Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Daphne

A genus of close to 50 highly variable shrubs that are native to Eurasia and northern Africa ( though often cultivated also in North America ).
Most prefer cool, moist, light, fertile, slightly acidic, well drained soil ( about the same as Azaleas ) however some require quite the opposite. Mulch is recommended to protect and cool the shallow roots. Proper selection is the largest single factor in the success of Daphne in your garden. The closer you are to imitating each plants natural habitat the more successful you will be.
They hate root disturbance and must be planted while small. Do not use bare root nursery stock. Mulching is preferred to prevent weeds as cultivation may damage the shallow roots.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer, seed and layers.

Daphne acutiloba
A small evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to Sichuan, Yunnan & Hubei Provinces in China.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The leathery foliage is yellowish-green.
The fragrant, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne during mid to late spring.
They are followed by red, oval drupes, up to 0.3 inches long, during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It does not tolerate summer drought.

Daphne alpina ( Alpine Daphne )
A small deciduous shrub native to south and eastern Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 inches; largest on record - 2.5 x 4 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are gray-green.
The abundant white flowers are borne on clusters during mid to late spring.
They are followed by orange berries during summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Drought tolerant.

Daphne arbuscula ( Carpathian Daphne )
A small, spreading, domed evergreen shrub native to the Carpathian Mountains in Hungary and Slovakia where it is endangered. It is likely now extinct from Hungary. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 2o inches; largest on record - 1.5 x 3 feet. Fruit production is rare however this might be the result of all plants currently in cultivation originating from a single clone which appears to be self sterile. Cross pollinating different clones may be needed for seed to be produced. It is very difficult to propagate from cuttings also contributing to its rarity in cultivation.
The leaves, up to 1.3 x 0.8 inches, are glossy deep green.
The fairly large, very fragrant, bright pink flowers are borne in heads of 3 to 8 blooms during late spring.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( hardy to zone 4 with reliable snow cover and protection from wind ). It requires excellent drainage and prefers winter snow cover and does not tolerate high temperatures if dry. It becomes sparse if grown in shade.

Daphne bholua
A very rare, erect, somewhat open, large, deciduous to evergreen shrub native to forests of the eastern Himalayas, that is the largest of all Daphne. Some records include: 10 years - 6.6 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 30 x 10 feet ( anything above 13 x 9 feet is very rare ).
The leathery, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 1 inches, are deep green.
The very fragrant flowers are borne mid-winter into early spring. They are deep pink in bud, opening to pinkish-white. Black drupes follow.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun on acidic, moist, well drained soil. Prefers a site that is warm and protected from wind. Occasionally pinching the growing tips encourages branching and a denser plant.

'Gurkha'
Exceptionally hardy but deciduous.
The flowers are purple in bud, opening to almost white. The warm brown bark gives it additional winter interest.

'Jacqueline Postill'
More vigorous than species, often reaching over 10 feet.
The long deep green foliage contrasts with flowers that are deep pink in bud, opening to very pale pink.

'Peter Smithers'
Very fast growing with intensely fragrant flowers that are purplish-pink in bud, opening to lighter purple-pink.
The long, glossy, mid green leaves are evergreen unless the temperature goes below 14 F in which case it becomes deciduous.

'Rupina'
Larger leaves, up to 5 x 1.3 inches.

Daphne blagayana
A low spreading, mat forming, evergreen shrub native to Balkan region of Europe.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 inches; 10 years - 2 x 6 feet; largest on record - 2 x 6 feet. The plant often spreads due to layering ( roots forming on stems that lay on the ground )
The oval leaves, up to 2 inches, are large in relation to the size of the plant.
The showy, very fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne in dense heads, up to 2 inches across, during spring.
Hardy zones 5 to 9, it does not enjoy hot sunny or dry conditions. Remove dead blooms and leaves for disease prevention.

Daphne x burkwoodii ( Burkwood Daphne )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, semi-evergreen to evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Daphne cneorum & D. caucasica. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 5 feet; largest on record - 7 x 8 feet. Burkwood Daphne generally becomes deciduous at temperatures below 0 F.
The narrowly-oval, leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are mid-green.
The massed, very fragrant, small, pale pink flowers are borne in clusters along the branches that are up to 2 inches across, lasting up to 8 weeks during spring. It often repeat blooms during early autumn.
Hardy zones 3b to 9; it has been known to tolerate -38 F with no injury and even thrives in parts of Alberta! Requires partial to full sun on cool, well drained to dry, light or sandy, alkaline soil. Prefers shelter from excessive wind. Plant on mounds to prevent root rot. Among the most popular of the Daphnes and is also easy to grow.

'Brigg's Moonlight'
Reaches up to 3.3 x 4.5 feet with foliage that is intense creamy-yellow with a narrow border of deep green.

'Carol Mackie'
Creamy-yellow variegated foliage; otherwise similar to species.
Remove branches with all green foliage.

* photos taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 7 2015 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Goderich, ON


'G.K.Argles'
Vigorous and upright in habit, reaching up to 6 x 5 feet; this Daphne has ovate green leaves with a very thin golden-yellow margin. The flowers are soft light pink.

'Silver Edge'
More sturdy, upright and taller than the similar looking 'Carol Mackie'.
It is also more profuse flowering, longer lived and easier to root from cuttings.

'Somerset'
A vigorous but compact form with blue-green foliage. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet; largest on record - 4 x 5 feet.
The fragrant, bright pink flowers are borne during late spring, then often sporadically into autumn.

Daphne caucasica ( Caucasian Daphne )
A fast growing, dense, rounded, medium-sized, evergreen to semi-evergreen shrub native to eastern Europe.
Some records include: largest on record - 6.5 x 6 feet.
The narrow leaves, up to 3 x 0.5 inches, are blue-green.
The fragrant, white flowers are borne during May and June, then often repeating late summer until autumn frosts.
They are followed by black fruits.
Hardy zones 4 to 7. Hates hot dry conditions but is otherwise adaptable to just about any well drained soil in full sun to partial shade.

Daphne cneorum ( Rose Daphne )
A dense, low growing to mat forming, semi-evergreen groundcover shrub native to central Europe into western Asia.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 1 foot; 5 years - 16 inches x 4 feet; 8 years - 16 inches x 5 feet; largest on record - 16 inches x 7 feet.
The non-toothed, narrow leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are deep green above, blue-green beneath.
The very fragrant, abundant, small, bright pink flowers are borne in dense clusters during mid to late spring. Repaeat blooming may occur during autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 9. It can be difficult to grow, especially before fully established which may take a few years.
It requires cool, moist soil with very good drainage and a partially sunny site ( preferring some shade from hot afternoon sun ). Plant high to prevent root rot where drainage is questionable. A thick mulch of pine boughs is recommended during winter where snowfall is not reliable. Tolerant of snow cover and clay, it thrives in Alberta of all places. It does not tolerate strong competition from weeds. Prune back after flowering to maintain compact habit. A healthy vigorous plant can be carefully divided after 4 years of growth.

* photo taken on April 17 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historic archive photo


'Eximea'
Sturdier with larger leaves and flowers that are deep red in bud, opening to intense rosey-pink. It also grows larger, reaching a maximum size of 16 inches x 8 feet.

'Ruby Glow'
Very similar with very profuse, fragrant, deep rosy-pink flowers.

Daphne collina
A very leafy, dense, typically small shrub, that is native to Italy. Some records include: largest on record - 5 x 5 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 2.5 x 0.5 inches, are glossy deep green above, silvery beneath.
The fragrant, lilac-pink, tubular flowers are borne on clusters of up to 15 throughout summer.
They are followed by orange-red fruits during autumn.
Hardy zones 6b to 9 and is easy to grow. It is easy to propagate from seed.

Daphne genkwa ( Lilac Daphne )
A moderate growing, medium size deciduous shrub native to Korea and northeast China, that is among the most beautiful of all Daphnes. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 3.3 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 6.5 x 13 ( rarely over 4 ) feet.
The oval leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches in size, are fine downy, copper colored before turning to deep green.
The abundant, showy, delicate, lightly fragrant, light purple flowers are borne in early spring before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 tolerating as low as -30 F on moist, fertile, very well drained soil. Prefers full sun and hot summer climates. Early mortality is high before establishment and on less than ideal sites is often still short lived. On ideal sites, it is easier to grow than many Daphnes. It is rare due to difficulty of propagation.

'Hackenberry'
Vigorous and faster growing than regular Daphne genkwa. Can be cut to ground after flowering.

'Large Flower Form'
Fast growing, with flowers double the size of the species, otherwise similar.

Daphne giraldii
A small deciduous shrub native to central China & Manchuria. Some records include: largest on record - 4.5 x 5.5 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet.
The oblanceolate leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches in size, are bright green.
The lightly-fragrant, small flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne in clusters during late spring into early summer. The flowers are purplish in bud, opening to golden-yellow.
They are followed by red drupes, up to 0.3 inches long, during mid to late summer, however not reliably.
Hardy zones 2b to 7 preferring acidic, well drained soil. It is hardy even in south-central & southeast Alaska. It enjoys abundant moisture during summer but is generally easy to grow.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


Daphne gnidium
A somewhat open, evergreen shrub that is a widespread native of Eurasia, also found in northern Africa and the Canary Islands. Some records include: largest on record - 6.5 x 4 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are glossy green.
The fragrant, creamy-white to light pink, small flowers are borne in dense panicles during late spring into early summer. Glossy orange-red drupes follow late in summer.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Daphne x houtteana
A medium size, semi-evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Daphne laureola & D. mezereum. Some records include: largest on record - 7 x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green and turning purplish during winter.
The lightly scented flowers are borne in clusters during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'February Plum'
Foliage emerges bright green, turning to blackish-purple.
The flowers are purplish-pink.

Daphne jasminea
A vigorous, upright to spreading, small evergreen shrub that is native to southeast Greece.
Some records include: largest on record - 1.5 x 2 feet. The branches are very brittle.
The very small, obovate leaves, up to 0.5 inches in length, are blue-gray.
The very fragrant, small white flowers borne in terminal clusters of 2 or 3 are borne over a very long season during spring then abundantly during late summer. The flowers are pink in bud and once open are sometimes purple or pink on the inside.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( possibly 5 on protected sites where winter wetness isn't too severe ) and requires a site protected from winter winds. It requires a very well drained site, planting it on top of a stone wall is perfect.

Daphne jezoensis
A small, deciduous shrub, reaching only 20 inches x 4 feet in size, that is native to eastern Russia and northern Japan.
The obovate leaves are blue-green.
The very fragrant, deep golden-yellow are borne during late winter.
They are followed by red fruits.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( estimate based on natural range...further testing is needed ). It is both easy to grow and propagate from seed.

Daphne laureola ( Spurge Laurel )
A dense, medium-size, evergreen shrub that is native to Europe into western Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 4 feet; largest on record - 7 x 7 ( rarely over 5 ) feet.
The non-toothed, oval leaves, up to 5 x 1.5 inches, are smooth and glossy very deep green. The thick foliage is whorled at the stem tips and somewhat resembles Euphorbia robbiae in appearance.
The very fragrant small flowers are yellowish-green, borne in clusters of 2 to 10 during late winter, are unfortunately not very showy. They are followed by bluish-black fruit, up to 0.4 inches across.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 tolerating as low as -4 F preferring cool, fertile, light soil. It thrives especially well in the Pacific Northwest. It is tougher and easier to grow than Daphne odora and looks very similar to most of the year while not in bloom. Both sun and shade tolerant and is generally found in the undergrowth of beech-oak forest in the wild.
Drought tolerant.

'Phillippi'
A low growing, groundcover form reaching up to 14 inches x 5 feet.
The flowers are creamy-yellow. It is somewhat hardier than regular Daphne laureola.

Daphne 'Lawrence Crocker'
The hybrid between Daphne arbuscula x D. collina. It forms a slow growing, dense, small, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 2 x 3 foot.
The leaves, up to 2 inches long, are narrowly-oval. The thick foliage is glossy deep green.
The fragrant, deep pink flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( 5 on protected site with continuous snowcover ) in partial shade on moist, acidic to neutral, fertile, light or sandy loam.

Daphne longilobata
Also called Daphne altaica var. longilobata. A medium-size shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to the Himalayan region of southwestern China.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 4 x 0.8 inches in size.
The lightly fragrant, small, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne during early to mid summer ( most of the year in mild climates ).
They are followed by rounded, scarlet-red drupes, up to 0.5 inches wide, during late summer into early winter.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

'Peter Moore'
Reaches same size with foliage that is white variegated.

Daphne mezereum ( February Daphne )
A moderate growing, medium size, deciduous shrub that is native to Europe and western Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 3.3 feet; largest on record - 7 x 13 feet.
The narrow oval to ovate leaves, up to 4 x 1 inches, are dull green above, grayish beneath.
The very fragrant, single rose-purple flowers are borne in late winter to early spring before the foliage emerges. There are forms that are double.
They are followed by red fruits.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. It requires cool, deep, moist, light, very well drained soil and hates soil compaction. February Daphne prefers a site sheltered from wind. It is typically short lived and very prone to viruses when grown in less than ideal conditions.

* photos taken on April 2007 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=2855

'Alba'
Also called 'Bowles White'. White flowers are followed by yellow fruit.

'Kingsley Purple'
Purple foliage.

'Rubra'
Pinkish-purple flowers.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


Daphne x neopolitana ( Napolean Daphne )
A strong growing, dense, small evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 4 feet, that is the hybrid between Daphne cneorum & D. sericea.
The blunt-tipped, oval leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The profuse, intensely-fragrant, very small, rose-pink to light purple flowers are borne in clusters at the ends of the branches during late spring though often repeating in summer and fall.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 and is fairly easy to grow in full sun on light well drained soil. Moderately drought tolerant.

Daphne odora ( Winter Daphne )
A very handsome, moderate growing, bushy, upright, medium-size, evergreen shrub that is native to much of China and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 6 x 6 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 ( rarely over 6 ) feet
The oval leaves are up to 5 x 2 ( rarely over 4 x 1 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green.
The very fragrant, small, light pink to red-purple flowers, up to 0.4 inches long, are borne in dense clusters of up to 20. They appear from mid-winter into mid-spring. The flowers can be smelled from as much as 20 feet away. They are followed by a rounded, scarlet-red drupe, up to 0.3 inches wide, during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( protect north of zone 7 and even then only use hardiest clones ) in partial shade on moist, fertile, very well drained soil requiring shelter from wind in the colder parts of its range. It is typically not very long lived, often only living up to 10 years. It should be planted on mounds to prevent root rot.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Kingmaster'
Reaches a maximum size of 5.5 x 7 feet with foliage that is edged and heavily splashed yellow.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Leucantha'
Much faster growing and virus free.

'Rubra'
Deep red-pink flowers.

'Variegata'
Also called 'Aureomarginata'. The glossy deep green foliage is boldly variegated with a yellow edge. It is typically hardier and easier to grow.
The very fragrant, red-purple flowers are borne late winter into early spring.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Daphne oleoides
Also called Daphne mucronata. A slow growing, dense, evergreen shrub that is native from southern Europe to the Afghanistan & western Pakistan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 inches; largest on record - 8 x 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet.
The oblanceolate leaves, up to 2.2 x 0.5 inches in size, are blue-green above, fine hairy beneath.
The showy creamy-white ( rarely pink ) flowers, up to 0.3 inches long, are borne in terminal clusters in early summer.
They are followed by orange drupes, up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( some seed source from Asia may be hardier ). It is xerophytic and drought tolerant.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


'Palermo'
Faster growing with thick stems.

Daphne petraea ( Lombardy Daphne )
A slow growing, gnarled, dense, domed, evergreen groundcover shrub that is native to mountains of northern Italy. It is threatened with extinction in the wild due to its tiny natural range. Some records include: 10 years - 8 x 12 inches; largest on record - 14 inches x 2+ feet.
The leathery, oblanceolate leaves, up to 0.5 inches in length, are deep green in color.
The very fragrant flowers are rich pink.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 requiring sandy, limey soil with organic matter mixed.

'Grandiflora'
larger flowers.

Daphne pontica ( Armenian Daphne )
A small suckering evergreen shrub native from the Balkans to western Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 4 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 6.5 x 6.5 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, are glossy deep green.
The fragrant, bright yellow-green ( sometimes white or very light pink ) flowers are borne mid to late spring.
They are followed by glossy bluish-black berries.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 preferring partial to full shade on moist, well drained soil. Though not very drought tolerant, it is otherwise very tough and easy to grow - even on clay.

Daphne retusa
Often considered a subspecies of Daphne tangutica. A moderate growing, long-lived, sturdy, dense, compact, dome-shaped small shrub. It is native to the Himalayan mountains from Kashmir to southeast Tibet, Yunnan & Sichuan Provinces in China; south to northern Burma. It is also found elsewhere in central China in Qinghai, Gansu, Shanxi & Hubei provinces. Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 2 feet; largest on record - 5 x 5 ( rarely over 2.5 x 4 ) feet.
The lance-shaped to oblong leaves, up to 3.2 x 1 inches in size, are often borne in whorls. The glossy deep green foliage is clustered at the stem tips.
The sweetly fragrant, rosy-purple ( white on the inside ) flowers, up to 0.3 inches long, are borne in dense, terminal clusters, up to 3.2 inches across, during mid to late spring.
They are followed by orange-red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( possibly 5 for seed source from Qinghai Province of China ) in full sun on fertile, light, well drained soil. Moderately drought tolerant and easier to grow than most Daphnes. It thrives especially well in the British Isles. Propagation is from seed sown upon ripening. They germinate the following spring.

Daphne sericea
A dense, upright, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3.5 feet in height, that is native to mountains around the eastern Mediterranean. It can spread by suckering and suckers have been known to sprout up as far as 7 feet from the parent plant.
The narrowly-oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are smooth glossy bright green above, silvery hairy beneath.
The very fragrant, quite large, dark rose-pink flowers are borne in dense clusters during late spring then often repeating during summer and fall.
Orange and red drupes ( fruit ) follow.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( hardiness varies with seed source with some not surviving north of zone 8 ).

* photo of unknown internet source

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://plants.nature4stock.com/?page_id=1480

Daphne tangutica
A slow growing, dense, upright evergreen shrub that is native to pine forests in the Himalayas to northwest China. Some records include: 10 years - 3.3 x 4 feet; largest on record - 8 x 7 feet.
The oblanceolate leaves are up to 3.2 x 0.7 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, gray haired beneath.
The very abundant, sweetly-fragrant rosy-purple flowers, up to 0.6 inches long, are borne in dense clusters of 3 to 12 during mid to late spring. The flowers are deep purple in bud. Repeat blooming during early autumn often occurs.
They are followed by rounded, red fruit, up to 0.4 inches wide, during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on light, moist, well drained soil.
Not drought tolerant.

Daphne x transatlantica

'Jim's Pride'
A dense, semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet.
The highly fragrant, white flowers are borne on clusters during late spring, repeating until autumn frosts.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on fertile, well drained soil.

* photo taken on Apr 7 2015 in Burtonsville, MD


'Summer Ice'
A dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 3 x 3 feet in 10 years, with an eventual maximum size of 5 x 5 feet; with variegated foliage. The gray-green foliage is edged in creamy-white.
The highly fragrant, white flowers are borne on clusters of 4 to 20 during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in partial shade on fertile, well drained soil.

RELATED PLANTS

Wikstroemia trichotoma
A rare, upright, rounded, shrub, reaching a maximum height of 8 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to open forests in eastern China, South Korea and Japan.
The ovate to oval leaves, up to 3 x 1.6 ( usually half that ) inches in size, are bright green.
The abundant, fragrant, yellow, trumpet-shaped flowers, up to 0.8 inches long, are borne on short spikes, up to 1.6 inches in length, during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, well drained soil.

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