Sunday, January 17, 2010

Pines for all Landscapes

Pinus armandii ( Chinese White Pine ) -

The Chinese White Pine is a large and fast growing tree from c & w China, s Japan and Taiwan with widely spreading horizontal branches. Some recorded growth rates include 25' / 10 years, & 37' in 18years to an eventual size of 170 x 60 x 6.5'.
Its soft green needles grow to 8" long and are drooping and last to 3 years.
This Pine is resistant to blister rust and is very beautiful. Highly recommended in eastern North America from zones 3 to 8 and also grows well in England.


Pinus banksiana ( Jack Pine )
Native to central & eastern Canada and the neighboring U.S. states; the Jack Pine is an extremely hardy medium size tree. Usually moderate growing; on good sites it can reach 40 feet in 20 years and the record growth rate recorded is 3 feet. The mature size is typically 40 to 60 feet though on good sites without competition from other trees it can grow much larger with the record being 131 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. Growing well in extremely harsh climates; this tree is known to reach up to 50 x 40 feet in North Dakota. The maximum lifespan is 240 years. In the wild it usually colonizes land cleared from fire and logging and is also often found on rock outcrops in the Canadian Shield where little else grows. The Jack Pine is used for land reclaimation, Christmas trees, timber for railway ties, telephone poles and pulpwood. In the Mid Atlantic region of the U.S. it is replaced by the similar looking Virginia Pine. This tree usually grows striaght with an irregular outline thought on open sites it is often twisted and picturesque.
The needles are in pairs and are short and twisted. The slightly curved cones reach up to 2 inches long. Hardy from zone 2 to 6; this tree can survive as low as -65 F but needs full sun.

Pinus brutia ( Turkish Pine )
Sometimes considered a regional variant of Pinus halepensis; this Pine is native of the eastern Mediterranean. It has an open crown with irregular branching and can grow fast on ideal sites with the fastest rate recorded being 20 x 27 feet in 6 years and 33 feet in 17 years ( 24 inches of growth in a year is closer to average ). The Turkish Pine has been known to reach heights of 6 feet in the 2nd year from a one gallon container and also live up to 130 years or more. Often over 100 feet tall and 3 feet in trunk diameter; the largest on record is 135 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The foliage is bright green and fairly stiff. The small cones are shiny red brown when ripe. The thick bark is orange with black fissures.
This Pine is very heat and drought tolerant and is often grown in Italy, France and Yugoslavia. Recently this tree is dying out in Texas from Diplodia Blight the same disease that afflicts the Austrian Pine and is no longer recommended in that state.
This Pine grows well in regions worldwide with a Mediterranean climate and is planted for both lumber and shade.

Pinus bungeana ( Lacebark Pine ) -
A typically multi-stemmed rounded canopy Pine native to the mountains of northwest China. Slow growing; it can grow to 11 x 15 feet in 10 years and 26 feet in height in 20 years. Eventually it can reach 60 feet and the record is 120 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet in its native China ( this Pine is also extremely long lived ). In the U.S. it has already reached 80 feet at Rutgers University. The record known single year growth increase is 22 inches.
The foliage is short and aromatic, to 4 inches in length ( rarely to 5.5 inches ).
The cones are small and oval either single or in pairs. The bark is smooth and blotched white, gray-green and brown and looks similar to that of the London Plane.
This Pine is somewhat drought tolerant and grows in temperate climates with 20 or more inches of rain per year. Hardy from zone 4 to 9.
'Silver Ghost' has bark much more white than that of the species

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2010



Pinus canariensis ( Canary Island Pine )
A tall tree with a heavy set straight central trunk and a dense oval canopy that is native to mountains of the Canary Islands. This tree is so widely planted as an ornamental and has become wild in parts of Australia, Italy and South Africa that many people have no idea this tree comes from a tiny place in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. There in its native range; the Canary Pine is from the cloud forest belt of the Canary Islands where the official rainfall is about 20 inches per year however it more like 80 inches when you include condensed fog that drips from the branches to the forest floor ( common occurence in the Redwood belt of California as well ). This beautiful Pine is also fast growing to 100 feet or more. The record growth rate is 92 x 20 feet in 32 years and 4 foot growth increase in a single year. The largest tree ever recorded is 200 feet tall; 40 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 9 feet!
The needles are long and drooping up to 13 inches and sometimes even to 18 inches! The cones are shiny and brown. The bark is reddish brown and very attractive.
This is also one of the very few Pines that can resprout after fire.
Drought tolerant; this tree is best in sun on rich, well drained soil.
The Canary Island Pine is hardy from zone 8 to 11 and can survive as low as 3 F.













Pinus caribaea ( Caribbean Pine )
A very fast growing Pine native to the Caribbean that can easily reach 100 feet with the record being 150 feet in height and 4.5 feet in trunk diameter. The record growth is 30 x 13 feet in 10 years & 90 feet tall with trunk diameter of 20 inches in 34 years. The record single year growth increase is 8 feet! The canopy is irregular, open and broad and the trunk is tall as it typically sheds the lower branches as they get shaded out. The needles are often bunched at the branch tips and are long, dark green and shiny to 12 inches in length. The cones are small, shiny and red-brown with sharp prickles.
This Pine is used for forestry in the tropics though it can be invasive on the Pacific Islands. Hardy from zone 9 to 12.
subsp 'Hondurensis' is similar from Central America but even faster growing with longer needles to 13 inches. Some recorded growth rates include:
2 years - 12 feet tall with trunk diameter of 2 inches
3 years - 27 feet in height!
5 years - 37 feet in height and 6 inches in trunk diameter
12 years - 60 feet tall and 1 foot in trunk diameter
15 years - 100 feet tall with 1.5 foot trunk diameter
40 years - 120 feet tall
Tallest on record - 150 feet


Pinus cembra ( Swiss Stone Pine )
Native to central Europe; especially the Carpathian Mountains and the Alps.
A narrow conical to almost columnar conifer that is slow growing though with the best of conditions may become a moderate grower. The most it can reach is 40 x 10 feet in 20 years; and 60 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 2 feet in has been recorded in 70 years in England. The mature height is typically 70 feet after a century or more however the largest ever recorded is much larger at 160 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet. The Swiss Stone Pine is usually densely branched to the ground. The dense foliage is in 5s and these needles are dark green and twisted up to 5 inches in length. The small cones are usually only seen on very old trees. Resistant to Blister Rust and high winds. Hardy from zone 2 to 7 ( tolerating -60 F )
subsp 'Sibirica' - Native to Siberia, Mongolia and Xinjiang; it can tolerate as cold as - 90 F as well as high winds. It can grow as large as 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet and live as long as 850 years. It is fast growing, very clay and also flood tolerant. It is not prone to Blister Rust. An excellent ornamental tree for central Canada and should be planted more. It grows very well in Edmonton & Saskatoon.

Pinus chiapensis ( Chiapas White Pine )
A huge White Pine to high rainfall mountainous areas from southern Mexico to Guatemala. It is very fast growing to
27 x 15 feet in 10 years and is known to reach as much as 285 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 6 feet! The needles reach up to 8 inches in length, are soft, bright green and in 5s lasting 2 to 3 years. Hardy north to zone 8. Now rare in wild due to logging. Has been planted in mountainous areas of Columbia.

Pinus densata ( Sikang Pine )
Native to southwest China and growing to 100 x 50 feet with a diameter of 4.5 feet; this Pine has dark green needles in 2s to 8 inches in length. The cones are up to 2 inches in length.




Pinus densiflora ( Japanese Red Pine )

A tall straight tree with an open irregular crown which can live up to 500 years and grow fast to 80 feet with the record being 170 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. In 20 years it can reach up to 40 x 17 feet and has reached 70 feet in 47 years in New Jersey. The bright green needles are typically tufted towards the ends of the branches and are up to 5 inches in length. The cones are up to 2 inches in length and are brown. The bark is attractive red-orange. Originating from ne China, korea & Japan and rarely seen in the U.S. despite its zone 4 - 7 hardiness. Prefers full sun in slightly acid well drained soils.

'Umbraculifera' ( Tanyosho Pine ) hardy north to zone 3 and shaped like an umbrella. The dwarf Tanyosho Pine is somewhat common in gardens, It has reddish attractive bark and is slow growing ( 8 inches a year at most ) and grows to 5 x 5 feet in 10 years, and after an extremely long time may reach 30 x 38 feet in size.


* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004



Pinus douglasii ( Douglas Pine )
A timber tree from the mountains of central & western Mexico; it can reach up to 100 feet tall and 26 inches in diameter in 38 years.

Pinus echinata ( Shortleaf Pine )
Native to central and eastern U.S; it is a tall straight tree usually with a high rounded crown reaching up to 100 feet in height. On the best of sites; this tree is very fast growing with records including:
12 years: 50 feet tall with trunk diameter of 8 inches
20 years: 60 feet in height
26 years: 63 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 13 inches
largest ever recorded: 150 x 50 feet with trunk diameter of 7.3 feet
The Shortleaf Pine is an important timber tree in its native range. The needles are blue-green and up to 4 ( rarely 5 ) inches in length; they can last up to 5 years. The cones are small, oval and red-brown. The bark is very beautiful, plated and rosey-orange.
Hardy from zone 6 to 9

Pinus eldarica ( Afghan Pine )
to 40 x 30 feet and moderate growing. Hardy from zone 5 to 8 tolerant of both extreme heat and drought as well as cold making it an excellent windbreak for harsh climates.

Pinus elliottii ( Slash Pine )
A very fast growing Pine native to the southeast U.S. that can reach up to 20 feet in 5 years and 76 feet in height and 13 inches in diameter in 15 years; 107 feet in 36 years. Often with a straight central leader free of branches much of the way up; this Pine can easily reach 100 feet and the largest on record approach 200 feet in height; 60 feet in width and 5 feet in trunk diameter. The shiny green needles are long up to 12 inches.
The bark sheds in thin flakes revealing light brown beneath. Often grown in subtropical plantations; this timber tree is valued for its strong, heavy wood. Hardy from zone 7 to 11; it can be grown far north of its native range. In fact a tree of 90 feet grows at Virginia Beach. Tolorates as low as -5 F
No cultivars are known other than a form that is rust resistant.

Pinus edulis ( Rocky Mountain Pinyon )
Native to dry mountain slopes from the southwest U.S. and into Mexico; this Pine reaches 40 feet with a rounded crown. On ideal sites it can grow much larger with the largest ever recorded being 75 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
Slow growing; this Pinyon can reach up to 10 feet in 12 years. It can also live up to 1000 years.
The foliage is short, stiff, blue-green to dark green and up to 2.5 inches in length. The small cones hold edible nuts that are usually dispersed by birds.
The bark is irregularly furrowed and silvery. This extremely tough tree can survive without irrigation anywhere yearly rainfall exceeds 14 inches and is hardy from zone 4 to 9 ( tolerating extremes of -31 F and 111 F.








Pinus engelmannii ( Apache Pine )
A tall tree from dry mountain ranges of southern Arizona and New Mexico south into Mexico. It has an open rounded crown and on good sites grows at a moderately fast pace to 50 feet in 20 years & 80 feet in 48 years. It can easily mature over 100 feet as has trees planted far outside its native range in Portland, Oregon. The largest on record is 120 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The needles are very long and dark green; up to 18 inches in length. The needles are in 3s and sometimes in 5s and last 2 years.
The cones are usually either single or in clusters of 4 and are up to 6 inches in length. The bark is dark brown and fissured.
A rare, very attractive bold commanding tree that is hardy from zone 7 to 10
It has a deep taproot and prefers deep acidic soils.

Pinus flexilis ( Limber Pine )
Native to western Canada & the U.S; especially in the Rocky Mountains. This Pine is usually a vigorous medium size tree that is dense and conical when young becoming open and rounded with age. Often stunted in the wild as it is often growing out of rock on wind blown upper elevations of mountain ranges; on good sites this Pine grows much faster to 60 feet or more. In cultivation it can reach 20 x 10 feet in 10 years. The largest Limber Pines ever recorded can reach up to 160 feet in height; 35 feet in width with a massive trunk width of 10 feet. While not as long lived as the Bristlecone Pine; the Limber Pine can still live extremely long to as much as 1700 years!
The soft needles are in 5s, dark green and up to 4.5 inches in length. This tree is related to Pinus strobus - White Pine; however the needles on the Limber Pine are much longer lives - lasting up to 6 years. The cones are yellow-brown.
The trees name comes from the twigs which are very flexible.
Hardy from zone 2 to 7; this tree can tolerate as cold as - 60F. Drought tolerant.
Unfortunately, Limber Pine is afflicted with White Pine Blister Rust, a fungus that was introduced accidentally from Europe. Limber Pine mortality is high in much of its range, except Arizona, where it has not yet been found. There is no known way of controlling the blister rust in existing trees. Research is under way, locating and breeding from the occasional naturally resistant Limber Pine.

Pinus flexilis 'Vanderwolf' ( Vanderwolf Limber Pine ) -

One of the most beautiful Pines around, this pine is vigorous, dense & conical when young and opening with age. It grows to 20 x 10 feet in 10 years and to an eventual size of 60 feet; however it can live up to 1700 years and some trees grow much larger ( 160 x 35 feet with trunk diameter of 10 feet! ). It is much denser than the related White Pine because its 4.5" soft blue needles last 6 years instead of 2. It is also equally hardy as the White Pine ( zone 2 to 7, tolorates -60F ) with the additional benefits of being drought resistant and resistant to blister rust.



Pinus gerardiana ( Afghan Pine )
Native to valleys of the Himalayas; this is a medium size conifer. Growing moderately slow to 33 feet in 20 years; it can eventually reach 50 feet and the largest on record is 85 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The Afghan Pine can live up to 300 years. The bark is silvery-gray.
The needles are stiff, dark green, up to 5 inches in length and last up to 3 years.
The cones are larges and hold up to 200 edible seeds which are up to 0.7 inches in length. The local people eat these and due to heavy collection of its cones in the wild; there is little natural re-generation of this tree. It is now very rare and it should be cultivated more in both its native range and in continental climates ( in which it grows well ) around the world. Hardy from zone 6 to 9

Pinus glabra ( Spruce Pine )
Fast growing Southern Pine to 30 x 15 feet with trunk diameter of 6 inches in 10 years. Largest on record is 121 x 53 feet with trunk diameter of 3.6 feet
Unlike most southern U.S. Pines; the Spruce Pine is somewhat tolerant of shade and grows scattered in moist hardwood forest.

Pinus gordoniana ( Gordons Pine )
With a dense rounded crown; this southwest Mexican native can reach up to 120 feet in height. The needles are in 5s. long and bright green up to 14 inches in length.
The bark is thick and exfoliating orange-red. This Pine is hardy north to zone 9.

Pinus greggii
A Pine native to the Sierra Madre of Mexico that becomes broad dome shaped with age. It is fast growing in cultivation to as much as 86 feet tall and 16 inches in diameter in only 23 years and the largest known is 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The needles are bright green, up to 6 inches in length and last up to 3 years. The cones are up to 6 inches in length and often occur in clusters of up to 8. They stay on the trees for many years until fire ( when the seeds are released - this tree thus colonizing the burnt over cleared land ). The bark is gray. This Pine is drought tolerant and hardy from zone 7 to 10. Has been grown in Italy, Nepal, Argentina, New Zealand and parts of South Africa. Due to its native range being of high elevations this tree prefers cool summers.



Pinus halepensis ( Aleppo Pine )
A large Pine native to the Mediterranean often with a flattened top or umbrella shape. Very fast growing to 50 x 10 feet in 20 years and to 84 feet in 41 years being recorded. Trunk diameters up to 6 feet in 70 years are known. This tree can live up to 200 years and the largest known is 160 feet in height; 70 feet in width with trunk diameter up to 6 feet. The needles are often curved and twisted and up to 7 inches long. Widely planted in dry climates and is becoming wild in parts of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. Alkaline soil tolerant and hardy from zone 7 to 11 ( tolerating 0 F )

Pinus hartwegii
A tall extremely attractive Pine with a dome shaped crown that can reach truly massive sizes. It can reach up to 50 feet in 20 years and eventually over 80 feet though the largest on records are up to 150 feet in height and 4.5 feet in trunk diameter. Very long lived; it can live up to 460 years and is suprisingly hardy considering it is native to mountains from Mexico to Guatemala and El Salvador and has reached as large as 92 feet in England. In the wild it is generally found at very high elevations around 14 000 feet and prefers cool summers. It is not known to grow in the Eastern U.S. The needles are long, up to 10 inches and dark green ( in 5s ) and the cones are very dark brown. Hardy from zone 8 to 10 and is known to survive -4 F

Pinus heldreichii
A rare native from Bulgaria down the Balkan Peninsula to Greece; this is a large Pine with an open irregular habit. It is moderate growing with up to 50 feet in 20 years being the maximum. Eventual height likely around 80 feet; this Pine also lives to 1300 years. The largest ever recorded is 133 feet in height; 40 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 8 feet!
A notable tree in Bulgaria's Pirin Mountains is 80 feet tall, 7 feet in diameter, and is estimated to be over 1300 years old.
The needles are stiff and sharp, up to 4.5 inches and lasting up to 10 years. The cones occur in clusters of 2 to 4.
This Pine is hardier than its native range might suggest. It grows from zone 3 to 9 and is known to survive -50 F and even is somewhat hardy in Alberta's harsh climate. This Pine is an EXCELLENT replacement for disease killed Austrian Pine in the Midwest!!! Salt tolorant and resistant to blight. Grows very well in Chicago.

subsp. leucodermis often planted as an ornamental
'Compact Gem' compact and rounded with dark green needles. Slow growing and never over 7 x 6.5 feet. 4 x 3 feet in 10 years. It grows up to 3 inches in a year.
'Pygmy' very slow growing, rounded and dense to 1 foot tall and wide in 10 years and eventually to 3.5 x 3.5 feet.
'Smidtii' a compact dwarf with bright green needles. To 10 feet tall and wide.

Pinus henryi ( Henry Pine )
Similar to Pinus resinosa ( Red Pine ); this Pine is native to China and is an excellent choice for the Mid Atlantic region. It is fast growing ( to around 2.5 feet in a year ) and can grow to 100 feet. The needles are in 2s, lush and up to 7 inches in length.

Pinus hwangshanensis ( Lutch Pine )
Native to eastern China and very similar to Pinus thunbergii ( Japanese Black Pine ).
It is fast growing ( around 2.5 feet in a year ) and can reach 20 x 12 feet in 10 years. Eventually to 80 feet; the largest on record is 170 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet. The paired needles are long and bright green to 7 inches. The cones are only 2 inches long. Grows well in northern Virginia. Hardy from zone 6 to 10.

Pinus insularis
A fast growing tropical timber Pine native from Phillipines to Vietnam. It is now endangered in the wild. Hardy to zone 10 it is only adapted to south Florida in the U.S. Known to grow as fast as 60 feet with trunk diameter of 1 foot in 14 years; 74 feet with trunk diameter of 15 inches in 20 years; 104 feet with trunk diameter of 21 inches in 30 years. The largest on record is 151 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet.

Pinus jaliscana ( Jalisca Pine )
A subtropical Mexican Pine native to the mountains around Puerto Vallarta. Endangered. Largest tree known is 120 feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter. Likely hardiness is zone 10. Little else is known about this tree.

Pinus jeffreyi ( Jeffrey Pine )
Native from Oregon to California; this Pine is a very tall relative of the Ponderosa Pine. It is fast growing and has been recorded on ideal sites at: 50 feet in 20 years; 60 feet with trunk diameter of 18 inches in 30 years. At maturity it can reach 100 feet or more and also live extremely long to 670 years. The largest on record is 300 feet in height; 90 feet in width and 12 feet in trunk diameter. Such massive trees rarely still remain in the wild. Even in the East this tree can grow large and has already reached 90 feet in the New Jersey Botanic Gardens. The trunk is straight and the conical to oval crown is irregular in outline. The needles are long and pointed and the large, red-orange cones reach up to 16 inches. A very important timber tree being used for housing construction, cabinets, doors and windows. Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and is reported to survive - 50F ( far colder than ever occurs in its native range )

Pinus kesiya
A fast growing conifer native to southern China and northern Vietnam growing in wet to high altitude tropical areas. It is threatened in the wild but also makes an excellent tree for both landscape and forestry use. Fast growing to 70 feet tall with trunk diameter of 14 inches in 20 years and 83 feet tall with trunk diameter of 1.5 feet in 32 years; the largest trees recorded reach 180 feet in height and up to 5 feet in diameter. Older trees have ascenting branches and a somewhat open canopy.
This gigantic Pine also has long gray-green needles to 10 inches in length and light brown cones to 3 inches in length. The bark is thick, dark brown and deeple furrowed. Hardy from zone 9 to 12

Pinus koreana

* photo taken @ Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA



Pinus kwangtuensis
Native to China; this Pine is endangered. It is very long lived up to 400 years and grows large, up to 170 feet in height; 25 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 5 feet being recorded. Average mature height is probably around 80 feet. It is fast growing to 2 feet in a year. The needles are soft, in 5s, blue green and reach up to 5 inches in size. Soil tolorant but moderately prone to Blister Rust. Hardy from zone 5 to 7.

Pinus koraiensis ( Korean Pine ) -

Growing wild from Siberia to southeast China, Korea and central Japan; this disease resistant ( not prone to Blister Rust ) relative of the White Pine is an excellent ornamental tree and very east to grow. Few nurseries carry it in the U.S. all the while often selling inferior disease prone pine such as the Austrian Pine. It is also much denser than the related White Pine due to the up to 5 inch inch needles lasting to 5 years instead of 2. The very attractive soft needles are dark glossy green even in winter, except for the variety 'Morton' which has extremely silver blue foliage.
It is extremely hardy surviving temperatures down to -60F, and is one of the best pines for the northern Midwest while also growing well in the Mid Atlantic region. Growing somewhat slower than the White Pine, 33 x 10 feet in 20 years is about the most one can expect, however this tree can live for a very long time, however growth rates of 3 feet in a single year have been reported. Eventually with great age it can reach up to 170 x 55 x 11 feet! In North America some have already grown large and one of 80 x 35 feet grows in Chicago. This tree is very adaptable to different sites and conditions .


Pinus krempfii
A huge Pine ( record is 190 feet in height with diameter of 6.6 feet ) that is buttressed with a broad domed crown and many large branches. The bark is silver gray. The unusual flat needles are up to 3 inches long. Unusually shade tolorant and native to the evergreen monsoon forests of the Vietnam mountains. Extremely endangered. Hardiness is unknown but it should be tested in cultivation.

Pinus lambertiana ( Sugar Pine )
An extremely tall Pine reaching up to 60 feet in 20 years and eventually up to 200 feet. In fact the tallest Sugar Pines rival the Douglas Fir and have reached as much as 330 feet; 70 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 20 feet! The crown is narrow and irregular. The record single year growth rate is 4 feet. This Pine can live up to 800 years and also grows very vigorously in England ( already reach 95 feet ). It does not grow well in the hot humid summers of the southeast U.S. It is native to mountain ranges from Oregon to the Baja Peninsula in the west and is also very valuable for its timber though now very rare. The needles are stiff, bluish, in 5s, up to 6 inches and unlike the related Pinus strobus ( White Pine ) - they are sharp. The cones are among the largest of all Pines and reach up to 20 inches. The bark si pale brown.
Drought tolorant but prefers 40 inches of yearly rainfall or more. Hardy from zone 4 to 9 and can tolorate as low as - 28 F.
The Sugar Pine is rust resistant when hybridized with Pinus armandii. 60 feet tall in Boston, Massachussets. A large proportion of the wild trees in the western U.S. have been wiped out by the Blister Rust disease however some wild trees do appear to be resistant and are now being bred to restock the native popultations of what naturalist John Muir called "The King of the Pines".

Pinus lawsonii ( Lawson Pine )
Another fast growing subtropical Pine native to southwest Mexico. Known to reach up to 115 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet in only 40 years ( which may also be its maximum height ); it has blue-green foliage in 5s, to 9 inches long. Hardy north to zone 9.

Pinus leiophylla ( Chihuahua Pine )
A native to mountains of southern Arizona and New Mexico & Mexico; often in rocky or sandy soils. On ideal sites in cultivation this Pine becomes very fast growing: 30 x 27 feet in 10 years; 74 feet with trunk diameter of 1 foot in 20 years; 90 feet with trunk diamter of 1.5 feet in 30 years; 106 feet with trunk diameter of 22 inches in 38 years. The largest recorded is 160 feet in height; 32 feet in width and 4 feet in trunk diameter. The crown is narrow and irregular.
The needles are gray-green and up to 7 inches in length. The cones are often in pairs and up to 2.5 inches. The bark is dark brown.
Unlike most Pines; the Chihuahua Pine will regrow from a stump if cut.

Pinus lumholtzii
A very attractive Pine native to northwest Mexico. It can reach up to 82 feet tall with a trunk diameter up to 2 feet in only 35 years. Its needles are long and weeping, in 4s and reach up to 15 inches. Hardy north to zone 8.

Pinus lutchuensis
Similar to Pinus taiwanensis and can grow to 180 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Fast growing up to 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot in 17 years. The needles are dark green, in 2s, up to 8 inches in length and last up to 4 years. Hardy north to zone 6 and native to Okinawa.

Pinus massoniana ( Chinese Red Pine )
A fast growing tall tree to 23 x 17 feet in 7 years; 90 feet with diameter of 12 inches in 30 years & 125 feet with trunk diameter of 20 inches in 48 years. The largest ever recorded is 150 feet in height; 40 feet in width and 5 feet in trunk diameter. The needles are in 2s or 3s, are dark green and up to 8 inches in length.
The cones are oblong up to 2.5 inches. Bark is thick & grayish brown. Native to southeast China and Taiwan and grown in plantations in southern China. Not well known in the U.S. but appears to do well at Jackson, Georgia. Hardy from zone 7 to 9 and can tolorate 0F. Almost extinct in native range due to introduced Pine Wood Nematode.

Pinus maximartinezii ( Martinez Pinyon )
A very attractive ornamental Pine with deep blue-green needles in 5s and up to 5 ( rarely 9 ) inches long. Slow growing up to 8 x 7 feet in 10 years; it can eventually reach 35 feet. The largest on record is only 55 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
Endangered in wild.

Pinus merkusii ( Sumatran Pine )
Very fast growing after the first 5 years this subtropical Pine can reach up to 83 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches in 20 years and is known to even reach 235 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 5 feet with age. The needles are in 2s, dark green and up to 12 inches long. Bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base becoming scaly towards the tree top.

Heat and drought tolorant and hardy north to zone 9. This Pine is native to southeast Asia including the Phillipines & China.

Pinus michoacana
Native to Mexico; this fast growing forestry Pine can be grown alot further north. It also has attractive foliage up to 20 inches long. Can reach: 70 feet tall with 12 inch diameter in 13 years; 101 feet tall with diameter of 2 feet in 42 years and the largest recorded is 120 feet tall and 3.5 feet in trunk diameter. This Pine is hardy to 6 F.

Pinus monophylla ( Single-Leaf Pinyon )
A medium size conifer native to semi arid country in parts of Nevada, Arizona & California; south to Mexico and into Baja. Usually multi stemmed and rounded; this Pine is moderate growing to 40 feet though some have grown much larger on excellent sites. The largest it is capable of reaching with extreme age is 100 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 fee; it can also live up to 1000 years.
The needles are single ( unusual for Pines ), stiff, gray-green, curved and up to 3 inches long. They last up to 10 years. The cones are small and hold edible nuts.
Difficult to transplant but tolorant of clay; the Singleleaf Pinyon does grow well in England. It grows best in areas with 22 inches of rain or more in a year. Hardy from zone 4 to 9

Pinus montezumae ( Montezuma Pine )
A large tree native to southern Mexico and Guatemala. It is very fast growing and can reach up to 63 x 17 feet in 20 years; and 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 4 feet in 75 years. The largest tree recorded is 150 feet in height; 50 feet in width with trunk diameter up to 6 feet. The Montezuma Pine is dense and conical when young and becomes spreading with age. The long, blue green needles are pendulous and reach up to 18 inches. The cones are light brown and up to 6 inches in length. Hardy well north of native range from zone 6 to 11. Grows well in New Zealand at low elevations. Also great for forestry at high elevations in Bolivia.

Pinus monticola ( Western White Pine )
A large tree with a conical narrow crown and a very solid striaght main trunk. This Pine is fast growing and has been known to 60 feet in 20 years; 120 feet in 50 years and eventually to 180 feet. The largest trees recorded have been logged out of the Pacific Northwest long ago but were up to 300 feet in height; 50 feet in width with diameters up to 11 feet. This tree can live up to 500 years and has been known to already reach 100 feet in England & New York State in the east.
This tree is closely related to Pinus strobus except with denser foliage because the needles last longer ( up to 4 years ) and reach up to 4 or more rarely 6 inches in length. The cones are narrow and up to 12 inches long.
West of the Cascades 90% of the Western White Pine has been wiped out in little more than a century; alot of it from the accidently introduced Blister Rust ( a fungus accidently introduced from Europe that needs both the White Pine and the host plant currents to survive on ). It is native from British Columbia, south to California and east to Montana.
Hardy from zone 2 to 8 and can tolorate as low as -4o F.
'Idaho' a clone from Moscow Arboretum in Idaho that is resistant to Blister Rust.

Pinus morrisonicola 'fenzeliana' ( Taiwan White Pine )
A moderate growing large tree sometimes reaching as large as 170 feet in height with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. The needles are in 5s and up to 5 inches long. The bark is brown. It is an endanfgered native of China & Vietnam.


Pinus mugo ( Mugo Pine )

A very common shrub pine. It is native to the mountain of c Europe eastward to China and is hardy from zone 1 to 8 - tolorating temperatures colder than -50F but not really liking hot summers where it can be prone to diplodia blight. Preferring sun in the north, in the Mid Atlantic it should have some shade and not be explosed to heat reflected off asphalt. It needs well drained soil however is tolorant of both limestone and acid soil. Its leaves grow to 3.3", are in 2s, sharp tipped, crowded and dark green. It grows up to 1 or rarely 2 feet per year and reaches a size of 20 x 17 feet in 20 years and outgrows many of the sites it is planted in ( shearing new growth candles in spring can keep it more dwarf if done before the needles expand ). However no worries, there are many cultivars that stay small. Just be careful these below are labelled correctly in the nursery -
'Corleys Mat' very low and mat forming - 1 x 4 feet in 10 years; eventually 2 x 17 feet
'Gnom' dense globular mound with black-green needles. 32 x 32 inches in 10 years, eventually 12 x 17 feet in like 100 years.
'Mops' dense and globular and lush green. Only 2 x 5 feet at most in 10 years, may reach 6 x 17 feet but would probably take 100 years to do so
'Slowmound' described as 4 x 4 feet, with I could give more details. Guessing it is somewhat like 'Gnom'
'Pumilio' is low growing but is not a true dwarf growing to 8 x 14 feet in 25 years.
'Tannenbaum' is certainly not a dwaft and really doesn't even look like a Mugo. It can grow 20 feet tall in 20 years and possibly even 120 feet with great age. It grows in christmas tree shape with a very erect symmetrical form with a pointed leader. This is the Mugo on steroids, however still much more refined than the Red Pine or Austrian Pine

Pinus muricata ( Bishop Pine )
A rare native of California and Mexico often growing stunted in less than ideal locations. In cultivation it becomes a stately and fast growing Pine to 20 feet in 5 years; 33 x 20 feet in 10 years ( New Zealand ); 63 feet in 18 years; 85 feet with diameter of 15 inches in 29 years. The record single year growth rate is an amazing 7 feet! It can reach 100 feet though some have grown as large as 150 feet in height; 60 feet in width and 5.5 feet in trunk diameter. The crown is open and rounded or sometimes flat topped. The needles last up to 3 years and are green ( some more southerly clones are bluish ) to 7 inches long. The cones stay on the trees for decades and are shiny red-brown. The bark is also red-brown. Hardy from zone 7 to 10 and grows well with yearly rainfall from 26 to 44 inches.

Pinus nelsonii ( Nelson Pine )
A moderate growing Pine that is threatened in its native habitat of northeast Mexico. It only grows to 33 feet at most with a diameter of 8 inches and often remains a shrub. The needles are green to 3 inches. It is hardy north to zone 9.
A very beautiful tree as an ornamental. Very drought tolerant.

Pinus nigra ( Austrian Pine )
A variable species native to southern Europe, especially near the Mediterannean & Black Seas. On ideal sites it becomes a tall straight trunked tree with a rounded crown. The trunk is silvery gray. It can grow to 70 feet in 20 years and eventually over 100 feet. Old growth stands of gigantic trees are known to occur with trees up to 200 feet in height; 40 feet in width with diameters up to 7 feet. In cultivation in North America I have seen a few large trees however it is very often short lived and ridden with disease. There are many better trees and in the Mid Atlantic and South; the similar looking native Loblolly Pine is a much better choice as is the Red Pine for the north and the Bosnian Pine in the Midwest. Austrian Pines in the U.S. often die out either rapidly or in a slow miserable death from Diplodia Blight and from Pine Wilt Disease caused by Nematodes followed by the deadly blue-stain fungus. It is not safe to plant the Austrian Pine in areas the average summer temperatures exceed 68 F ( 20 C ) in either the U.S. or southern Ontario due to the prevalence of this fungus.
The dark green needles are stiff, up to 7 inches long.
The cones are light brown and glossy.
The Austrian Pine is an important timber tree in Europe.
Hardy from zone 2 to 9; this tree will thrive with an annual rainfall above 20 inches.
'Bosnia' improved form and more disease resistant in the U.S.
'Hornibrookiana' a shrub form to only 2 x 4 feet in 10 years; eventually to 7 x 17 feet. Slow growing and spreading with lush dark green foliage.

Pinus oaxacana
Native to the mountains from southeast Mexico to the Honduras. This Pine forms a tall tree to 170 feet tall and 5 feet in trunk diameter.
The foliage is very beautiful, long, drooping, soft green, in groups of 5 and up to 12 inches long. The cones are ovoid, dark brown and up to 6 inches long. The bark is pale brown, thick and fissured. Hardy from zone 8 to 11

Pinus occidentalis ( Hispanolian Pine )
A moderate growing Pine native to forests in high elevations in Hispanola and east Cuba; it is known to grow to as much as 200 feet with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. The canopy is usually narrow and the dark green needles are long, in 3s or 5s up to 10 inches in length. Hardy in zone 10 ( in U.S. only s Florida )

Pinus oocarpa
A fast growing Pine native to high mountains in Mexico. It can grow 50 feet in 10 years; 92 feet with trunk diameter of 14 inches in 21 years and is known to reach as large as 170 feet in height; 61 feet in width and 5 feet in trunk diameter. The needles are medium green, in 5s and to 12 inches long. The bark is medium gray and rough. Hardy north to zone 8; this Pine is known to regrow from roots if cut ( unusual for Pines ). This Pine only thrives in regions with 1 meter ( 40 inches ) or more rainfall in a year. Recommended for planting for timber for the paper industry at high elevations of Bolivia, Columbia & Ecuador.

Pinus palustris ( Longleaf Pine )
Native to the southeast U.S.; this is a tall Pine that often forms pure stand forest
on sandy soils. While slow to establish when in competition with grasses and brush; it can also become very fast growing once established. While growth rates up to 5 feet are extremely rare; it has been recorded growing to 10 feet in 3 years; 85 feet with a trunk diameter of 17 inches in 36 years; trunk diameter of 2.5 feet in 50 years and eventually to 120 feet. This Pine once formed massive tracts of open forests in dry sandy areas of the south; fire cleared out the undergrowth and kept the forest open and free from competition. In such an environment these Pines protected from ground fire by their thick bark reached massive ages ( up to 500 years ) and sizes up to 200 feet tall; 80 feet in width and 9 feet in diameter. Most of these old growth Pine forest have been destroyed over the past 150 years and much of the wildlife they sustained including a few species of woodpeckers and the Diamondback Rattlesnake are now endangered.
Before European settlement the Longleaf Pine pine forest dominated as much as 90,000,000 acres stretching from Virginia south to Florida and west to eastern Texas. 95% of this has disappeared since 1800.
The Longleaf Pine is very ornamental and typically has an open crown of very ornamental foliage and a straight trunk. The needles are green and very long up to 14 inches ( sometimes even as much as 26 inches ) that are clustered at the branch tips. The cones are large with short thorns at the tips and are brown. This tree needs to be kept clear of vegetation when young; if not then quite often it will remain a tuft of grassy needles for years before finally deciding to grow. The Longleaf Pine is salt tolorant and hardy far north of its native range. It grows from zone 7 to 10 and possibly 6 in sheltered locations. It is known to tolorate - 20. Grown as an ornamental in DC, Baltimore and Philly ( 53 x 36 feet at Morris Arboretum ).



Pinus parviflora ( Japanese White Pine )
Usually slow to moderate growing, the Japanese White Pine is usually not seen as a very large tree in the U.S. In Its native Japan however, extremely old trees can reach sizes of 125 x 90 x 4 feet. The maximum size for 20 years would be 37 x 37 feet. The soft, blue green, stiff, curved needles in 5s reach up to 3 inches. The cones are red-brown and up to 4 inches. This Pine is popular for bonsai.
It is disease resistant and is not bothered by salt spray making it a suitable tree for the seashore. The Japanese White Pine prefers cool soil ( mulching is good ) and is hardy from zones 3 to 8. It is rarely grown in the U.S. The bark is reddish and scaly with deep fissures. The Japanese White Pine likes deep cold winter dormancy and a mild dry summer without extreme heat or high humidity. It can be prone to fungal diseases and foliage can be scorched above 95 F. 105 F can kill. Salt tolorant.
'Adcocks Dwarf' small & slow growing to 5 x 3 feet in 10 years usually growing 3 inches per year. Eventually it can reach 10 x 7 feet. Very dense foliage
'Brevifolia' narrow to 5 x 2 feet in 10 years and eventually to 33 feet after over a century. Dense short blue-green foliage.
'Glauca Nana' to 10 x 7 feet
''Templehof' fast growing and vigorous





Pinus patula ( Mexican Weeping Pine )
A heavy set, wide conical tree with a horizontal branching habit that is native to the mountains of Mexico. Very fast growing with reports of 30 feet in 5 years; 12 inches in diameter in 10 years; and 50 feet in height in 8 years; 120 feet in 20 years; 1.5 foot diameter in 30 years; 170 feet in 50 years. The largest on record is 190 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The rich green foliage is soft, fine, long and weeping, in 3s and up to 12 inches long. The brown cones occur in clusters from 2 to 5. Can tolorate light frost while growing and is also tolorant of poor soil. An excellent shade and shelter tree. Resistant to Oak Root Fungus and hardy from zone 7 to 10. Considered a weed in Hawaii
It grows well planted at high elevations in Ecuador and Bolivia ( 3300 to 3500 meters ) as well as high elevations in Hawaii. In Córdoba and San Luis provinces in Argentina it is planted for forestation purposes for creating forest in lands originally covered by bushland. It has been introduced near sea level : New South Wales, Australia, where it spreads naturally by wind and grows well because rainfall is abundant in summer. It was also introduced in New Zealand as a timber tree and is now fully naturalized. It is cultivated and thrives in England as an ornamental.
Prefers climates with 30" ( 75cm ) or more rainfall in a year.

Pinus peuce ( Macedonian Pine )
A very large tree native to the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. The Macedonian Pine grows with a slender conical crown often branched to the ground and is moderate growing. It can reach 50 feet in 20 years ( usually around 30 feet ) and 85 feet in 65 years. The largest ones recorded have reached as large as 135 feet in height; 40 feet in diameter with trunk diameters up to 6 feet. The soft blue-green foliage is dense and attractive, in 5s and is up to 6 inches in length. The cones are pendulous and narrow. Resistant to Blister Rust and also reported to tolerate - 60F! and alot of wind. It has even escaped into the wild in part of eastern Finland. A highly recommended tree for colder condinantal climates in North America.


Pinus pinaster ( Maritime Pine )
Also called the Cluster Pine; it is native to the Mediterranean and grows large with a high rounded canopy. The Maritime Pine is very fast growing and can reach 30 feet in 10 years; 37 feet with diameter of 8 inches in 15 years; 50 feet in 20 years; 100 feet with trunk diameter of 1.5 feet in 35 years and the largest ever recorded is 135 feet in height; 75 feet in width with trunk diameter of 6 feet. Can live up to 150 years. Alot of the worlds supply of resin comes from tapping the trunk of this tree. The needles are long, stiff, shiny, in pairs, gray-green and reach up to 10 inches. The bark is very ornamental with red brown fissured between gray plates.
Difficult to transplant other than when very small; this Pine is highly recommended for Coastal areas where it grows well. It loves light sandy soils but dislikes drought. Hardy zones 7 to 10 and tolorates as low as -1 F. Reported to grow well in Clarke County, Virginia; otherwise it is not well known in the eastern U.S.
'Aberdoniae' tall with stout spreading branches and rich green leaves.

Pinus pinceana ( Weeping Pinyon )
A small tree from dry regions of Mexico with a dense rounded crown that is pendulous like the Weeping Willow. It is rapid growing and can reach up to 60 feet on good sites. The drooping needles are soft bright green and drooping; up to 8 inches. the pendulous cones up to 3 inches ripen to bright orange. The bark is smooth and gray. This tree is threatened with extinction in the wild. Hardy from zone 7 to 10

Pinus pinea ( Stone Pine )
Native to southern Europe and Turkey; this is a large flat topped conifer. Fast growing; it can reach 15 feet in 5 years; 27 x 20 feet in 10 years; 3.7 feet in trunk diameter in 70 years & 5 feet in trunk diameter in 120 years. Eventually it can reach 80 feet in height though the largest on record is a truly massive 133 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. The Stone Pine can live up to 500 years.
The needles are bright green in pairs and are up to 12 inches in length. The bark is reddish and fissured. Once established; this Pine is very drought, heat and salt tolerant. Hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolerates 0 F ) and is known to grow in North Carolina and even New Jersey with only winter foliage burn. Also popular as an ornamental tree in western Europe including England. This tree was native to much of northern Africa which is now the Sahara Desert back when it was a much more humid climate.

Pinus ponderosa ( Ponderosa Pine )
Native to western North America from British Columbia to Mexico; the Ponderosa Pine is a dominant tree in many areas and grows very tall. While very tolorant of poor conditions; on good sites it can grow up to 17 feet in 5 years and66 feet in 20 years. Easily reaching 150 feet; some of the largest old growth trees in the west have been recorded as high as 300 feet in height; 82 feet in width and 15 feet in trunk width. One of 230 x 70 feet grows in the Shasta National Forest in California. Such trees massive remnants are now even less likely to be sighted than the California Condor and global warming with milder winters and summer drought is causing plague like infestations of Pine Bark Beetle which is killing alot of the second growth as well. Even worse; the forests killed by the Pine Bark Beetle becomes kindling for forest fires. The Ponderosa Pine was originally among the most abundant Pines in North America and loosing the Ponderosa Pine is loosing as much of
the heritage of the American West as was loosing the great herds of Buffalo. The Ponderosa Pine is also a highly valuable timber tree.
The Ponderosa Pine also grows well outside its native range. On the Plains it has reached 70 feet in North Dakota and in the East trees have reached 90 feet tall with trunk diameters up to 3 feet in Ottawa, Ontario as well as Rochester, New York.
The Ponderosa Pine is easily distinguished by its solid straight trunk covered in bright reddish-orange bark that is in large, wide, irregular scaly plates that appear to fit together like a puzzle. The canopy is conical to broad and open.
The needles are long, dark green, stiff and pointed up to 11 inches ( the record being 16 inches ). Usually in bundles of 3s sometimes bundles of 2s are found as well. The foliage is often found in tufts at the ends of the branches and the needles can sometimes last as much as 7 years.
The cones are brown and prickly up to 6 inches.
This outstanding tree is hardy anywhere from zone 2 to 7 and seed sources from colder parts of its range can tolerate as cold as -50 F. It can also grow anywhere rainfall exceeds 15 inches in a year; best growth occurs on deep acid soil.
The Ponderosa Pine can live up to 800 years in age. Blue Stain fungus is a deadly disease that can enter the tree from damage gone to it by the Rocky Mountain Pine Bark Beetle.
Interesting article on Ponderosa Pine
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ponderosa_Pine


Pinus pratermissa
An extremely rare to endangered Pine from central Mexico. Often twisted and contorted; it can reach 70 feet tall and 50 feet in width. The very slender needles are light green and up to 7 inches long. The cones occur single and are only up to 2 inches. Hardy from zone 8 to 9

Pinus pseudostrobus ( Smoothbark Mexican Pine )
A fast growing subtropical relative of the White Pine; this tree can grow to 50 feet tall with trunk diameter of 9 inches in only 10 years. It can also reach 87 feet with diameter of 14 inches in 20 years. Eventually it can exceed 130 feet and is even known to reach 200 feet in height with trunk diameter of 6.6 feet. The canopy is dense and rounded. It is native to mountains of sw Mexico and Guatemala. This Pine likes cool mountain climates and summer rain and grows well in the warmer parts of England where one has already reached 70 feet. The foliage is in 5s and soft, long and can reach up to 14 inches. The needles can last as long as 3 years and droop. The oval cones are up to 4 inches and have small thorns. The bark is brown and fissured. Hardy from zone 8 to 11; this Pine tolorates clay and any soil PH from 4 to 7. Grows well in New Zealand.

Pinus pringlei ( Pringle Pine )
A fast growing Pine from the mountains of Mexico. It can grow to 50 feet tall and 8 inches in diameter in 8 years; 74 feet tall with a diameter of 13 inches in 20 years and eventually up to 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. The needles are in 4s and reach up to 11 inches. Hardy north to zone 9. Its rapid growth giving excellent potential for use in forestry.

Pinus pumila ( Dwarf Siberian Pine 0
Usually a Dwarf Shrub; in the wild it can live for hundreds of years and one has been reported to have become a shrubby clump of 20 x 100 feet. Often if is few short creeping along the ground. Slow growing to 6 inches in a year at most. The very dense foliage is glossy blue green; the twisted soft needles being in 5s and up to 3 inches long ( rarely 4 inches ). The cones are up to 2 inches and are very dark turning to yellow-brown as they mature. It is native to extremely cold areas of ne. Asia from Russia and Siberia; south to parts of China, Korea and Japan. Hardy from zone 1 to 6. This Pine does not like limey soils.
'Dwarf Blue' with bright bluish needles; it is slow growing and spreading to 2 x 4 feet in 10 years.
'Globe' rounded with blue needles. Reaches up to 32 x 32 inches in 10 years and eventually up to 6.5 feet tall and wide.

Pinus pungens ( Table Mountain Pine )
A Pine native to rocky soil in the high reaches of the Appalation Mountains from Pennsylvania to Georgia. It often grows in very poor conditions in the wild where little else will grow and is therefore stunted and small. In cultivation it becomes moderate growing to 17 x 13 feet in 8 years and eventually to 80 feet; though trees as large as 100 feet in height; 50 feet in width with trunk diameters up to 4 feet have been recorded. The crown is irregular with horizontal branches. The needles are dark green, twisted and up to 3.5 inches; they also smell like lemon when crushed.
The cones are small and prickly up to 3 inches long. Long lived; the Table Mountain Pine can reach up to 400 years in age and is hardy from zone 4b to 9 but does not like the humid heat of the lowlands in the south. Not well known in England but it does grow well there and one has already reached 80 feet.

Pinus radiata ( Monterey Pine )
Almost extinct in its native California; in moister areas it is planted in such as New Zealand the Monterey Pine becomes one of the worlds largest Pines. It is also one of the worlds fastest growing trees reaching up to 133 feet in 20 years and 220 feet in 40 years. It is even capable with great age of reaching up to 280 feet in height; 90 feet in width with a trunk diameter up to 14 feet. In cultivation; the Monterey Pine grows with a straight trunk and irregular open crown.
Due to severe summer drought the Monterey Pine almost never exceeds 100 feet in its native range unless irrigated. More recently Pitch Canker is wiping out this tree in its native central California ( fungus originally from southeast U.S. ). If accidently introduced to New Zealand; it would have disastrous consequences. A very important nursery timber tree that is very widely grown in the Southern Hemisphere ( esp in NZ, South Africa & Valdivia part of Chile ). It is also planted in southwest England where it also grows very large and continues pushing growth all summer long. This tree is long lived up to 300 years. The foliage is dense with the needles up to 8 inches long and lasting up to 4 years. The cones are up to 5 inches long.
Preferring climates with over 40 inches of rainfall in a year; this tree is hardy from zone 7 to 10 and can tolerate 0 F. Many nursery grown trees are rootbound and end up being short lived and wind felled.
A very interesting article about wood from the Monterey Pine used in housing construction in New Zealand ( where this tree has now escaped into the wild
displacing native vegetation )
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monterey_Pine

Pinus resinosa ( Red Pine )
A tall Pine native to eastern Canada & from Minnesota to N.Y., CT and north in the U.S. The Red Pine has a straight trunk and a narrow oval crown. The bark is reddish brown. It is very often found in the wild on sandy soils and is a dominent tree on the sand dunes around Grand Bend, Ontario. Fast growing, usually about 2 feet in a year but with 82 x 36 feet in 20 years being the record; it can eventually reach 100 feet. There are reports of trees as large as 200 feet tall; 100 feet wide with trunk diameters up to 6 feet existing in the old growth forest that once covered southern Ontario. This forest ecosystem is long gone and so are these ancient giants that lived up to 500 years; however second growth of this tree is common and it is an important lumber tree in Canada and the northern Great Lakes for its structural timber & pulpwood
The needles resemble the Austrian Pine except that they are less sharp and are also brittle. They are up to 6 or rarely 8 inches long and are lush green.
Extremely hardy; this tree grows in even harsher climates than its native range; thriving in both Alberta and Winnipeg. Hardy from zone 2 to 6 ( tolorating - 50 F )

Pinus rigida ( Pitch Pine )

Native to southeast Canada & the northeast U.S.; this is a rugged looking Pine with an irregular outline and flattened top. Often small, slow growing and stunted on the rocky sites it often grows wild on; on the best of sites; it can become fast growing ( record single year growth incrase being 4 feet ) and grow large to 90 feet or very rarely 150 feet tall; 50 feet in width with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet. The Pitch Pine makes several whorls of new growth in a year. It can live up to 375 years. The needles are stiff, up to 4 inches ( very rarely double that ) and last up to 4 years.
The cones are somewhat small up to 3 inches. Deeply taprooted; the Pitch Pine is difficult to transplant but also very drought tolorant. it is hardy from zone 3 to 8 and can tolorate as low as - 43F

* photo taken near Wilkes-Barre, PA


Pinus rigida x taeda ( Pitchlolly Pine )
An excellent very fast growing forest tree. Hardy north to zone 4

Pinus roxburghii ( Chir Pine )
A broad canopy tree native to the Himalaya foothills reaching 35 feet with trunk diameter in 14 years; 92 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches in 40 years and eventually to 130 feet. The known world record Chir Pine is a gigantic 190 feet tall; 40 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 12 feet! The bark is mottled gray and light brown. This relative of the Canary Island Pine has long pendulous sharp pointed leaves up to 16 inches and in 3s. The cones are large and light brown; up to 8 x 4 inches. Hardy from zone 6 to 11, drought tolorant and pest free.

Pinus sabiniana ( Digger Pine )

An attractive fast growing landscape tree growing up to 45 feet in 15 years. Eventually up to 100 feet; it can sometimes grow much larger to 200 feet tall; 120 feet wide with trunk diameter to 6 feet. Has already reached 50 x 20 feet in Baltimore. Native to California; this Pine has an open irregular crown and can live up to 200 years. The needles are drooping and long, up to 12 inches ( rarely 17 inches ) long and gray-green. The large spiked cones are up to 12 inches long.
Both drought and heavy clay tolorant; this Pine grows faster on deep, fertile acid well drained soil ( PH 6 to 8.3 ). Hardy from zone 5 to 11.
* photo taken at U.S. National Arboretum, D.C. on Feb 2009



Pinus serotina ( Pond Pine )


Native to wet areas of southeast U.S.; this Pine has long needles and reaches up to 132 feet in height; 52 feet in width with a diameter of 3.6 feet.

Pinus squamata
A large subtropical Pine reaching up to 120 feet and hardy north to zone 8. The drooping glossy green needles are up to 8 inches in length. Extremely endangered with only 20 trees left in the wild.

Pinus strobiformis ( Chihuahuan White Pine )

Native to w. Texas to Arizona & the northern Mexico mountains; this Pine is a large fast growing conical tree. It has the potential to with great age; reach up to 133 feet tall; 62 feet in width with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet. This Pine has already reached as large as 100 x 36 feet in New York State. An excellent ornamental; it grows well from Michigan to Mexico and is hardy from zone 3 to 7 ( zone 8 only in high elevations ). The soft dark blue-green needles are in 5s and grow to 6 inches long. Growing well in climates with between 19 and 45 inches of rain in a year; this Pine is both heat and very drought tolorant.

Pinus strobus ( White Pine )

One of the most important forest trees of Eastern Canada, and the E. US. ( excl. the Southern Coastal Plain ) the White Pine is also among the largest. Though 99.9% gone, the original old growth forest of Eastern North America upon discovery contained White Pine that was truly huge! Trees of heights of 280 feet; widths of 70 ft. and trunk diameters of 12 feet were known. 750 000 000 000 board feet of lumber existed in these woods. One of the last such truly massive tress to be cut was one of 210 feet in height and 12 ft. in trunk diameter in Lycoming County, PA. in 1899 not long after similar sizes ( recorded 250 ft. ) were wiped out in Merideth, NY and areas around Windsor, Ontario where slash and burn fires were seen as far as Chicago and the forest there never did recover - ever! These massive pine that grew in old growth forests were often up to 500 years old. Today some of the largest known White Pines grow in Marquette Co., Michigan ( 201x 62 x 7 ft. ) and Haliburton Co, Ontario ( 153' x x 6 ft in diameter ). Still many trees exceed 150 feet ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_White_Pine ). The White Pine though it tends to struggle on sites with heavy competition from sod and weeds, can grow very fast on good sites. Averaging 23x10 feet in 10 years, in the same time can grow a tree of 43x30 feet with excellent growing conditions. It can reach 90 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet in 38 years. Even far from it's native range, a 90 foot tree grows in Colorado while in the far west the similar looking but far less heat tolorant Western White Pine reaches truly massive dimensions in the Pacific Northwest. This pine is prone to blister rust where currents grow, and is not fond of road salt and pollution ( many white pines along road ways turn sickly yellow ). This is one of the most important ornamental and lumber trees in North America and will likely remain so far into the future. It is hardy from zone 2 to 9 however due to hardiness ranges trees from northern Ontario should not be planted in Maryland and vice versa. Both White Pines may look identical but have difference in temperature preferance. Using seeds from local wild seedstock is important for success and often also are more successful in surviving drought.
It is a truly beautiful tree and the soft blue green 6" needles are of much ornamental value.
Total trunk volumes of the largest white pines are around 28 cubic meters (1,000 cubic feet) with some past giants reaching 40 m³ ( 1,400 cu ft).
'Bennetts Contorted' strongly weeping with twisted branches and needles. Fast growing to 25 x 20 feet
'Blue Shag' to 3 x 6 feet in 10 years; eventually to 21 x 23 feet with great age.
Shrubby and rounded with dense blue-green foliage
'Compacta' to 11 x 15 feet
'Radiata' light green foliaged dwarf
'Glauca' very blue foliage


* photo taken at Toledo zoo, Toledo Ohio on July 1992

* photo taken @ Green Spring Gardens, Annandale, VA on October 2001






* photos taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010








Pinus strobus 'Compacta' ( Compact White Pine ) -
Pinus strobus 'Fastigiata'

* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004



Pinus strobus 'Nana' ( Dwarf White Pine )
-

Growing up to 8 inches a year, this dwarf ( not as dwarf as alot of people think ) White Pine can grow 4 x 5 feet in 10 years. Eventually it can grow into a small tree to 21 x 23 feet as the one in the photo above has. The bluish green is similar to the parent tree except denser.



Pinus strobus 'Pendula' ( Weeping White Pine )
- attractive weeping pine to 20 x 30 feet

* photo taken at Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA on August 2004


* photo taken on Clarksville, MD install







Pinus sylvestris ( Scotch Pine )

Native across Europe and northern Asia; the Scotch Pine is a round canopy tree. Moderate growing it can become fast on good soils; to 40 x 30 feet in 10 years and 120 feet in height with 1.5 foot diameter in 80 years. The tallest on record is 153 feet in Estonia and the oldest is 700 years in Sweden. Largest diameter is 5.7 feet. The blue-green needles are up to 4 inches in length, sharp tipped and last up to 4 years. They occur in pairs. An important timber tree in Eurasia and also very popular as a Christmas tree. The Scotch Pine does not grow well in the U.S. and Ontario, Canada where the average summer temperature exceeds 68 F ( 20 C ), and partly due to damage by pests and diseases; the tree often grows in a twisted, haphazard manner. Scotch Pines are killed by the pinewood nematode, which causes pine wilt disease. The nematode most often attacks tress that are at least 10 years old and often kills invaded trees within a few weeks ( most of the Austrian & Scotch Pine that grew on the family farm in Essex County, Ontario are now dead from this; whereas White & Red Pines continue to thrive.
Hardy from zone 1 to 8 and tolorating as low as - 60 F. This conifer thrives in harsh climates such as Edmonton, Alberta.
subsp. lapponica - shorter needles; small cones
subsp. mongolica - needles to 4 inches long. Dense & lush
'Aurea' yellow needles in winter and spring are green the remainder of year. Slow growing and broadly conical eventually becoming rounded
to 20 x 6 feet in 20 years then eventually 50 x 26 feet
'Argentea' to 17 feet in 5 years. Fast growing. Silver-blue foliage
'Beauveronense' a large shrub, to 32 inches tall and 4 feet wide in 10 years; eventually to 10 x 16 feet with a dense domed shape.
'Doone Valley' a miniature irrigular conical shrub form to 4 x 3.3 feet in 10 years. Dark blue-green dense foliage to 2 inches long
'Fastigiata' narrow upright & columnar. The maximum width is 5 feet.
Twisted dark blue-green foliage
'Glauca Nana' a shrub to 10 feet tall and wide. Slow growing ( record growth rate is only 16 inches; 4 inches is normal ), dense, bushy to broadly conical. The dark blue-green foliage is in pairs.
'Gold Coin' a dwarf form of 'Aurea'. Growing slowly to 7 feet tall and wide with great age; it has blue-green foliage that turns intense gold in winter.
'Hibernia' dense and rounded with blue-gray needles. To 3.3 x 3.3 feet in 10 years.
'Hillside Creeper' a groundcover to 3 x 15 feet
'Troopsi' nice foliage
'Watereri' slow growing and pyramidal to 6.6 x 6.6 feet in 10 years; to 33 x 25 feet and rounded with extreme age. Bluish needles

* Pinus sylvestris @ Bayfield, Ontario with Lake Huron in background - Aug. 07


@ Frohburg, Germany 1926

* Germany 1973


Pinus tabuliformis ( Chinese Red Pine )

A broad flat crowned tree to 36 feet in 20 years and eventually to 80 feet though rarely reaching up to 100 feet tall; 35 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet. The record single year growth rate is 3 feet. The long needles are 8 or rarely up to 12 inches long and are densely crowded near the branch tips. The cones are ovoid up to 3 inches. Native to mountain regions of northern & central China; this Pine is extremely hardy ranging from zone 2 to 8.

Pinus taeda ( Loblolly Pine )
Native from New Jersey & south ( zone 6+ hardy ) and especially common on Maryland / Delaware's Eastern shore this is one of the fastest growing and most important lumber trees in the southeast U.S. and is also a very attractive large shade tree. It can grow to 6' in a single year, 20' in 5 years, one tree grew 107'x17" in 30 years and height of 100' and trunk diameters of 4' are very common at maturity. However on excellent growing sites; the Loblolly Pine can grow truly massive with sizes up to 200x80' with trunk diameter to 9' reported in the original old growth forest, as well as ages up to 400 years. Today the largest measured Loblolly Pine in the Mid Atlantic region is 115x50x4' in Millsboro, Delaware. It is also salt tolorant which leads it to being one of the most common trees in areas such as the Delaware Beaches and Ocean City. Also very drought tolorant however extremely sandy soils and heavy root competition from sod can dwarf them and slow down growth. All in all the Loblolly is 2nd only to the White Pine as the most valuable pine in the United States. It grows very poorly in Europe due to it's preference to very hot humid summers. It is not found in the Western U.S. though the similar looking Ponderosa Pine takes it's place.

* photo taken in Jessup, Maryland






Pinus taiwanensis ( Taiwan Pine )
Native to the mountains of Taiwan; this Pine is closely related to Pinus densiflora.
It also grows much further north than would be expected considering its native range.
It grows well in northern Virginia and it may grow much further north to zone 5. This Pine is slow growing to about 60 feet; though in Taiwan trees up to 170 feet tall; 50 feet wide with trunk diameters of 8 feet have been recorded.
The foliage is mid green up to 7 inches long. This Pine is drought tolorant.

Pinus takahasi ( Xinghainu Pine )
Very similar to Pinus banksiana; this Pine is native to far northeast China & Siberia. It is endangered and fast growing to 2 feet in a year. The needles are up to 4 inches long and are in pairs. The bark is red-brown and papery. Grows best on well drained sandy soil and is hardy north to zone 3.

Pinus tecunumanni

A very fast growing Pine highly recommended for forestry use in the tropics. It is the same growth rate as Pinus caraibaea and 15% faster than Pinus taeda in subtropical areas. It can reach 32 feet in 5 years! and 50 feet in 8 years. Mature size is huge up to 170 feet in height and 4 feet in trunk diameter.
Native from sc Mexico to Nicaragua and hardy north to zone 8. Grows well in Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia & South Africa where it is cultivated for the paper industry.

Pinus tenuifolia
A large Pine native to Central America and up to 100 feet in height and 5 feet in diameter. The long needles reach up to 10 inches.

Pinus teocote ( Twisted Leaf Pine )
Moderate growing native of the mountains of Mexico; this tree can reach 20 x 17 feet in 10 years and eventually up to 120 feet in height and 3 feet in trunk diameter. The rounded crown is dense with horizontal to drooping branches. The needles are stiff, straight or slightly curved and up to 10 inches long. The cones are light brown up to 2.5 inches. The bark is red-brown, thick and furrowed. Hardy from zone 7 to 11.



Pinus thunbergii ( Japanese Black Pine )


A tall very fast growing Pine native to south Korea and Japan with a single main trunk and an irregular shaped canopy. Growing to as much as 4 feet with diameter increase of 0.5 inches in a year; it can reach up to 60 x 17 feet in 20 years. its mature height ranges from 50 feet in the windswept coastal areas it is often planted to 100 feet in forestry plantations. The largest ever recorded is 135 feet tall; 60 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 7 feet.
The dark green needles range from 4 to 7 inches in length, are densely arranged and last up to 4 years. The cones are small up to 3 inches. It is very drought and salt tolorant. Unfortunately it is dying off in the wild due to Pine Wilt which was accidently introduced from North America and in which this Pine has no natural resistance. The Scotch Pine is also prone and luckily the disease has not reached Europe yet.
Also it is rapidly killed in U.S. by Pinewood Nematode and Blue Stain Fungus ( even in just 2 weeks ) and as a result it should not be planted anywhere the above is prevalent which is anywhere the average summer temperature exceeds 20 C. It is unfortunate because it is wasn't for these deadly killers; this tree would do well and actually prefer continental climates with hot summers.
Anywhere from Maryland and south; there are many native Pines that are much better suited and also much longer lived.

'Kotobuki'
bright green foliage
'Majestic Beauty' hardy and compact
'Thunderhead' a dwarg growing to 15 inches per year to 15 feet tall and 10 feet wide
'Tsukasa' attractive ( description to come soon )

Pinus torreyana ( Torrey Pine )

Almost extinct in the wild in its native coastal California; this Pine is an excellent ornamental shade tree. Rapid growing and dense; it can grow up to 4 feet in a year and can reach 17 feet in 5 years and 75 feet in height in only 20 years. Though often stunted in the wild; cultivated trees are often very straight trunked and reach up to 150 feet tall; 130 feet in width and 7 feet in diameter. In fact the massive dome shaped canopy of mature trees is one way to identify it at a distance. It has also grown very well in New Zealand forestry plantings reaching up to 142 feet.
The long needles are up to 14 inches long nad last up to 4 years.
The cones are oval and glossy brown.
Hardy from zone 7 to 10 ( tolorating - 2 F ). It is killed at - 5F


Pinus uncinata ( Pyrenean Pine )

From the European Alps; this is a fast growing Pine that is closely related to the Mugo Pine but much larger. It can grow to 33 feet in 20 years and eventually reach as large as 82 feet in height and 4 feet in trunk diameter. It is extremely long lived in its native mountainous habitat surviving up to 2000 years and is also a colonizer tree. The needles are up to 3 inches, dark green and last up to 10 years.
Hardy to zone 3 and tolorating as low as -40F this tree is also tolorant of wind, summer frosts and drought.

Pinus virginiana ( Virginia Pine )

From the Mid Atlantic Region to the Ozarks this drought and heavy clay tree is often the first tree to colonoze deforested sites. It also only grows well in full sun. Hardy from zones 4-9 and is tolorant of soil PH from 4.6 to 8. It is drought and clay tolorant but does not grow well where summers are cool. Usually growing 1 to 2 feet per year, on good sites with absence of root competition it can grow to 3 feet per year. Often reaching 17 feet tall and wide in 10 years it usually tops out around 50 feet though trees up to 125 x 56 feet with trunk diameters of 4 feet are known. The tree pictures below far exceeds the average size of a mature Virginia Pine. Though older trees may exist - 170 years is commonly considered the maximum life expectancy on this pine.
The needles on this tree are 3" long at most and last 4 years. This pine can also grow multiple whorls of new growth in a single year

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2009







Pinus wallichiana ( Himalayan Pine )

While rarely sold by nurseries for some unknown reason, this long needled relative of the native White Pine is one of the worlds most beautiful pines and also one of the largest!
On good sites without root competition from sod and weeds, it can grow 4 feet in a single year and reach 27 x 20 feet in 7 years and 70 x 33 feet in 20 years. Often 100 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 4 feet in 100 years, the largest known Pines of this species reach 240 x 100 x 5.5 feet! A tree of 102 feet in height grows in Talbot County, Maryland.
It is hardy from zones 5 to 9 however the variety 'Morton' is even hardier to zone 4 ( -30F ).
This pine is resistant to diseases ( does not get Blister Rust ), is pollution tolorant and easy to grow in humid climates. It's long very attractive soft needles reach 9" ( rarely 10" ) in length and droop and last up to 4 years. Blue green in color, the variety 'Glauca' is more intense blue.
subsp. 'Bhutanica' has soft needles up to 12 inches long

* photo taken @ Tyler Arboretum near Philly, PA August 2004


Pinus washoensis ( Washoe Pine )
Related to the Jeffrey Pine; this pine can grow very large to 200 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter up to 6 feet. It can also live up to 300 years. The leaves are up to 7 inches in length and last up to 7 years. Grows in areas with 30 inches or more of rainfall per year but is tolorant of occasional drought. Endangered in wild. Native to mountains of central California.


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