Friday, April 16, 2010

Redbuds

Cercis

A genus of deciduous temperate region trees that are in the larger legume family and flower before or with the emerging foliage during the spring. The flowers attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Early shaping is generally needed to train into a tree with a strong central leader. Little pruning is needed after. Excessive seed crops that slow vigor can be removed from young trees.
Most Cercis prefer sun or partial shade on a deep, fertile, well drained soil. Redbuds do not like transplanting and are can be slow to establish if not planted while small. Trees planted from containers establish much faster than trees that are transplanted. In climates with cold winters, they should be planted during early spring. There seems to be some debate as to how to fertilize. It is reported that artificial fertilizers can damage the roots. Many legume trees produce their own nitrogen thus don't really need alot. I suspect a light dose of all purpose upon leafing out, then again around Jun 1 can increase growth along with bonemeal in the fall to encourage root growth. Protect the trunks of trees from lawn mower damage which can infect a tree with canker.
For propagation; it is recommend to sow fresh harvested seed that is then pre soaked in hot water to soften the outer coat.
The cultivars can also be propagated from half hardened cuttings in summer or early fall.
The flowers are tasty and can be used in wine and ice cream. The tender young leaves, flowers and seedpods can be fried in tempura batter or used in salads.

Cercis canadensis ( Eastern Redbud )
A fast growing, broad, rounded tree that is a widespread native to eastern North America ( eastern Nebraska to southern Michigan to New York State; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). Typically fast growing to 30 feet in size; some records include: first year from seed - 20 inches; growth rate - 9 feet 9 ( forced in nursery ) ; 4 years - 15 feet; 10 years - 25 x 30 feet; 20 years - 50 x 50 feet; largest on record - 82 x 40 feet with trunk diameter of 5.2 feet. Typically open grown trees have a short main trunk and a spreading rounded canopy. The Eastern Redbud is hardy far outside its native range with one tree recorded to have grown to 40 feet in Colorado. Redbud's seem to grow best in Virginia and one very large tree of 52 x 40 x 3 feet has been recorded in Roanoke. The Eastern Redbud is endangered in the wild in Canada where the tiny Pelee Island south of Leamington in the middle of Lake Erie comprise most of it's remaining native range. However in much of its U.S. range it is a common tree as it is in cultivation. It was uncommon on the Ohio shore except locally common on the Sandusky peninsula during the 1800s.
The smooth-margined leaves, up to 8 x 8.5 inches in size, are rounded with a pointed tip. The foliage is bright green, turning to golden-yellow during autumn.
The rose pink flowers are borne in clusters of 4 to 8 during early spring. The flowers generally last 3 weeks.
They are followed by reddish-brown seed pods up to 6 inches long in summer. The immature seed pods are edible and can be added to salads.
The slender zig-zag twigs are dark reddish with abundant white lenticels.
The bark is red-brown and scalys.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in sun or shade. Trees planted in the north should be grown from seed originating in the northern part of its native range since a tree transplanted from Florida to Minnesota will probably not survive the winter. The Eastern Redbud loves hot summers but does not like salt or pollution and can be prone to canker especially on sites where it is stressed. The Eastern Redbud grown from seed can produce a saleable 1 gallon size plant in 5 months and a 5 gallon size plant in 1.5 years.

* photo taken on Apr 18 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos of unknown internet source




* photos taken in Columbia, MD on April 7 2010






* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source
* photos taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, ON

* photo taken on Apr 2014 in Odenton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 22 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken @ Middle Patuxent, Clarksville, MD on Apr 24 2015





* photo taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 24 2015 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on July 5 2016 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Apr 8 2017 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Apr 16 2017 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA






* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photo


'Alba'
Identical to Cercis canadensis but with white flowers. Hardy north to zone 4

* photos taken on April 14 2010 in Clarksville, MD





* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Alley Cat'
A small tree, reaching up to 20 x 35 feet. It was developed by horticulturalist Allen Bush who gave it to Hidden Hollow Nursery for propagation.
The foliage is bright green with bronze-pink splashing at first, quickly turning to mid-green with heavy creamy-white splashing.
The flowers are deep lavender-pink.
The variegation is much more stable and resistant to sun scorch than other white variegated Cercis canadensis.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

* photo taken on May 23 2017 in Howard Co., MD


* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Appalachian Red'
Brilliant intense pink-red flowers. Same size as species. Discovered by Dr. Max Byrkit on a roadside in Maryland

* photos taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010



* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Burgundy Hearts'
Reaches up to 20 x 25 feet, with foliage that is glossy deep reddish-purple all season long.
The flowers are lavender-pink.
Hardy zones 5 to 8





'Carolina Sweetheart
A semi-weeping tree, reaching up to 30 x 30 feet, bearing stunning red and pink foliage that turns to green with a creamy-white border. Often all colors are present on the tree and new growth continues for most of the summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

* photos taken on June 24 2017 in Mt Airy, MD





'Flame'
Upright habit and large semi-double pink flowers. Was originally found in the wild in Illinois. Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Floating Cloud'
Similar to 'Silver Cloud' with foliage that is boldly splashed white, however foliage is much less likely to burn in hot climates.

'Forest Pansy'
Similar to species except with deep purple spring and summer foliage that turns to orange in fall. In hot summer regions the foliage often dulls to bronzy-green by July.
The flowers are rosy-purple.
The maximum size in 10 years is 30 x 30 feet and it matures to same size as regular Cercis canadensis.
Originating in Tennessee, it is less hardy in far north than the species ( to zones 6 to 8 and possibly 5 if sheltered ). It is also not adapted to zone 9.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on May 2008






* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010

* photo taken on April 23 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 6 2017 in Howard Co., MD


* photo taken on Jul 9 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Hearts of Gold'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 10 feet in 5 years, 18 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually to 30 feet or more. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet.
The foliage is coppery-red at first, turning to golden-yellow then finally to mid green. The foliage may burn for first summer or 2 in the deep south but eventually toughens up and will tolerate full sun.
The flowers are lavender-purple.

* photo taken on May 21 2011 @ Brookside Gardens "Party with the Peonies" tour in Fulton, MD

* photo taken on July 11 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Washington, DC

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD





'Lavender Twist'
Attractive semi-dwarf rapid growign weeping twisted habit reaching up to: 3 years - 6 feet; 10 years - 6 x 8 feet; maximum size - 12 x 15 feet. Leathery rich green foliage that is larger than the species and lavender-pink flowers.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010



* photo taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 18 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Apr 28 2015 in Howard Co., MD


'Merlot'
A cross between Cercis canadensis 'Forest Pansy' and Cercis reniformis 'Texas White'. It is similar to Cercis canadensis 'Forest Pansy' but with thicker foliage that retains its deep burgundy-red color better in extreme heat. It also it denser and has a better branching habit than 'Forest Pansy'.
The rounded leaves are up to 6 x 6 inches in size. The foliage is deep red at first, turning to deep reddish-purple during summer then to red or orange during autumn.
The abundant flowers are reddish-purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 8, it exhibits the superior heat and drought tolerance of Cercis reniformis.

* photo taken on June 22 2014 in Howard County, MD

* photos taken on Oct 2 2016 in Harford Co., MD



* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD





'Minnesota Strain'
Similar in appearance to the species but much hardier. It is fully hardy and blooms reliably in zone 4. As it's name suggest, it originated at the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. It may very likely be the most important Redbud for future hybridization work.

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


'Pink Heartbreaker'
More upright than 'Lavender Twist' with a strong central leader but still having strongly weeping side branches. Very fast growing, it reaches up to 15 x 10 feet.
The foliage is reddish at first, turning to deep green.
The flowers are lavender-pink.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.



'Rising Sun'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 10 feet in 5 years, 18 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually to 30 feet or more. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet.
The foliage is orange at first, turning to golden-yellow then finally to bright green. The foliage is much more sun scorch resistant than 'Hearts of Gold'.
The flowers are lavender-purple.
Hardy north to zone 5.

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 18 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA



* photo taken on Jul 9 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Royal White'
More hardy than 'Alba' with larger white flowers.

'Ruby Falls'
Similar to 'Lavender Twist' but with large, glossy, deep purple-red leaves.
This vigorous, extremely attractive focal point tree is sure to get comments.

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on June 22 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD







'Silver Cloud'
Reaches up to 15 x 15 feet in 10 years, eventually 20 x 20 feet or more, with creamy-white splashed leaves.

* photo taken @ Brookside Gardens "Party with the Peonies" tour in Fulton, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City






* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD





'Whitewater'
A weeping form with white splashed foliage.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




Cercis chinensis ( Chinese Redbud )
A variable tree native to central China that typically grows at a moderate pace and reaches up to 20 feet with a trunk diameter up to 1.5 feet. On ideal sites it can however become much faster growing and records include: growth rate - 2.5 feet; 7 years - 18 feet; 20 years - 50 x 50 feet; largest ever recorded - 70 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The short-stalked, thick, cordate leaves are up to 6 x 6.5 inches in size. The glossy very deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The deep pink purple flowers are produced in early spring and are even found clusters in abundance on the branches and even the trunk.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 tolerating as low as - 32 F. Very well adapted to much of eastern U.S. with its hot humid summers and cold winters. This Redbud is NOT prone to canker. Very drought tolerant and even grows well with irrigation in the Arizona high desert.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum



* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC






* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* historic archive photo


'Alba'
Dark green foliage similar to that of the species.
The flowers are pure white.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC




'Avondale'
More tree like in habit than the species ( and vigorous, reaching up to 8.3 x 7 feet in 5 years ) with very glossy leathery foliage. In early spring the branches are covered by a spectacular display of deep rose-purple flowers.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park




'Don Egolf'
this cultivar is sterile and therefore does not get covered by the ugly brown seedpods in the winter. Slower growing than species ( 10 years - 8 x 8 feet; 15 years - 9 x 10 feet ).
The very prolific blooms are bright magenta pink.

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photo taken on April 6 2012 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on May 4 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



Cercis chingii
A very fast growing, rare Asian native that can grow at a rate up to 7 feet per year!
It can reach a maximum size of at least 40 feet. It often grows mult-trunked and must be pruned to a single leader when young.
It is unique from other Redbuds in having 1 inch leaf stipules. It flowers 10 days before Cercis canadensis on average. The foliage reaches up to 7 x 6 inches in size.
Hardy north to at least zone 6. Heat tolerant; it can even thrive in Tucson, Arizona if irrigated reaching 4 feet in 2 years and 7 feet in 3 years.
Very easy to propagate from seed with acid scarification and cold stratification for 3 months.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC





Cercis gigantea ( Giant Redbud )
A "Redbud on Steroids" that is native to China and can reach up to 17 feet in only 6 years and a maximum mature size of 82 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter up to 21 inches! The record growth rate is an amazing 7 feet! The very glossy, deep green foliage is up to 9 x 9 inches.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It may self seed in the Mid Atlantic Region.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Cercis glabra ( Glabrous Redbud )
A very rare, very fast growing, medium-sized tree that can reach up to 12 feet in 6 years and eventually 66 x 25 ( rarely over 40 ) feet. Growth rates up to 5 feet and even 8 feet have been recorded! It is native from southwestern to central China.
The cordate-rounded leaves, up to 9 x 9 ( rarely over 8 x 7 ) inches in size, are very large for a Redbud. This is truly a "Redbud on Steroids". The foliage is purplish-red at first, turning to mid-green.
The pink to bright purplish-red flowers are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Grows very well in the Mid Atlantic U.S. and even tolerates the scorching summers of Tucson, Arizona if irrigated.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



Cercis griffithi ( Afghan Redbud )
A moderate growing small tree native to central Asia ( from eastern Uzbekistan to Tajikistan; south to northern Pakistan to northern India ).
The cordate, broadly-ovate to rounded leaves are bright green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The rosy-pink flowers are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. It is extremely drought tolerant. Afghan Redbud should be planted more as it is endangered in its native range.

Cercis occidentalis ( Western Redbud )
A moderate growing, small tree native to montane Oak forests in the southwestern U.S.( from northern California or possibly southern Oregon to Utah; south to Mexican border at elevations up to 6000 ft. ) that can either grow as a large shrub or if trained to a main leader it can thus become a small tree to 20 feet or sometimes larger. Some records include: Growth rate - 3 feet; 2 years - 6 feet; 3 years - 9 feet; 8 years - 14 feet; 20 years - 30 x 20 feet; largest recorded - 45 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. On ideal sites with irrigation in the west it can sometimes be forced to become fast growing.
The leathery rounded smooth margined leaves are up to 5 or rarely 6 x 6 inches . They are vivid green to blue-green above and paler below, they turn to red in the fall.
In spring, the branches are covered in rose-pink to red-purple 0.5 inch flowers that appear before the foliage. The flowers are followed by dull red-brown pods up to 4 x 1 inch in size.
The immature seed pods are edible and can be added to salads.
The bark is brownish-red
Hardy zones 4 to 10 ( young trees need winter protection north of zone 8 ) and very tolerant of alkaline soils and annual rainfall to as low as 22 inches. Very drought tolerant but needs cool to cold winters and hot summers to flower well. The interior native population makes an excellent landscape tree in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Western Redbud may take up to 3 years for full hardiness and some seed source may not tolerate below 0 F even then.
Preferring a mediterranean climate, this Redbud prefers a deep soil but should not be watered frequently during summer. Planting it in a lawn is probably not a good idea. Seeds are easy to germinate if baked at 250 degrees for 10 minutes first ( which recreates "forest fire conditions" )

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com




* photo taken by Norman L. Norris @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo


Cercis racemosa ( Panicled Redbud )
A very fast growing broadly columnar small tree native to China. Growth rates as much as 9 feet have been recorded! It can reach up to 30 x 20 feet in 20 years and eventually to 45 x 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The Panicled Redbud is endangered in its native range.
The rounded, pointed tipped foliage is purple at first in the spring turning to very dark green above and hairy beneath. The leaves are rounded at the base and are up to 6 x 6 inches in size.
Unique in Redbuds; the light to rose-pink 0.5 inch flowers are produced in drooping racemes up to 4 inches long. Up to 40 flowers are borne in a cluster.
The flowers are followed by flattened pods up to 4 inches in length that ripen to brown.
The light gray bark becomes flaking as the tree ages.
Grows very well in the Mid Atlantic U.S. Hardy north to zone 7.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Cercis reniformis ( Texan Redbud )
Similar to Cercis canadensis except for having large, leathery, wet looking, glossy green, blunt-tipped leaves that are downy below. The leaves reach up to 6 x 6 ( rarely over 4 x 5 ) inches in size. The foliage turns to yellow in the fall. The foliage is excellent for creating a lush tropical appearance to the landscape. It is native from central Texas into northern Mexico.
Fast growing to 40 x 40 feet, some records include: Growth rate - 4 feet; 2 years - 5 gallon plant, 3 years - 16 feet; tallest - 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.2 feet.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 or possibly 5 if sheltered but most definately requires hot summers to thrive.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* historic archive photo


'Alba'
Nearly identical, except for having pure white flowers.

* photos taken on April 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on June 8 2012 in Ellicott City, MD
* photos taken on July 23 2014 in Ellicott City, MD



* photo taken on Oct 1 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Ellicott City, MD





* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Ellicott City, MD




* photos taken on Aug 27 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Apr 15 2017 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD




'Mexicana'
Exceptionally drought tolerant tolerating as low as 12 to 20 inches of rainfall per year. The leaves are larger, up to 6 inches in length.

'Oklahoma'
Excellent form and attractive, thick, luxuriant glossy deep green foliage. Dark pink-red flowers

* photo from unknown internet souce

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary, Montgomery Co, MD


* photo taken on Apr 15 2014 in Columbia, MD


'Traveller'
Strongly weeping, reaching up to 6 x 12 feet.
The foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The flower are purplish-pink.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Cercis siliquastrum ( Judas Tree )
A moderate growing, small to medium-sized, flat to round-topped tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to western Asia and the Mediterranean parts of Europe. It is often planted in southern Europe and milder parts of the British Isles. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; largest ever recorded - 65 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. The Judas Tree can live up to 223 years.
The heart shaped to kidney shaped leaves are up to 5 x 5 inches in size. The leaves are often bronze at first during spring, turning to deep blue-green. The foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn. Unlike other Redbuds; the leaves on this one are folded towards the middle.
In early spring the bare branches are covered by a spectacular show of lavender-pink to rosy-purple flowers up to an inch in size and growing in clusters mainly covering older branches and the trunk. The flowers are edible.
They are followed by seed pods up to 5 inches long that ripen purple tinged in late summer.
The pods often persist in the fall and winter long after the leaves have fallen off.
The brown bark cracks into small square plates.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( Mediterranean seed source less hardy ) preferring deep, fertile, well drained soils and climates with long hot summers. Tolerant of limestone soils, drought and urban conditions.

* historic archive photo


'Afghan Deep Purple'
Deep purple flowers. Hardier than species north to zone 5.

'Alba'
White flowers.

'Bodnant'
Deep red-purple flowers.

Cercis yunnanensis ( Yunnan Redbud )
A vase shaped Asian native tree that is moderate growing up to 2 or rarely feet per year and will reach 6 feet or more in 6 years and eventually 25 feet. The Yunnan Redbud closely resembles Cercis chinensis with larger foliage with a maximum size of 6 x 7 inches
Hardy zones 6 to 9 though with reports of zones 4b, it should be more thoroughly tested in the U.S. Very well adapted to the Mid Atlantic region of the U.S.

* photos taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Celestial Plum'
The plum-purple or magenta flowers are very showy in early spring

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