold, brightly colored flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne on umbels atop strong stems, during late winter through much of spring. The flowers vary widely in color.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade ( full sun in cool summer climates ) on fertile, moist, well drained soil. Divide plants every 2 to 3 years to keep them vigorous. It requires constant moisture during summer in zones 6 to 7.

* photo taken on March 28 2010


* photos of unknown internet source






* photos taken on April 13 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 26 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 24 2015 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo


'April Rose'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double, deep red flowers borne during April.

'Dawn Ansell'
Forms a very vigorous, very long lived clump up to 1 foot x 16 inches with deep green foliage and double white flowers borne during April. Can live 10+ years.

'Freckles'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with soft green leaves, up to 12 inches in length, and double, deep red flowers borne during mid to late spring.

'Granny Graham'
Forms a moderate growing clump up to 1 foot x 16 inches with deep green foliage and double, deep blue flowers borne during spring.

'Marc Viette'
Forms a vigorous clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and very double, very fragrant, deep pinkish-red flowers borne during late spring.

'Miss Indigo'
Deep purple flowers are edged in white.

'Paragon'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double bright pink flowers borne during mid to late.

'Quaker's Bonnet'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double deep pinkish-red flowers borne during late winter to late spring.

'Red Velvet'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage that is edged in deep red. The double, glowing red flowers are borne during mid to late spring.

'Rosetta Red'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double red flowers borne during April.

'Roy Cope'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double deep reddish-purple flowers borne during mid to late spring.

'Sunshine Susie'
Forms a vigorous, long lived clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and double bright yellow flowers borne during early to late spring.

'Tie Dye'
Forms a clump up to 1 x 1.5 feet with deep green foliage and sky-blue ( netted purple with a yellow center ) flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, borne mid spring through autumn over a period lasting up to 8 months.
Hardy zone 3a to 8

Primula polyneura
A fast growing, stoloniferous spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 1.5 feet, that is native to mountain woodlands in western China.
The crinkly, lobed leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are silvery beneath.
The reddish-purple flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne in clusters, during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, light, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Primula prolifera
A long lived, rosette forming, semi-evergreen clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 feet, that is native from India to China; south to Burma. The crinkly, oval leaves, up to 15 inches in length, are mid-green.
The small, fragrant, yellow flowers, up to 0.8 inches wide, are whorled around the tall flowerstalks, up to 3 feet high, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to medium shade on moist, deep, acidic to neutral, humus-rich soil. It prefers somewhat cool summers and grows best in the Pacific Northwest of North America and western Europe. It will however survive with somewhat less vigor in the southeastern U.S. if soil is kept constantly moist to wet.

Primula pubescens
An evergreen clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 16 inches, that is native to Europe. It is often considered to be a hybrid between Primula auricula & P. hirsuta.
The toothed leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are waxy and farinose.
The yellow, pink, red or purplish-pink flowers are borne in large umbels during spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, very well drained soil. Tolerant of hot summers, it is among the best Primulas for the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic U.S.

'Alba'
Pure white flowers.

'Faldonside'
Intense red flowers.

'Gigantea'
Reaches a maximum size of 10 x 10 inches, with grayish-green leaves up to 6 inches in length.
The gray-green leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are farinose.
The huge, fragrant flowers are variable in color any may be either white, yellow or red.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

'Mrs. J.H. Wilson'
Flowers are violet with a white eye.

'Rufus'
More vigorous, reaching up to 8 inches in height, with orangish-red flowers.

Primula pulverulenta
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.3 x 2 feet, that is native to western Sichuan Province in western China.
The wrinkled, coarsely-toothed, oval leaves, up to 15 x 4 inches, are bright green.
The deep red to reddish-purple ( with a darker eye ) flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on consistantly moist, fertile, humus-rich soil. Tolerant of wet soil.

* historic archive photos


'Bartley'
Pink flowers.

'Inverewe'
Sterile with intense bright orange-red flowers.

'Rowellane'
Orangish-pink

Primula reidii
A rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 8 inches, that is native to the Himalayas.
The softly furry leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are bright green.
The fragrant, pendant, white, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne in umbels of 3 to 10, during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, requiring cool partial shade on gritty, peaty, moist, well drained soil.
May be difficult to grow.

'Williamsii'
More vigorous, reaching up to 6 inches in height, with larger soft blue flowers. Easier to grow.

Primula rosea ( Himalayan Meadow Primrose )
A very showy, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 15 ( rarely over 12 ) inches, that is native to the Himalayas.
The toothed, obovate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are not farinose.
The foliage is bronze-green at first, turning to bright green.
The profuse, intense reddish-pink ( yellow eyed ) flowers, are borne in umbels of 4 to 12, during early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.
Easy to grow. Tolerant of wet boggy sites.

'Delight'
Large deep reddish-pink flowers.

'Gigas'
A very showy, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 15 inches.
The leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are bright green.
The profuse, large, intense red ( yellow eyed ) flowers, are borne in umbels of 4 to 12, during early spring.

'Grandiflora'
The very large flowers are deep pink.

Primula rubra
A clumping perennial, with rosettes reaching a maximum size of 4 inches, that is native to Europe.
The sticky leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are hairy and green.
The profuse pink, red or lilac-purple flowers, up to 1.3 inches, are borne in large umbels during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full but not scorching sun on moist, fertile, very well drained soil.

'Boothman'
Intense deep reddish-pink.

Primula secundiflora
A vigorous, long lived, semi-evergreen to evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2.5 feet, that is native to southwest China.
The scallop-edged, oval leaves, up to 12 x 1.6 inches in size, are mid-green above and farinose beneath.
The nodding, deep wine-red to purple, bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne in elegant umbels, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil making it a good choice for the edge of ponds.
Heat tolerant.

Primula sieboldii
A long-lived, rhizome-spreading, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 2 feet ( rarely over 12 x 15 inches ), that is native to eastern Siberia, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. In the wild it is often found on floodplain meadows.
The toothed and lobed leaves, up to 6 x 2.8 ( rarely over 4 ) inches in size, are deep green above, silvery-white beneath. The foliage may go dormant during late summer if conditions are hot and dry.
The white, pink, red or purple ( white eyed ) flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne in loose umbels of 6 to 10 ( rarely 20 ), during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet, light, humus-rich, well drained soil. Tolerant of summer heat as well as boggy soils. Fertilizing is recommended immediately after blooming.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Alba'
White flowers

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Geisha Girl'
Deep pink flowers.

'Mikado'
Intense purplish-pink flowers.

'Snowflakes'
White flowers.

Primula sikkimensis ( Sikkim Primrose )
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, that is native to the Himalayas.
The wrinkled, toothed, oval leaves, up to 16 x 3 inches, are glossy, bright to deep green.
The fragrant, nodding, golden-yellow, bell-shaped flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne in elegant umbels, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, humus-rich, consistantly moist soil.
Tolerant of wet soil making it a good choice for the edge of ponds.

Primula sinoplantaginea
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2.5 ( typically around 1.5 ) feet, that is native to China.
The leathery, strap-shaped leaves are up to 14 x 2 inches in size.
The fragrant, purple ( with gray eye ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne in umbels of up to 12, during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool partial shade on very well drained soil. It does not grow well in dry climates.

Primula sinopurpurea
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 2.5 ( typically around 1.5 ) feet, that is native to China.
The leathery, strap-shaped leaves are up to 14 x 3 inches in size.
The fragrant, purple ( with gray eye ) flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne in umbels of up to 12, during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool partial shade on moist but very well drained, sandy soil. It does not grow well in dry climates.

Primula smithiana
A vigorous clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 1 feet, that is native to
The thin, toothed, oval leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are green.
The bright yellow flowers, are borne in dense whorls along the flower stalks, during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, consistantly moist soil.

Primula specuicola
A rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 10 inches, that is native to North America.
The farinose leaves, up to inches in length, are silvery beneath.
The violet-purple flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in umbels of 10 to 30, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil. Easy to grow.

Primula veris ( Cowslip Primrose )
A vigorous, long-lived, semi-evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching up to 14 inches x 2 feet ( averaging half that ), that is native to northern Eurasia.
The crinkly, irregularly toothed, oval leaves, up to 10 x 3 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are mid-green above, hairy beneath.
The profuse, fragrant, nodding, deep yellow ( orange eyed ), bell-shaped flowers, up to 0.6 inches across, are borne in umbels of up to 16 on stems up to 14 inches high, during early to late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, sandy, neutral to alkaline, well drained soil. It requires constant moisture during summer in zones 6 to 7.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Sunset Shades'
Flowers range from orange to deep red with a golden-yellow throat.

* photo of unknown internet source


Primula vialii ( Chinese Pagoda Primrose )
A tufted, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 feet x 16 inches, that is native to China.
The slightly farinose leaves, up to 12 x 3 inches in size, are bright green.
The lavender-blue flowers, are borne in dense spikes resembling that of Kniphofia, during late spring to early summer. The flowers are deep red in bud.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, in partial shade on cool, moist, light, fertile, well drained soil. It prefers cool summers and does not grow well in the southern U.S. This beautiful perennial, often self seeds.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


Primula vulgaris ( English Primrose )
A vigorous, rosette forming, clumping perenial, reaching up to 1 x 1.5 feet, that is native to from northern Europe to western Asia.
The wrinkled, toothed leaves, up to 12 x 3 inches ( rarely over 10 ), are bright to mid green. In mild climates, the foliage is evergreen.
The abundant, fragrant, pale yellow ( darker eyed ) flowers, up to 1.6 ( rarely over 1 ) inches across, are borne in umbels on stems up to 9 inches high, during early spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in partial shade ( tolerates full sun in cool climates ) on cool, humus rich, light, well drained soil. Divide regularly to maintain vigor. Heat tolerant, it does thrive in much of the southern U.S. however with less vigor than in the north. It requires constant moisture during summer in zones 6 to 7.

'Alba Plena'
Double white flowers.

'Cobalt Blue'
Intense deep blue, double flowers; otherwise identical to species.

'Finesse'
Low growing form with blooms that are variable in color. Hardier, north to zone 3.

'Heterochroma'
Foliage is silvery-white beneath. The flowers come in white, yellow or purple.

'Rose'
Pink flowering

'Red'
Red flowering

subspecies 'Sibthorpi'
Very light pink ( rarely red ) flowers are borne very early to late spring. It is among the first Primroses to bloom. Very easy to grow.

'White'
White flowering.
* photo of unknown internet source


'Yellow'
Yellow flowering

Primula wardii
Also called Primula yargongensis. A rosette forming, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum height of 1 foot.
The leaves, up to 5 inches in length, are luxuriant bright green.
The pink to purple ( white eyed ) flowers, are borne in umbels of 3 to 8, during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula washenew
A stolon spreading, mat-forming perennial, reaches a maximum height of 3 inches.
The finely-toothed leaves, up to inches in length, are
The bright reddish-pink ( with yellow eye ) flowers, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne in umbels, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist soil.

Primula whitei
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 12 inches, that is native to Bhutan and Tibet
The broad ovate leaves are farinose at first, turning to bright green.
The profuse, bright to deep blue ( white eyed ) flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, are borne in clusters, during early spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in cool shade on very humus rich, consistantly moist, well drained soil. It dislikes both dry summers and excessive winter wetness.

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