Monday, January 18, 2010

Asarum - Wild Gingers

A genus of groundcover plants within the larger Aristolochiaceae family.
They mostly prefer partial to full shade on moist, fertile soil.
Propagation is from seed and division while dormant during fall or early spring. Pests and disease problems are rare, other than Slugs which can be treated with sprinkling Diotomacous Earth around the plants.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Garden, Bethesda, MD


* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Asarum arifolium ( Arrowhead Wild Ginger )
Also called Asarum arifolia. A tough evergreen perennial forming an attractive clump reaching a maximum size of 1 x 2 feet. The Arrowhead Wild Ginger is is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from Kentucky to Virginia; south to Louisiana to Florida ) but is also hardier much further north. It makes for a great groundcover.
The arrowhead-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 4 ( rarely over 5 ) inches, are deep green with gray green patterns.
The jug-shaped flowers are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on just about any moist, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. Very drought tolerant due to its deep roots and also very heat tolerant.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Asarum asaroides
A vigorous, clump-forming evergreen perennial, reaching up to 8 x 16 inches, that is native to mountain forests in central and southern Japan.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 6 inches in size. The foliage is deep green with bold silvery-white markings.
The deep purple-brown flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade. Easy to grow.

Asarum asperum ( Japanese Wild Ginger )
A fast growing but compact, evergreen groundcover perennial, reaching up to 3 inches x 1+ foot, that is native to central Japan.
The attractive, oval leaves, up to 3 inches, are glossy mid-green with a pale stripe down the center.
The urn-shaped flowers are purple.
Hardy zones 7b to 9 ( tolerating as low as 0 F ), in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.

Asarum canadensis ( Canadian Wild Ginger )
A fast growing, rhizomatous, low growing, herbaceous, groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 5 feet. It is native to eastern North America ( from southeast Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Lions Head, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick; south to eastern Oklahoma to central Alabama to South Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally abundant along the Detroit River and the Canard River Valley during the 1800s. It was also abundant around Detroit and occurred locally on the Ohio shore during that 1800s.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 8 x 9 inches in size, are downy and deep green.
The greenish-purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne during mid spring.
Hardy zone 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on fertile, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. It is tolerant of heat and drought if shaded. It does not enjoy excessive wetness. Propagation is easy from division while dormant or seed.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


>* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Garden, Bethesda, MD

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken by Jennifer Anderson, hosted by the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Alba'
White flowers.

'Eco Choice'
Larger and denser. Hardy zones 2 to 8

Asarum caudatum ( Western Wild Ginger )
A fast growing ( spreads up to 6 inches per year ), evergreen, rhizomatous groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3.3 feet, that is native to rich moist forests in western North America ( from coastal Alaska to Prince Rupert, British Columbia to Fort Nelson, British Columbia to western Montana; south to central California to northeast Oregon.
The heart-shaped leaves, are up to 4 x 7 inches in size. The foliage is glossy green.
The purplish-red flowers, up to 5 inches across, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in partial to full shade on humus-rich, acidic, well drained soil. Drought and deep shade tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken by The Wild Garden, www.nwplants.com

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Asarum caudigerum
A slow growing, low, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 8 inches in height, that is native to southeast China, Taiwan and Vietnam. It is also found in mountain forests in southern Japan where it is critically endangered.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are borne on stalks ranging from 2 to 8 inches in length. The deep green foliage is blotched white along the veins.
The brownish-pink to white flowers are borne early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( possibly hardier )

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Asarum caulescens
The Asian counterpart to Asarum canadensis, this rhizomatous groundcover Asarum, reaching up to 6 inches x 2 + feet, is native to mountain forests from central China to Japan.
The leaves, up to 3.6 x 4 inches, are borne on a stalk up to 5 inches in height. The deeply-veined foliage is glossy deep green.
The reddish-brown flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne early to mid spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial to full shade on just about any moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Asarum contracta

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum delavayi ( Giant Wild Ginger )
A very fast growing, evergreen, robust, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 3.5 feet ( typically under 1 foot in height ). The Giant Wild Ginger is native to moist, shady woodland habitat in southwest Sichuan and northeast Yunnan provinces in China.
The ovate to sagittate leaves, up to 10 x 7 ( rarely over 7.5 ) inches, are borne on stalks up to 8.5 inches in length.
The very attractive foliage is very glossy to polished green during the entire year.
The HUGE black and white flowers, up to 6 inches across, are borne during early spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum europaeum ( European Wild Ginger )
A rapid growing, low, evergreen groundcover, reaching up to 6 inches x 5 feet, that is native from southern Finland to northern Russia; south to southern France to the Caucasus.
The heart-shaped to rounded leaves, up to 3.5 inches across, are glossy deep green all year. The attractive foliage is evergreen in zones 7 to 8, deciduous in cold winter climates.
The greenish-purple, bell-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid to late spring.
Hardy zone 4 to 8 ( 2 & 3 on sheltered site ) in partial to full shade on fertile, moist, acidic soil. It prefers cool summers but is adaptable.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken on April 12 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 3 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 12 2017 in Columbia, MD


Asarum hartwegii ( Sierra Wild Ginger )
A rhizomatous colony forming perennial, reaching up to 1 foot in height, that is native to woodlands in the western U.S. from Oregon to northern California.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 8.3 x 6 ( rarely over 5 x 5 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy rich green with silver veins.
The deep red, star-shaped flowers are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in partial to full shade on humus-rich, well drained soil. Tolerant of dry shade and drought.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Asarum henryi
Spreading in habit, reaching up to 1.5 feet.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

Asarum hirsutisepalum
A very robust evergreen perennial, forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 1 x 1.5 feet, that is native to Yakushima in Japan.
The thick, leathery, heart-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 6 inches, are bright green at first, later turning to glossy deep green with bright green veins.
The very showy flowers are white with purple veins.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist acidic soil.

'Golden Crown'
Foliage is variegated yellow.

Asarum kumageanum
A low evergreen perennial, forming a clump reaching a maximum size of 10 inches x 1.5 feet, that is native to mountain forests of Yakushima Island in Japan. It is endangered in the wild.
The large, triangular leaves, up to 6 x 4 inches, are glossy rich deep green with yellowish-green mottling on the interior.
The purple ( with yellow margins ), tube-shaped flowers, up to 0.8 inches are borne during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist acidic soil.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum lewisii ( Lewis's Heartleaf )
Also called Hexystylis lewisii. A rhizomatous perennial that is very fast spreading ( up to 6 feet in 10 years ). It is native to floodplain forests within the Piedmont from central Virginia to central North Carolina.
The leaves, up to 2 inches wide, are glossy mid-green with silvery veins. The foliage resembles that of Asarum naniflorum.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial to full shade.

Asarum longerhizomatosum
A low growing perennial with long trailing rhizomes, that is native to moist shady areas in Guangxi Province in China.
The very large, ovate to heart-shaped leaves, up to 5.5 x 3.3 inches, are borne on stalks up to 7 inches high. The foliage is solidly glossy blue-green.
The extremely large, white flowers are borne during autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade on humus-rich, well drained soil.

Asarum maculatum
A spreading, deciduous groundcover perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6 inches.
The heart-shaped leaves resemble that of the Cyclamen.
The deep red, long pointed, 3-petalled flowers are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( possibly hardier )

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Asarum marmoratum ( Marbled Wild Ginger )
A clump forming perennial, native to the Siskiyou mountains in southern Oregon, that is closely related to Asarum hartwegii.
The leathery, heart-shaped leaves are deep green and heavily mottled and veined silvery-white.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Asarum maximum ( Giant Wild Ginger )
Forms an rhizomatous, evergreen clump, up to 8 x 22 inches, native to Hubei and Sichuan Provinces in China where it is endangered. It looks great planted trailing over a high shaded wall where its blooms are highly visible from beneath.
The velvety, broad-ovate leaves, up to 7 x 6 inches, are borne on a stalk up to 9 inches in length. The foliage is deep black-green and blotched with light green.
The flowers, up to 3 inches across, are borne during spring.
The black and white flowers look like that of a Panda face.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( reports of 6 on protected sites ) in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, well drained soil.
Tolerant of hot humid summers. Deer resistant!

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Ling Ling' ( Panda Ginger )
Forms a clump, up to 1 foot x 22 inches, with cordate leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches, that are very glossy rich green with 2 silver blotches.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Asarum minor
Also called Hexastylix minor. A small perennial, with leaves up to 4 x 4 inches.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum naniflorum
Also called Hexasytlix naniflorum. A low growing groundcover, reaching up to 8 inches in height, that is native to the Carolinas.
The leaves, up to 3.5 x 3 inches across, are very deep green with silver markings.
The flowers are small and brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum perfectum
Also called Asarum hexalobum var. perfectum. A Japanese native that is critically endangered in the wild.
The leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size.
Hardy zones 5b to 9 in partial to full shade.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum pulchellum 'The Fuzz'
A vigorous selection of Asarum pulchellum, a vigorous clumping evergreen perennial, that is native to the mountains of southwest China. It reaches up to 4 inches x 3 feet in less than 10 years and has very attractive, heart-shaped, hairy, glossy deep green foliage. The flowers are borne during late winter.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial shade.

Asarum sagittaroides
A vigorous, low, clumping perennial that is native to moist woods in Guangxi Province in China.
The triangular leaves, up to 10 x 6 inches, are borne on a stalk up to 10 inches in length. The foliage is solidly deep green in color.
The flowers are purplish-green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Asarum shuttleworthi ( Shuttlewoth's Wild Ginger )
Also called Hexastylis shuttleworthii. A rhizomatous, low growing, mat-forming, evergreen Asarum, reaching a maximum size of 9 inches x 5.5 feet, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from West Virginia to Virginia; south to central Alabama to nw South Carolina ). It is extinct in West Virginia where it formerly occured in the wild.
The kidney-shaped to rounded leaves, up to 4 x 4 inches, are deep green with silvery markings.
The small brown flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne early spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in partial to full shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic, well drained soil. It is very heat and humidity tolerant, thriving in the southastern U.S. Older clumps can be divided during very early spring or early to mid autumn. It is usually deciduous north of zone 7 and should be mulched during winter.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Calloway'
Also called Hexastylis shuttleworthii var harperi. Faster growing than the species, with extremely handsome leaves, up to 2 inches wide, that are deep green with distinct silvery-white veins.

'Dark Hartlett'

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Gosan Valley'
Leaves, up to 2.5 x 2 inches, are deep green and very boldly mottled silvery-white.

'Velvet Queen'
Faster growing than the species, with extremely handsome leaves, up to 4 inches, that are deep green with distinct white veins.

Asarum sieboldii ( Siebold Wild Ginger )
A rizomatous, low spreading perennial native to moist, humus-rich woods from Manchuria to north Korea and Japan.
The cordate leaves, up to 4.5 x 5.5 inches are borne atop stalks up to 7 inches in length. The foliage is glossy bright to mid green.
The dark purple flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardiness not fully tested but likely zone 4 to 8. Thrives in full sun to partial shade on moist, humus-rich, acidic to neutral, well drained soil.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Asarum speciosum ( Harper's Wild Ginger )
Also called Hexastylis speciosa. A very beautiful, evergreen clumping perennial reaching up to 1 x 1.5 feet, that is native from Virginia to the Carolinas as well as in Alabama.
The arrow-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 4 ( rarely over 5 ) inches are solid dark green.
The purple flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, acidic soil.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Buxum'
More vigorous with larger leaves, up to 10 inches.

'Woodlanders Select'
Silvery mottled leaves

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Asarum splendens ( Chinese Wild Ginger )
From China, this rhizomatous evergreen perennial reaches up to 1 x 6 feet in size. It is very fast growing ( clumps reaching up to 6 feet across in 10 years, among the fastest growing Asarum ) and the easiest to grow.
The triangular leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches ( up to 12 inches reported, usually around 4 ) are borne on stalks up to 6.5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green with spectacular silver markings.
The deep purple, urn-shaped flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during mid to late spring.
It is hardy zones 6 to 9 ( zone 4 & 5 if on protected site and mulched ) but only evergreen down to -10 F. It is easy to grow and propagate and it is the most vigorous of all the Wild Gingers.
Also likes hot summers as long as it is shaded. Deer resistant! It is even tolerant of dry shade.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.






* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Quicksilver'
More spectacular, more abundant silver markings on the foliage.

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


Asarum takaoi

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Asarum tamaense
A perennial that is native to Japan where it is endangered.
The heart-shaped leaves are up to 4 inches wide. The foliage is glossy mid-green with bright silvery-green patches on the inside.
The deep purple flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, appear during mid-spring.

* photo taken Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Asarum virginica ( Virginia Heartleaf )
Also called hexastylis virginica. A slow to moderate growing, long-lived, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 8 inches in height, that is native to moist forests in the southeast U.S. ( from central Kentucky to Charles Co., Maryland; south to northern Georgia to Wilmington, North Carolina ). It is endangered in Maryland where it is known from a single location, however much more widespread in neighboring Virginia. Some records include: 3 years - 1 foot wide.
The heart-shaped or cordate-rounded leaves are up to 3 inches wide. The thick glossy deep green foliage is stunningly mottled silver.
The flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in partial to full shade on just about any acidic, moist, well drained soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Asarum yakusimense ( Yakushima Wild Ginger )
A perennial, reaching up to 10 inches x 2.5 feet in size, that is native to mountain forests on Yakushima Island in Japan where it is endangered.
The heart-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green.
The flowers are bright yellowish-green with a pink eye.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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