Sunday, January 17, 2010

Cypress

A genus of approximately 13 species of evergreen coniferous trees native to the Northern Hemisphere.
They prefer full sun and fertile, well drained soil, most are tolerant of clay. Fungus diseases may be a problem on trees where air flow is not sufficient. Cypresses can be difficult to plant, pot grown trees should be used rather than ball & burlap.
Young trees should be pruned to a single leader with side branches shortened.
Propagation is easy whether from seed soaked for 24 hours before sowing, or from cuttings taken in late summer.

* photo of unknown internet source


Cupressus arizonica ( Arizona Cypress )
A large tree reaching up to 80 feet that is native from Arizona to Mexico. It is densely conical when young, later becoming broadly columnar.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 18 years - trunk diameter of 9.5 inches; largest on record - 200 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet; largest in Arizona - 93 x 59 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet ( Santa Catalina Mtns ); largest in Iowa - 61 feet; lonfest lived - 450 years.
The aromatic foliage is blue-green with white markings beneath. The pointy tipped, very small, scale-like foliage is pressed closely against the stems, on sprays borne on reddish stems.
The resin is sticky.
The rounded cones, up to an inch in diameter, are grayish-brown and persist a few years.
Hardy zone 6 to 10 tolerating as low as -20 F. Extremely drought tolerant, Arizona Cypress, tolerates as low as 12 inches of rainfall yearly. Surprisingly tolerant of much cooler moister climates that where it originates, trees reaching up to 80 feet and up to 3 feet in trunk diameter are even found in Ireland. Tolerant of severe drought, excessive winds and ocean salt breezes.

* historical archive photos


'Aurea'
Very strong upright in habit, with golden-yellow foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 4 feet; largest on record - 60 feet with a trunk diameter up to 20 inches.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


'Blue Ice'
Originates from Cupressus arizona subsp. glabra. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 16 feet; 8 years - 25 feet; 34 years - 75 feet.
Attractive silver-blue foliage.
Hardy north to zone 5

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Sep 9 2014 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Carolina Sapphire'
Extremely fast growing with intense bright blue foliage. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet! ; 5 years - 17 feet; 8 years - 25 x 11 feet; 34 years - 75 x 20 feet.
Hardier, possibly to zone 5 on a sheltered site.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photo taken on Oct 30 2014 in Olney, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photos taken on June 27 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.


'Compacta'
Originates from Cupressus arizona subsp. glabra. It is a dwarf, rounded to pyramidal shrub reaching only 2 x 2 feet in 10 years.
The dense, adult foliage is gray-green.

subsp. 'Glabra'
Also called Cupressus glabra. A form originating in the wild in the mountains of central Arizona at elevations up to 6000 feet. A very commonly planted ornamental tree in mild climates that is narrow columnar when young, later becoming more broadly conical.
The aromatic foliage is grayish-blue above, whitish beneath.
The rounded cones ripen to brown and persist for a few years.
The bark is the main difference from regular Cupressus arizonica. The bark on this subspecies is very attractive cherry red and smooth, exfoliating into thin grayish plates.
Hardy zone 5 to 10 and very drought tolerant.

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


'Pyramidalis'
Originates from Cupressus arizona subsp. glabra. Is conical in habit with bright silver-blue foliage.

'Raywood Weeping'
Originates from Cupressus arizona subsp. glabra. Has very blue foliage and is pendulous with an upright main leader. Fast growing, it may grow up to 3 feet per year and reach up to 20 feet in 10 years.

'Stepensonii'
Blue-green foliage. The reddish bark is smooth and peeling. Some records include: 23 years - 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.

Cupressus atlantica ( Atlas Cypress )
A massive conical tree with a straight trunk that is native to southern Morocco where it is very endangered. Some records include: 30 years - 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 feet; longest lived - 2000 years.
The foliage is deep green.
The bark is gray-brown.
Hardy north to zone 7; very drought resistant.

Cupressus bakeri ( Baker Cypress )
A very rare, very ornamental, dense conical coniferous tree native from the Siskiyou Mountains in Oregon to northern California. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 20 x 15 feet; 40 years - 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 130 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The soft foliage is light-green to gray-green.
The fibrous bark is reddish brown with a purple tinge.
The cones are up to 0.8 inches across.
It is the hardiest of Cypresses ( zone 5 to 8 ), seed source originating from high elevations is completely hardy in southern Michigan and Massachussetts tolerating as low as -20 F. Very drought tolerant. Immune to canker. It also thrives in much of western Europe, having already reached 70 feet in England.

* photos taken by Albert Everett Wieslander & Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Curpessus cashmeriana ( Kashmir Cypress )
Also called Bhutan Cypress and Cupressus pseudohimalaica. This is a very elegant, graceful, fast growing large tree reaching up to 100 feet that is native to Bhutan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 12 x 10 feet; 7 years - 23 x 17 feet; 15 years - 30 feet ( average ); largest on record - 200 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. A tree of 312 feet tall has recently been reported, if this is verified this will be the tallest currently existing tree in Asia. It is the official national tree of Bhutan where it is often planted around temples. An especially large spectacular tree is known to grow at Lake Maggiore, Italy. Trees have already reached very large sizes in Ireland.
This Cypress is narrow conical with ascending branches with long pendulous branchlets hanging down. Young trees look alot like the Nootka Cypress ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ) in outline.
The aromatic sprays of foliage is blue-gray. The leaves themselves are very small and scale-like, borne in flattened drooping sprays.
The fruits are a rounded cone, up to 0.5 inches wide that are blue-green ripening to brown.
The red-brown bark peels in vertical strips.
Hardy zone 8 to 10 on a warm sheltered site on consistantly moist but well drained soil.
An excellent landscape tree for New Zealand as well as the U.S. west coast from coastal British Columbia to Oregon. It does not like root disturbance and is easily established from small container grown plants. They often are sparse and slender when very young, showing little hint of their eventual beauty. Pests and disease rarely occur on this Cypress. It does not look at its best if planted on a site where it will get blasted with excessive wind.
In cold climates where it will not grow outdoors, it still makes a great atrium tree.

'Chengi' ( Cheng Cypress )
Also called Cupressus chengiana. A very endangered, very fast-growing, large tree, that is native to Gansu and Sichuan provinces in central China. Some records include: 8 years - 19 feet ( North Carolina ); largest on record - 133 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet.
The wispy foliage is gray-green to green.
Hardier - north to zone 6 ( tolerating down to -4 F possibly colder ).

'Glauca'
light blue foliage

Cupressus duclouxiana ( Chinese Cypress )
Also called Tibetan Cypress. A highly endangerd, rare, fast growing, very beautiful upright, large tree reaching up to 80 feet ( averaging 14 x 8 feet in 10 years ). It is a native of temperate forests in river valleys in Sichuan, Tibet and Yunnan provinces in China. Remaining natural stands are very scattered. The wood is highly valued and large trees remain only in a few very remote places. Some of these trees are protected as Buddhist holy trees.
The attractive wispy foliage is blue to blue-green.
Hardy zone 7 to 9. It is an excellent landscape tree and has already reached over 50 feet in Ireland.

subsp austro-tibetica
Similar but hardier ( reports of zone 5 ), it is native to higher elevations in Tibet. It has potential to be an outstanding landscape tree in North America and should be tested in different climates.

'Erics Form'
Some records include: 7 years - 14 x 7 feet ( North Carolina )
Hardier ( zone 5 to 9 )

Cupressus dupreziana ( Saharan Cypress )
A large, extremely endangered large tree native to the Tassili n'Ajjer mountains in the central Sahara Desert, southeast Algeria. These stands are hundreds of miles from any other trees. Rainfall in this area is about 1.2 inches per year and these trees which are mostly over 2000 years of age are not reproducing due to desertification as result of decreasing rainfall over northern Africa. These trees are relics of an earlier more temperate moister times. Critically endangered, only 233 of these trees remain in the wild. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental tree in southern and western Europe.
An International Arboretum is being established in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory (ACT), Australia. Here will be an established forests of rare and endangered trees from around the world. Among these forests is one dedicated to Cupressus dupreziana and 1300 of the trees have been propagated for planting in 2007. A very large, massive tree, some records include: largest on record - 72 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 12 feet. It is a rounded, broad canopied tree with upward curving branches.
It is similar to Cupressus sempervirens but is broader in shape and with much bluer foliage. The cones are smaller, only up to an inch in size.
The reddish-brown bark has deep longitudinal fissures.
Cupressus atlantica (Moroccan Cypress) is more similar, and is treated as a variety of the Saharan Cypress (C. dupreziana var. atlantica)

Cupressus funebris ( Chinese Weeping Cypress )
An elegant large pyramidal coniferous tree reaching up to 80 feet that is native to central China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - ; 6 years - 15 x 7 feet; 20 years - 27 x 13 feet ( 60 x 17 feet ); largest on record - 120 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet; longest lived - 800 years. Young trees are upright and dense, older trees become more open and pendulous. In China it has been planted near temples and tombs for centuries, more recently planted around churches in Europe. Trees have already reached over 50 feet in Ireland.
The hanging flattened sprays of foliage is gray-green.
The juvenile foliage is soft and the adult foliage is in flattened sprays.
The small cones are clustered towards the branchlet tips.
Hardy zone 6 to 9
A strain from France is very soil and PH tolerant and shows no damage at -20 F.
Thrives in the Mid Atlantic U.S. including the nations capital.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* historical archive photos


Cupressus gigantea ( Tibetan Cypress )
Also called Tsangpo River Cypress. A very fast growing tree, native only to Tibet in China where it is endangered. It is very narrow in its youth.
Some records include: 5 years - 10 x 5.5 feet; largest on record - 170 feet with a trunk diameter of 19 feet; longest lived - 2600 years.
The blue-green to bright green foliage is borne in flat sprays.
Hardy zones 9 ( possibly 7 & 8 but has not been thoroughly tested in North America ). In the wild, it tolerates drought, cold and strong wind.

Cupressus goveniana ( Gowen Cypress )
A rare large tree reaching around 80 feet that is conical in its youth, later becoming ovoid. It is native to coastal pine forests of coastal central California.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - ; 35 years - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet; largest on record - 200 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.1 feet. It thrives in much cooler maritime climates than where it is native and very large trees already exist in Ireland.
The citronella scented foliage is bright to deep green.
The young shoots are maroon-red tipped.
The female cones are rounded and up to an inch in width. They are found in clusters and persist on the trees for a few years.
The reddish-brown bark is flaky and ridged.
Hardy zone 7 to 10 ( 6 ). Very tolerant of dry alkaline soil.

* photo of unknown internet source


* historical archive photo


'Abramsiana'
Very fast growing. Some records include: 20 years - 60 feet; 40 years - 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.

'Pendula'
Similar in shape and outline to Nootka Cypress.

Cupressus guadalupensis ( Tecate Cypress )
A very beautiful, fast growing, dense, conical, medium size tree native to coastal far southern California where it is endangered. Very old trees become broad and rounded. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 71 x 48 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.
The reddish bark peels in strips revealing whitish trunk beneath.
Hardiness not fully tested but seed source from Guatay mountain is likely hardy north into zone 7. This Cypress also tolerates cool maritime climates and even thrives in the British Isles.

* historical archive photo


subsp 'forbesii'
A rare small tree reaching a maximum height of 40 feet that is native to the Baja Peninsula of Mexico. The foliage is light green and the bark is reddish and smooth.
Hardy north to zone 7

'Greenlee's Blue Rocket'
Columnar in habit, reaching up to 45 x 8 feet with silvery-gray foliage.

subsp 'montana' ( Baja Cypress )
A medium size conifer native to the Baja Peninsula in Mexico, reaching a maximum height of 70 feet. Some records include: 30 years - 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.

Cupressus lusitanica ( Cedar of Goa )
Also called Mexican Cypress. A vigorous, rapid growing, spreading, broad canopied tree reaching around 80 feet that is native to the mountains of western Mexico. An excellent windbreak and it is often used for that in mild climates around the world, especially southern Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 30 x 20 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet; largest on record - 150 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest in New Zealand - trunk diameter of 4 feet; largest in England - 102 feet; longest lived - 205 years +.
The slightly aromatic foliage sprays on drooping branchlets are blue-green. The leaves themselves are very small and scale-like.
The rounded cones are blue-gray.
The red-brown bark peels in fibrous vertical strips.
Hardy zone 8 to 9 ( 7 ), it grows where yearly rainfall is between 40 and 160 inches per year and can tolerate a dry season up to 2 months. Not salt tolerant.
Outside it's native range, it thrives especially in the British Isles, much of southern mainland Europe, Argentina New Zealand in in the southern U.S. including Austin, TX ( very tolerant of hot humid summers ).

* historical archive photos


'Benthamii'
A regional clone originating in northeast Mexico. It is large and vigorous in habit with light green foliage. It is a very beautiful, gracefully weeping form. Some records include: 10 years - 30 x 17 feet.
It is not tolerant of salt wind.

'Brice's Weeping'
A low dome shaped strongly weeping tree with lush green foliage

'Cascade'
Vigorous and irregularly weeping with rich blue foliage.

'Glauca'
Pyramidal with blue-green foliage

'Glauca Pendula'
Very fast growing, compact and weeping in habit. Some records include: 20 years - 23 x 20 feet; largest on record - 84 feet with a trunk diameter of 44 inches.
The foliage is blue-gray.
Young trees may need to be staked to encourage height.

subsp 'lindleyi'
Native to lower rainfall areas of Cupressus lusitanica's natural range.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 30 years - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; largest on record - 133 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. Very drought tolerant.

'Pendula'
Similar to Nootka Cypress ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis ) with deep green foliage in long pendulous streamers.

Cupressus macnabiana ( Macnab Cypress )
A rare, beautiful, fast growing, long lived, irregularily outlined, dense, broadly-conical, large tree reaching around 80 feet. It is native to northern California where it is rare. Some records include: 46 years - 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 22 inches; 100 years- trunk diameter of 3 feet; largest on record - 130 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The tiny, citrus-scented, oval leaves are glossy deep-green to blue-green in color.
Foliage resembles Nootka Cypress more than that of most other native North America Cupressus.
The rounded female cones, up to an inch across, are gray-brown and borne in clusters.
The bark is maroon in color.
Hardy zone 6 to 10 with no damage at 0 F. It has been grown in Hungary in zone 5b and is also reported as hardy in Boston, MA.
Very drought tolerant, it hates wet feet. Easy to grow, it is rarely bothered by
insect or disease.

'Sargentiana'
Medium green foliage

Cupressus macrocarpa ( Monterey Cypress )
A fast growing, spreading open conifer native to a tiny area in California around Monterey. Young trees are broad pyramidal and many very old trees are heavy set and massive with a flattened crown.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 2 inches; 5 years - 23 feet; 10 years - 40 x 20 feet; 20 years - 60 x 17 feet; 32 years - 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet; 50 years - 82 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 64 inches; 100 years - 140 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet ( New Zealand ); 160 years - trunk diameter of 12.4 feet; largest potential size - 320 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 17 feet ( estimate based on combining with existing growth rates in New Zealand with maximum lifespan ); largest in U.S. - 110 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 14.5 feet ( San Mateo, CA ); longest lived - 2000 years recorded. Monterey Cypress thrives in coastal Spain, Portugal, France, Britain and Ireland and is often more vigorous there than in its native California. Monterey Cypress's in Ireland have already reached over 135 feet with trunk diameters up to 13 feet.
It is the largest of all Cypresses and potentially in cultivation, one of the worlds largest conifers. In its native California habitat is it dwarfed by drought and wind, rarely reaching 100 feet.
The very small, scale-like, lemon-scented, dense foliage is deep-green. The foliage is pressed close to the shoot and borne in sprays.
The rounded cones are up to 1.5 inches across.
The thick bark is red-brown on young trees turning to gray, scaly and ridged on old trees. The finely-grained yellow timber is very valuable.
Hardy zone 7 to 9 preferring humid air and deep, moist, sandy acidic soil.
It is tolerant of windy sites as well as salt laden air making it an excellent tree or screen for use by the sea. It is also tolerant of heat and drought.
Unfortunately prone to cypress canker disease in some regions. Young trees are not as cold hardy as older trees.

* Santiago, Chile


* photo of unknown internet source



* photos taken on Jan 2016 by Francine Mason


* photo taken by A.E. Wieslander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* video found on Youtube


'Aurea Saligna'
Also called 'Coneybearii Aurea' or 'Saligna Aurea'. A very fast growing, broad-pyramidal, large tree with long cascading pendulous branchlets.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; 10 years - 30 x 17 feet; 31 years - 43 x 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 22 inches; largest on record - 110 feet. An extremely beautiful tree, it looks like a massive Gold Mop Cypress. The long hanging streamers of golden-yellow, thread-like foliage giving this tree the appearance of a Babylon Weeping Willow.
Known to survive temperatures as low as 4 F with no damage in the east.
Despite its delicate appearance, it is very tolerant of windy coastal conditions.

'Barnham Gold'
Forms a tight column of golden foliage reaching a maximum height of 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.

'Coneybearii'
Long pendulous branchlets

'Donard Gold'
A very attractive dense, upright and columnar to narrow conical tree.
Some records include: 37 years - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 38 inches; largest on record - 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The foliage is deep golden-yellow.

* photo taken on June 3 2017 in Elkridge, MD


'Fastigiata'
Also called 'Clandeboye'. A tall columnar tree reaching a maximum size of 122 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet with deep green foliage.

'Goldcrest'
Upright, narrow-conical in habit, with golden-yellow foliage throughout the year. Some records include: 10 years - 13 x 8 feet; largest on record - 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 27 inches.
In cold climates, it makes a great atrium plant indoors.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Golden Pillar'
A narrow columnar tree reaching up to 75 x 20 feet with golden to bright lime green foliage. Some records include: 25 years - 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.

'Gold Spread'
A fast growing, low spreading shrub with angled branches. It can reach up to 3.3 x 10 feet in 10 years with bright golden-yellow foliage.

'Greenstead Magnificent'
Forms a slow growing, wide spreading mound of powdery-blue foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 32 inches x 6 feet; largest on record - 10 x 26 feet.

'Horizontalis'
A fast growing, large spreading tree with very horizontal branching.
Some records include: 10 years - 17 x 13 feet.
It is densely foliaged. Often used for hedging.

'Horizontalis Aurea'
Golden-yellow foliage form of the above. Can be used as a dense, taller groundcover if upright branches are pruned out.

'Karoonda'
Columnar in habit, resembling the Italian Cypress. Some records include: growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 14 x 1 foot.
The very coarse, thick foliage is deep green.
Hardy north to zone 7 ( reported to be a full zone hardier than species ).

'Lutea'
A very attractive form with golden-yellow foliage. It is a parent of the Castlewellan Leyland Cypress.
Reaching up to 21 feet in 8 years, averaging about 30 x 20 feet in 20 years, it can grow much larger on ideal sites. The largest on record is 112 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet.

* historical archive photo


'Pendula'
A majestic, wide weeping tree. Some records include: 25 years - 63 feet; largest on record - 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet

'Sunshine'
Fast growing and semi-weeping with foliage that is bright golden-yellow all year. It eventually grows into a large tree, some records include: 10 years - 23 x 13 feet.

Cupressus pygmaea ( Mendocino Cypress )
A very rare tree native to coastal mountain ranges of Sonoma and Mendocino Counties in northwest California. It is very closely related to Cupressus goveniana, and often considered a subspecies of it.
Some records include: largest on record - 157 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet.

Cupressus sargentii ( Sargent Cypress )
A tall tree with heavy branches, reaching around 75 feet that is native to coastal forests of California. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - ; 10 years - 15 x 13 feet; largest on record - 150 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet. The Sargent Cypress grows very rapidly until it reaches around 10 feet then grows slower at around a foot per year to 50 feet or more in height.
The tiny scale-like leaves are deep green. They aren't very resinous.
The rounded cones are up to an inch in length.
The bark is furrowed and rough.
Hardy zone 7 to 10 tolerating as low as 0 F

Cupressus sempervirens ( Italian Cypress )
Among the most popular conifers in the Medditerranean region of southern Europe and southwest Asia ( also a disjunct population in Iran ), this is a fast growing, strongly upright, narrow conical tree reaching around 100 feet or sometimes more at maturity. It is frequently planted all over southern Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet ( growth continuing May to September; 6 years - 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 inches; 20 years - 36 x 10 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 175 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 ( possibly up to 12 ft. centuries ago ) feet; largest in California - 90 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet; longest lived - 3000+ years ( due to centuries of deforestation around the Mediterranean this figure may be impossible to confirm ).
The only lightly aromatic, blunt tipped, very small, scale-like foliage is very deep green with no white marks below. The foliage is borne in sprays closely pressed all around the shoots.
The persistent shiny green cones up to 1.5 inches in length transition to red-brown then finally ripen to gray.
The bark is grayish-brown with spiraling, shallow ridges.
Hardy zones 7 to 10, drought tolerant and liking warmth; this extremely attractive conifer is not salt tolerant and problem free either. A canker is killing many in California and spider mites can kill young trees. The Italian Cypress is also dying off from a new blight in Italy.
The vigorous root systems can also damage foundations and pavement.
While native to mediterranean climates, it also thrives in cooler wetter maritime climates in North America on the west coast north to British Columbia, the British Isles and New Zealand. It also thrives even in hot humid Florida though is also tolerant of extreme drought as well as wind and poor soil.

* photo taken on January 2007 in Santiago, Chile

* historical archive photo


'Brooklyn'
Hardier than average, north to Long Island in New York.

'Horizontal'
A spreading tree form massive in habit

'Stricta'
Very narrow in form. This form is very popular in southern Europe and parts of the U.S. It can reach up to 20 x 2 feet in 10 years.

* photo of unknown internet source



* historical archive photos

* historical archive photos


'Swane's Golden'
A compact, narrow columnar form, reaching up to 20 x 3 feet, with bright golden-yellow foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 10 feet x 20 inches; largest on record - 40 feet.
Originated in Australia. Not as wind tolerant as regular Cupressus sempervirens.

* photo taken on Mar 17 2017 in Elkridge, MD


Cupressus torulosa ( Bhutan Cypress )
Also called West Himalayan Cypress. A vigorous, strongly upright conical large tree reaching over 80 feet that is native to mountains up to 9000 feet in the Himalayas from Nepal to northwest India to Tibet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6.5 feet; 3 years - 6 feet ( North Carolina ); 5 years - 17 feet; 10 years - 23 x 8 feet; 12 years - trunk diameter of 9 inches; 27 years - 67 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - 165 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 feet; largest in England - 92 feet. Very long-lived, it can persist up to 1000 years. Excellent for use in windbreaks.
The slightly weeping sprays of foliage are blue-green.
The marble-like cones are small and purplish.
The bark is reddish and peels in vertical strips. Its timber is very valuable and this tree is now endangered in the wild due to exploitation. It once formed extensive forests within its native range.
Hardy zone 8 to 9 ( tolerating as low as 10 F ) requiring light, fertile, well drained soil. The Bhutan Cypress will not tolerate heavy wet soil, especially in the Pacific Northwest where winters are extremely wet. Thriving in moist, mild to warm climates, it has much potential in the southeastern U.S. and the Pacific Northwest north to Vancouver. It is widely planted in Australia and New Zealand.
Seed grown trees tend to variable.

* photo from unknown source on internet

* historical archive photo


'Gigantea'
Fast growing, to 10 x 6 feet in 5 years. Hardier to zone 6, drought tolerant.

'Majestica'
Stronger growing, tall and hardier. Branchlets are thicker.

Close Relatives of the Cypress

ATHROTAXUS

Athrotaxus cupressoides ( Smooth Tasmanian Cedar )
A tree, reaching around 40 feet, that is native to western Tasmania.
Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 5 feet 20 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 52+ x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet.
The scale-like leaves are deep green.
It bears woody cones up to 0.3 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun.

Athrotaxus laxifolia ( West Tasmanian Cedar )
An upright conical tree, reaching up to 65 feet, that is native to mountains of western Tasmania. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 5 feet; 20 years - 23 feet.
The awl-shaped leaves are bright green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil.

Athrotaxus selaginoides ( King William Pine )
A conical tree, reaching up to 115 feet in height, that is native to rainforests of western Tasmania. Some records include: 15 years - 12 feet.
The awl-shaped leaves, up to 0.3 inches in length, are whitish beneath.
The woody cones are up to 1 inch across.
The fibrous bark is reddish-brown and peeling.

CALLITRIS

Callitris arenosa
Some records include: 17 years - 41 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches; 28 years - 55 feet with a trunk diameter of a foot; largest on record - feet with a trunk diameter of feet
Hardy zones

Callitris baileyi
Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 15 feet.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Callitris calcarata
Some records include: 34 years - 77 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot; largest on record - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
Hardy zones

Callitris canescens
Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 30 feet.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Callitris columnellaris ( Sand Cypress Pine )
A very attractive, medium-sized to large tree.
Some records include: 40 years - 60 x 22 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.4 feet; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.3 feet. It is long-lived, exceeding 140 years in age.
The foliage is deep green.
Hardy zones 8 to 12

Callitris cupressiformis
Some records include: 30 years - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
Hardy zones

* historical archive photo


Callitris endlicheri ( Black Cypress Pine )
Some records include: 17 years - 13 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 100 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Callitris glaucophylla
A very attractive, dense, medium-sized to large tree. Some records include: 38 years - 86 feet; 50 years - 96 feet; 120 years - trunk diameter of 4.5 feet; largest on record - 108 x 62 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; longest lived - 300 years.
The foliage is blue-green.
The bark is fibrous.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

* historic archive photo


Callitris gracilis
Some records include: largest on record - 66 x 27 feet.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Callitris intratropica
Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Callitris macleayana ( Stringybark Cypress Pine )
Some records include: largest on record - 170 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Callitris muelleri
Some records include: largest on record - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Callitris oblonga ( South Esk Pine )
A small tree, native to Tasmania where it is threatened with extinction. Some records include: 10 years - 11 feet; 16 years - 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches; largest on record - 50 x 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
Hardy zones 7 to 11; thrives in the mildest parts of the British Isles and the Pacific Northwest.

Callitris rhomboidea ( Port Jackson Cypress Pine )
Also called Oyster Bay Pine. Some records include: 5 years - 16 feet; 27 years - 48 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches; largest on record - 50 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Callitris robusta
Some records include: 30 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 100 feet.
Hardy zones

* historical archive photo


Callitris verrucosa ( Mallee Cypress Pine )
Also called Callitris preissii subsp. verrucosa. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet
Hardy zones 9 to 11

FITZROYA

Fitzroya cupressoides ( Alerce )
A very large, upright, evergreen coniferous tree, reaching around 150 feet, that is native to coastal rainforests from central Chile to northern Patagonia where it is now endangered due to exploitation for its timber. According to fossilized evidence, another species of Fitzroya once grew in Tasmania but is now extinct.
Some records include: 20 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 240 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 41.5 feet. The massive trunk can still have a diameter of 15 feet at 90 feet high off the ground. It can be grown outside its native range in the Pacific Northwest of North America, the British Isles and in Tasmania. The largest known tree in England is 70 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is one of the worlds longest lived trees with ages up to 3600 years being known and with reports of trees in the past as old as 5666 years. It is now protected by the endangered species act in Chile ( and protected within national park Parqua Nacionale Los Alerces ) but due to extensive logging during previous centuries dating back to 1600, old growth trees with trunks over 15 feet across are extremely rare. The largest on record - 41.5 feet in trunk diameter was discovered by Charles Darwin centuries ago.
The tiny scale-like leaves are borne in whorls of 3. The foliage is deep green.
The female cones, up to 0.3 inches, are rounded and green, ripening to brown.
The furrowed and exfoliating bark is redddish.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 in maritime climates only. In North America it is most suited to Puget Sound in Washington State and Vancouver Island in Canada. It is possibly hardy to zone 7 - survived 4 F with no damage in North Carolina though not really happy with scorching hot summers. The Alerce requires full sun on moist, well drained soil. It tolerates temporary flooding but not drought. Propagation is from seed.

* historic archive photo


TETRACLINIS
A sole species in a genus closely related to Cupressus.

Tetraclinis articulata ( Arar )
Also called Sandarac. A critically endangered dense, beautiful, medium size evergreen tree native to southeastern Spain and northwest Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 150 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. This columnar to pyramidal tree resembles Juniperus virginiana in appearance.
The needle-like leaves are borne in whorls of 4 on open, flattened sprays.
The small glaucous-blue cones are borne on the branch tips.
The bark is reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 12 tolerating as low as 10 F. It thrives in hot arid and Mediterranean climates as well as much more humid climates such as Savannah, GA. It is highly adapted to the Mediterranean region of Europe, northern Chile, western Australia and parts of California though unfortunately hasn't been planted. It prefers full sun on well drained soil and is very drought tolerant. Can be propagated from cuttings and seed.

* photo of unknown internet source


WIDDRINGTONIA
A genus of 3 species of trees that are closely related to Cupressus but are all native to various parts within the southern half of Africa.
They do not like climates with wild temperature extremes and prefer light loamy soil and also require full sun once past the seedling stage.

Widdringtonia nodiflora ( Mountain Cypress )
Also called Sapree Wood. An attractive large tree that was once common in its native range from tropical eastern Africa, south to Cape Town, South Africa. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 1 foot; largest on record - 150 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet.
The needle-like "juvenile" foliage on younger vigorous trees is up to 1 inch in length.
The oppositely arranged, scale-like "adult" foliage on older trees is up to 0.2 inches in length.
The grayish bark peels off in long strips to reveal fresh reddish bark beneath.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( reports of 6 and 7 unlikely ). Great for the south and southwest. Can be grown from cuttings.

* photo of unknown internet source


Widdringtonia schwarzii ( Willowmore Cedar )
A slow growing, gnarled, massive, large tree native to a tiny area just east of Cape Town, South Africa where it is endangered. Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 140 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet; longest lived - 400 years.
The needle-like "juvenile" foliage on younger vigorous trees is up to 0.7 inches in length.
The oppositely arranged, scale-like "adult" foliage on older trees is up to 0.2 inches in length.
The flaky bark is attractive.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 thriving best in Mediterranean climates with between 8 and 15 inches of yearly average rainfall. Seedlings prefer shade and initial growth is good.

Widdringtonia whytei ( Mlanje Cedar )
A spectacular, wide spreading canopied tree that is very similar to W. nodiflora.
Some records include: largest on record - 170 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, it grows in southern England.

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