Wednesday, April 14, 2010

Meadow Rue

Thalictrum

A genus of perennials, requiring partial shade on humus-rich, well drained soil, that are relatives of Cimifuga - the Bugbanes. Most are propagated from division, though seed direct sown during autumn can be used for the species.
The Meadow Rue do not like root disturbance or division though if necessary clumps can be divided during early spring ( cut from the edges rather than digging the entire clump ).
Unlike the somewhat similar looking Columbine; they are not eaten by deer or attacked by leaf miner. Insect pests and disease problems do not generally occur other than the rare Leaf Spot, Rust or Powdery Mildew. The seed of one species is known to contain Thalicarpine which is known to fight cancer.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Thalictrum acutifolium
A perennial, reaching up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet in height, that is native to rocky cliffs and woodland edges in southeastern China.
The bipinnate leaves, up to 7 inches in length, are composed of ovate leaflets, up to 2 x 1.2 inches in size. The leaflets vary from entire to 3-lobed. The leafstalks are up to 8 inches in length. The attractive foliage is blue-green.
The white to pink flowers appear late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 6b to 9.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Thalictrum aquilegifolium ( Common Meadow Rue )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 5 x 3.5 feet, that is native to much of temperate Eurasia ( France to western Russia; south to Spain to Turkey ).
The 2-pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of oval leaflets, up to 1.6 inches in length. The foliage resembles that of the Columbine and is bright green turning to blue-green.
The fluffy, red-purple to purple flowers are borne in showy clusters, up to 8 inches across, from late spring into early summer.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, moderately acidic, fertile, well drained soil. Heat tolerant.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* historical archive photo


'Album'
Reaches up to 5 feet with bluish-gray foliage and sprays of white flowers.

* historical archive photo


'Amy Jan'
Very showy with yellowish foliage all season as well as pink flowers.

'Purpureum'
Reaches up to 5 feet with purple foliage and pinkish-purple flowers during early to mid summer.

'Sparkler'
White flowers are triple the size of that of the species.

'Thundercloud'
Deep purple foliage. Can be mixed with 'Sparkler' for interesting contrast.

Thalictrum baicalense
A perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native from Mongolia to Siberia; south to Tibet to central China to Manchuria. Many forms are much shorter, sometimes not even exceeding 1 foot. The leaves, up to 6.5 inches in length, are composed of 3 broadly-rounded leaflets, up to 1.8 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bronze at first, turning to intensely blue.
The white ( rarely lilac-pink ) flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade on moist to wet soil.

Thalictrum 'Black Stockings'
Reaches up to 6 x 2 ( rarely over 4 ) feet with black stems and contrasting ferny green foliage.
The fluffy lavender flowers are borne in large clusters during late spring to early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on well drained soil.

Thalictrum coreanum
Also called Thalictrum ichangense var. coreanum. A fast growing, rhizome-spreading, clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1.5 + foot, that is native to northern and eastern China. It makes a great groundcover.
The ferny foliage is bronze tinted. The leaves are composed of broadly-oval leaflets. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The fluffy, pale lilac-pink flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zone 4 to 7 ( even report in 3b in south-central Alaska ), thriving in partial shade or just about any open woodland environment. Seed is abundantly produced if both male and female plants are in close proximity. It is also easy to increase from divisions.

Thalictrum dasycarpum ( Purple Meadowrue )
A perennial, reaching up to 4.5 x 4 feet ( rarely as high as 7 feet ) that is native to floodplains and rich woodlands in much of North America ( from the central Yukon to northern Alberta to northern Saskatchewan to the southern tip of James Bay in Ontario; south to northeast Arizona to Louisiana to Ohio and western Pennsylvania ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time.
The bipinnate leaves are composed of luxuriant mid blue-green leaflets, up to 2.5 x 2 inches. The ovate to obovate leaflets vary from entire to 3-lobed. The foliage resembles that of the Columbine.
The white flowers are borne late spring to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( seed source from the northern Plains hardy to zone 2 )

Thalictrum delavayi ( Yunnan Meadow Rue )
A large, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 6.6 x 3 feet, that is native to mountain meadows in western China including Tibet.
The 2 or 3 pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of lobed obovate to rounded leaflets up to 1.2 x 1 inch in size. The dainty foliage is blue-green.
The pinkish-purple flowers ( with yellow stamens ) are borne in very large, airy panicles during mid-summer.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil. It prefers a woodland environment but is heat tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Album'
Reaches up to 5 feet with white flowers.

'Decorum'
Much larger in size, to 8 feet ( record is 16 feet! ).
The leaves are also larger, to 16 inches, with leaflets, up to 1.5 inches.

'Hewitts Double'
Reaching up to 8 x 4 feet with very lacy, fern like foliage and large airy clusters of double pink flowers all summer long. Good for planting in woodland gardens on rich, moist soil anywhere from zones 3 to 9

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 @ Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Thalictrum dioicum ( Early Meadow Rue )
A perennial, reaching up to 4 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, that is native to rich, moist deciduous woods in North America ( from southeast Manitoba to the north shore of Lake Superior to Kapuskasing, Ontario to southern Quebec & Maine; south to central Arkansas to northern Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during the presettlement era. Early Meadow Rue is endangered in Nebraska; extinct in the wild in Kansas and Delaware.
The leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of deeply scallop-edged, oval leaflets, up to 1.6 x 1.8 inches in length. The attractive foliage resembles that of the Columbine and is bright green turning to blue-green.
The fluffy, red-purple to purple flowers are borne in showy clusters, up to 8 inches across, from mid to late spring.
Hardy zone 3 to 8 in full sun to full shade on moist well drained soils. Heat tolerant. Males and female flowers are borne on separate plants.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Thalictrum fendleri ( Fendler's Meadow Rue )
A perennial reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet, that is native to mountain forest in the western U.S. ( from northern Oregon to northern Idaho to northeast Wyoming; south to southern California to western Texas ).
The 3 to 4 compound leaves are composed of rounded, 3 lobed leaflets, up to 0.8 x 0.7 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The greenish-white to white flowers appear during early to mid summer.
The stems are often purple.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Thalictrum filamentosum
A perennial, reaching up to 28 x 20 inches in size, that is native to the Manchuria, Kuriles, Korea and northern Japan.
The bipinnate compound leaves are divided into dull green leaflets.
The long lasting, compact, showy, white flowerheads are borne during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly 3 for Heilongjiang seed source ) in light to moderate shade. Heat tolerant.

'Tenerum'
Handsome and low growing, only reaching 1 foot in height.
Foliage is luxuriant mid green and the showy flowers are pure white.

Thalictrum finetti
An extremely showy, large perennial, reaching up to 10 ( rarely over 6 ) feet in height, that is native to souteast Tibet, western Sichuan and northwest Yunnan in western China. It is found on woodland edge and grassy slopes at high elevations.
The 3 or 4 X pinnate leaves, up to 7 inches in length, are composed of broadly-ovate to rouded leaflets, up to 0.8 x 0.8 inches in size.
The greenish-white to yellowish-green flowers are borne on very large clusters during mid to late summer. It is likely hardy zones 7 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil, requiring a maritime climate.

Thalictrum flavum ( Yellow Meadow Rue )
A vigorous growing, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 7 x 4 feet and is a widespread native of Europe ( from Ireland to Siberia; south to the Mediterranean to Turkey to Tibet ). It forms a good clump in just 2 years. It is found on grassland and riverbanks in the wild.
The 2 or 3 X pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of obovate leaflets, up to 3 x 2.1 inches in size. The finely-divided foliage is powdery blue-green.
The fluffy yellow flowers are borne in compact inflorescences during mid-summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial shade ( tolerates full sun or shade ) on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Heat tolerant.

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photo


subsp 'glaucum' ( Dusty Meadow Rue )
Similar with larger intensely blue-gray leaves, up to 12 inches, composed of leaflets, up to 3 inches.
The fluffy, pale yellow flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
It is stunning when planted in front of Purple Smokebush.

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour


'Illuminator'
Reaches up to 6 x 4 feet. The foliage emerges yellow-green turning to bright green.

'True Blue'
Sturdier and improved form.

Thalictrum ichangense
A perennial, reaching up to 15 inches in height, that is native to mountains in central and northeastern China.
The 2 or 3 X compound leaves, up to 10 inches long, are composed of broadly-elliptical to rounded leaflets, up to 1.5 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green, turning to purplish during autumn.
The white flowers appear late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly 3 for seed source from Lioniang ) in partial shade om moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.

'Evening Star'
Similar except for having stunning deep blue-green foliage that is boldly-veined bluish-white. The foliage is reddish at first.

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Thalictrum isopyroides
A miniature perennial, reaching only 10 inches in height. It is great for edging or the front of the border. It is native to central Asia as far east as western Xinjiang Province in China.
The 4 x pinnate leaves are composed of broadly-rounded leaflets, up to 0.1 x 0.1 inches in size. The fine-textured lacy foliage is blue.
The creamy-white flowers are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial to full shade.

Thalictrum kiusianum ( Kyushu Meadow-Rue )
A stoloniferous spreading, dense, low growing perennial groundcover, reaching up to 1 x 4 feet ( rarely over 8 inches in height ), that is native to Japan.
The leaves are maidenhair-like and deep blue-green.
The light purple flowers are borne over a long season during early to mid summer, sometimes repeating into late autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade. Hates hot weather but is drought tolerant. It is easily divided during early spring.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Thalictrum lucidum
A clumping perennial, erect in habit, reaching up to 7 x 5 feet ( rarely over 5 feet in height ), that is native to moist meadows and marshland from eastern Europe to Russia.
The fern-like foliage is glossy deep green.
The fluffy, creamy-yellow flowers are borne during summer and can last up to 2 months.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial shade on permanently moist, fertile soil. Old flower spikes can be removed to tidy appearance.

* photos taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Thalictrum minus ( Lesser Meadowrue )
A rhizomatous perennial reaching up to 6 x 3.5 feet ( rarely over 2 feet ), that is native to northern Eurasia ( Ireland to Manchuria to Japan; south to the Mediterranean to central Asia & eastern China ). May be invasive on some sites.
The 3-pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of ovate to rounded leaflets, up to 2 x 2 ( usually half ) inches in size. The finely divided, maidenhair-like foliage is blue-green.
The yellowish flowers are borne in sprays during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade ( full sun where summers are cool ). It is tolerant of alkaline soils and sand.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Adiantifolium'
Fine foliage

Thalictrum polygamum ( Tall Meadowrue )
Also called Thalictrum pubescens. An upright, tall perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 4 ( rarely over 7 ) feet, that is native to rich swamp woodlands of eastern North America ( from far ne Illinois to Tobermory, Ontario to southern Quebec to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland; south to central Mississippi to central North Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The compound leaves are composed of many 3-lobed, ovate to rounded leaflets, up to 2.2 x 2.8 ( usually half ) inches in size. The foliage is bright green, later turning to deep green.
The flowers clusters are up to 14 inches in length.
The white flowers are borne mid July to early autumn. It is polygamus, bearing bisexual and unisexual flowers on the same plant.
Hardy zone 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist to wet soils.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Thalictrum revolutum ( Waxyleaf Meadow Rue )
Also called Thalictrum amphibolum and Skunk Meadow Rue. An upright perennial, reaching up to 5 feet in height, that is native to dry open woodland and prairies in eastern North America ( from southern Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Manitoulin Island to southern Quebec and New Hampshire; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). It may also occur locally in Colorado, South Dakota, near the southern tip of James Bay on Ontario and the Gaspe Peninsula. It is endangered in Minnesota, Michigan, Ontario and Ohio. A sizable population remains under protection at the Ojibway Prairie in Windsor.
The 2 to 4 X compound leaves are composed of elliptical to obovate leaflets, up to 2.3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bright green, later turning to gray-green or deep green.
The white flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial shade on well drained soil.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Thalictrum rochebrunianum
A large, erect, clump-forming perennial, reaching up to 10 x 4 feet ( rarely over 8 feet in height ), that is native to Honshu Island in Japan. It is great massed at the back of a large border.
The finely divided, dainty leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of smooth edged to lobed leaflets up to 1.6 inch long. The foliage is blue-green.
The rosey-lavender ( with yellow stamen ) flowers, are borne in showy loose panicle from mid summer to early autumn.
Hardy zone 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

'Elin'
Vigorous and sturdy in habit, reaching up to 12 feet in height. with striking steele blue foliage that is often blackish-purple at first.

'Lavender Mist'
Reaches up to 10 x 6 feet with sprays of lavender flowers borne during summer.

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Purple Mist'
Purple flowers.

Thalictrum sparsiflorum ( Few-Flowered Meadowrue )
A perennial, reaching up to 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in height, that is native to northwestern North America ( from near Kotzbue, Alaska to western Northwest Territories to Fort McMurray, Alberta to far northwest Ontario; south to central California to central Utah to central Colorado to central Manitoba ). It is found in moist woods and streambanks in the wild. It is endangered in Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Ontario and Manitoba.
The white flowers appear during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 5 in partial to full shade on moist, well drained soil.

Thalictrum speciosum
A perennial, reaching up to 6.6 x 2 feet, that is native to southern Europe and far northern Africa.
The deeply divided leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are blue-gray.
The fluffy pale yellow flowers are borne in clusters up to 4 inches across.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Thalictrum uchiyamae
A sturdy tall perennial, reaching up to 6 feet, that is native to Korea.
The bipinnate leaves are composed of many 3-lobed leaflets. The very attractive foliage is blue-green.
The flowers are light purplish-pink borne on pompom-like clusters during summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on permanently moist, humus-rich soil. It is not drought tolerant.

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