Tuesday, January 19, 2010

The Quinces

Chaenomeles
A genus of 3 species of spiny shrubs or small trees native to the Orient.
Multi-purpose plants; they can be grown for their early spring blooms, their fruits and also as a hedge ( height of hedge depending on variety ) or all of the above.
Some varieties also look good trained onto a wall in the same manor as Pyracantha ( shorten side shoots to 3 or less buds after flowering to reduce weight or risk or pulling away from wall ).
They are very easy to grow and thrive in full sun to partial shade on just about any moderately fertile, well drained soil. Scale insects can cause problems but can be treated with a systemic insecticide if it occurs.
The species can be propagated from seed - sow seed during autumn on open ground or in containers in a cool greenhouse or garage. They need a cool period before germinating in spring. Soak the seed for 24 hours before sowing.
They can also be reproduced from half-hardened cuttings taken during summer or autumn. Softwood cuttings taken during late summer are also good.

* video found on Youtube



Chaenomeles x californica
A fast growing, spiny, rounded, medium-sized, spreading, deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Chaenomeles cathayensis & C. x superba. Some records include: largest on record - 8 x 9 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are mid-green.
The pale red flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne during late winter into early spring.
They are followed by fragrant fruits, up to 2.5 inches in length, that look like small Apples, that are green ripening to dull yellow. They are excellent for use in making jelly.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Chaenomeles cathayensis ( Cathay Quince )
A rare, rapid growing, spiny, sparsely branched, deciduous small tree, reaching a maximum size of 23 x 20 feet, that is native to central China. Some records include: 5 years - 10 feet; 10 years - 13 x 13 feet. It also makes an excellent tall hedge.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, are glossy mid-green above, velvety red beneath.
The white ( flushed pink ) flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, are borne singly or in clusters of 2 or 3 during early to mid spring.
They are followed by a scented fruit, up to 8 x 3.5 inches, that is green ripening to yellow. The fruit of Chaenomeles is high in Vitamin C and has a strong lemony flavor Use it as a syrup as you would lemon juice to make a refreshing and delicious drink.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is tolerant of drought and pollution.

'Pink Beauty'
Purplish-pink flowers.

Chaenomeles japonica ( Japanese Flowering Quince )
A fast growing, open, twiggy, spiny, deciduous, low to medium-sized, spreading shrub that is native to Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 8 feet ( rarely over 3 feet in height ); largest on record - 10 x 20 ( rarely over 6.5 x 8 ) feet.
The rounded leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are mid-green.
The abundant, bright orange-red to scarlet-red ( with showy creamy stamens ) are borne during late winter into early spring.
They are followed by fragrant fruits that look like small Apples, that are green ripening to dull yellow. They are excellent for use in making jelly.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is hardy in protected locations in the Ottawa Valley of Canada.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Aug 23 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historical archive photo


Chaenomeles speciosa ( Chinese Flowering Quince )
A fast growing, spiny, suckering, spreading, deciduous, large shrub to small tree that is native to China. Some records include: 10 years - 20 x 13 feet ( typically about half that ); largest on record - 20 x 23 feet. They can be trained as a small tree of graceful habit due to drooping lower branches.
The oval leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 inches, are glossy deep green.
The showy bright orange-red to scarlet-red ( with showy creamy stamens ) are borne during early spring.
They are followed by fragrant fruits, up to 2.3 inches across, that look like small Apples, that are green ripening to dull yellow. They are excellent for use in making jelly.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is extremely drought tolerant. It thrives very well in Ottawa, Ontario where the climate can be very harsh.

* photo taken on Apr 18 2011 in Howard County, MD

* photos taken on Mar 8 2012 in Ellicott City, MD


* photos taken on Mar 22 2012 in Ellicott City, MD


* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on May 18 2015 in Olney/Sandy Spring, MD


'Apple Blossom'
Also called 'Moerloosei'. Vigorous bushy large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 10 x 15 ( rarely 20 x 30 feet ) with large, white ( flushed pink ) flowers borne during early spring. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 6 feet.

'Cardinal'
Double bright red flowers.

'Contorta'
Twisted stems and branches make for interesting winter habit. It grows large as does C. speciosa.
The flowers are white with a pinkish tinge.

* photo taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Iwai Nishiki'
A vigorous, low, spreading form, reaching up to 4 x 4 ( rarely over 2 x 4 ) feet in 10 years, reaching no taller at maturity but up to 10 feet across.
It bears spectacular huge, scarlet-red, Camellia-like flowers, up to 3 inches across.

* photos taken on Mar 19 2012 in Columbia, MD




'Jet Trail'
The white form of 'Texas Scarlet' very profusely bearing pure white flowers, up to 1 inch across.
It is low and wide-spreading in habit, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet in 5 years, eventually much larger. It is mostly thornless.

* photo taken on March 20 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Nivalis'
Upright in habit, reaching up to 18 x 30 ( rarely over 10 x 17 ) feet, very profusely pure white flowers. Some records include: 5 years - 8 x 8 feet.

* photo taken on March 17 2010 in Columbia, MD


'Orange Storm'
Moderate growing, thornless, dense and rounded, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 feet, though often not exceeding 4 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 4 x 6 feet.
Deer do not like Flowering Quinces, even thornless cultivars such as this.
The foliage is luxuriant glossy deep green.
The large, abundant, double flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are bright orange. It often sporadically repeat blooms later in the season.
This Quince does not produce fruit.

* photos taken on Apr 16 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 12 2016 in Catonsville, MD

* photos taken on Apr 5 2017 in Catonsville, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Jun 9 2017 in Howard Co., MD


'Pink Storm'
Moderate growing, thornless, dense and rounded, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 feet, though often not exceeding 4 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 4 x 6 feet.
Deer do not like Flowering Quinces, even thornless cultivars such as this.
The foliage is luxuriant glossy deep green.
The large, abundant, double flowers, up to 2 inches across, are salmon-pink. It often sporadically repeat blooms later in the season.
This Quince does not produce fruit.

* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on Oct 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 22 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 9 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 12 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on June 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Red Giant'
Very large red flowers.

'Simonii'
Low growing, reaching up to 3.3 x 6.5 feet in 10 years, with double, intense red flowers.

'Scarlet Storm'
Moderate growing, thornless, dense and rounded, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 feet, though often not exceeding 4 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 4 x 6 feet.
Deer do not like Flowering Quinces, even thornless cultivars such as this.
The foliage is luxuriant glossy deep green.
The large, abundant, double flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are intense deep red. It often sporadically repeat blooms later in the season.
This Quince does not produce fruit.

* photos taken on Apr 22 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on May 20 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 1 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 5 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 29 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 26 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 9 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 15 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 15 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 3 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


'Texas Scarlet'
Vigorous, bushy and spreading in habit, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet in 5 years, and an eventual maximum size of 10 x 15 ( rarely more than half that ) feet.
The leaves are up to 3.5 inches in length.
The scarlet-red flowers are borne during very early spring, but also often repeating during summer and autumn.

* photo taken on Feb 21 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on March 8 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 24 2012 in Columbia, MD





'Toyo Nishiki'
A rapid growing, thorny, tall, upright, shrub. It reaches up to 10 x 10 feet in 10 years with an eventual maximum size of 10 x 15 feet, with flowers of white, pink and red all appearing on the same shrub. Often flowers may themselves be striped of all 3 colors.
The edible fruits are large.

* photo taken on Apr 21 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 6 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 1 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Chaenomeles x superba ( Hybrid Flowering Quince )
A fast growing, spiny, rounded, medium-sized, spreading, deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Chaenomeles japonica & C. speciosa. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 10 feet ( typically smaller ); largest on record - 10 x 16 feet.
The oval to oblong leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are glossy mid-green.
The flowers vary in color depending on cultivar but are borne during late winter into early spring.
They are followed by fragrant fruits that look like small Apples, that are green ripening to dull yellow. They are excellent for use in making jelly.
Hardy zones 4 to 9


* photo taken on April 7 2010 in Columbia, MD


'Cameo'
Reaches up to 3.3 x 5 feet in 5 years, 5 x 6 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 7 x 8 feet. It bears large, double, pinkish-orange flowers, up to 2 inches across.
It is nearly thornless and among the best of all Flowering Quinces.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA

* photo taken on Sep 13 2016 in Columbia, MD

'Coral Sea'
Coral-pink flowers.

'Crimson and Gold'
Spreading in habit, reaching up to 5 x 8 feet in 5 years, and an eventual maximum size of 10 x 15 ( usually half ) feet.
It bears scarlet-red flowers, up to 1.5 inches wide, that have showy golden-yellow anthers.

'Crimson Beauty'
Intense deep red flowers.

'Knap Hill Scarlet'
Abundant, large, intense, scarlet-red flowers.
It reaches up to 6.5 x 8 feet in 5 years, eventually much larger.

'Mandarin'
Reaches up to 4 feet in 5 years with an eventual maximum size of 6 x 7 ( rarely over 5 x 5 ) feet. It is thornless.
The deep pinkish-orange flowers are borne over a long season during early to mid spring ( with some repeat bloom in autumn ).

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Nicoline'
A vigorous, bushy, low, spreading form, reaching up to 5 x 6.5 feet in 5 years and an eventual maximum size of 7 x 8 feet.
It bears abundant, large scarlet-red flowers with showy yellow anthers.

'Pink Lady'
Slower growing and more compact, reaching up to 3.3 x 3.3 feet in 5 years, eventually larger.
Deep pink flowers.

'Rowalline'
A bushy, low, spreading form, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 8 feet with
large scarlet-red flowers with showy yellow anthers.
The oval leaves are glossy deep green.

'Scarffs Red'
Thornless and upright in habit, with scarlet-red flowers.

Chaenomeles x vilmorinii ( Vilmore Flowering Quince )
A very spiny, fast growing, large deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Chaenomeles cathayensis & C. speciosa. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 20 feet.
The serrated narrow leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are mid-green.
The white ( flushed pink ) flowers are borne during late winter into early spring.
They are followed by fragrant fruits that look like small Apples, that are green ripening to dull yellow. They are excellent for use in making jelly.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Cydonia oblonga ( Common Quince )
A spineless, rounded to umbrella-shaped, deciduous small tree native from southern Europe into western Asia, including Turkey, Armenia and northern Iran. It has also naturalized in central Europe. Some records include: 5 years - 10 feet; 20 years - 33 x 33 feet ( average is 20 feet ); largest on record - 33 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.1 feet.
The smooth-edged, oval leaves, up to 4 x 2.3 inches in size, are deep green above, silvery woolly beneath. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The pale pink flowers, up to 2.5 inches across, are borne singly from the leaf axils during mid-spring.
They are followed by fragrant, bright yellow, rounded to pear-shaped fruits, up to 4 inches in length. The skin is downy and thick, the flesh is hard. The fruit ripen late autumn to early winter. A single tree can produce up to 100 pounds of fruit in a year. The fruit is hight in Vitamin C and Pectin. The flowers are self-fertile so a pollinater is not needed to produce fruit. When the mature fruits are mixed with salt water they will turn its sour taste to sweet.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( some clones much more hardy - see below )in full sun on fertile, well drained soil. A clone grown by Oikos Tree crops is reported hardy to -25 F or more and grows in zone 4; another tree in Amherstburg, Ontario survived -20 F in 1994 with absolutely no damage. Common Quince has also been known to thrive at zone 4b Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada for over 35 years. Very versitile, the Quince can also be grown and will fruit in some subtropical climates.
Hot summers are needed to ripen wood and fruit.
Pruning is done in winter, and often includes thinning excessive twiggy growths to improve vigor and reduce changes for heavy ice damage. They do not need as much pruning as commercial Pears and Apples. It has become rare in North America due to its susceptibility to fireblight disease. They are still widely grown in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay.
Propagation is from seed or semi-ripe cuttings for the cultivars.

* photos of unknown internet source



* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* historic archive photos



'Champion'
Sweet golden-yellow fruit. Reliably hardy in zone 5.

'Orange'
Very large bright yellow fruit ( 1+ pounds ) with light orange flesh. The fruits are very flavorful.
Hardy zones 5 to 10

'Smyrna'
Vigorous in habit with very large, golden-yellow fruit of excellent flavor.
Hardy zones 5 to 10

'Tashkent'
Originating from central Asia; it has very large bright yellow fruit with sweet and tender flesh.

Pseudocydonia sinensis ( Chinese Quince )
The Chinese Quince is a native of China. This small to medium-sized tree is very long lived and can grow fast when young. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet; largest on record - 66 x 42 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.9 feet. A large tree is known to grow at St. Aloysius Acadamy in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania ( near Philly ). Moderately long-lived, persisting as long as 250 years.
The serrate-edged, oval leaves, up to 5 x 3 inches, are luxuriant deep green turning oranges and reds in late fall. Typically deciduous, in the warmest parts of its range it can sometimes be evergreen.
The light pink flowers are borne singly during mid-spring.
The intensely sweetly fragranced fruits, up to 7 inches in length, ripen to yellow in late autumn. The fruit is hard and astringent, softening and improving in taste after autumn frosts. They are useful in the making of jelly.
The bark is dappled and light brown in color and flakes off. The Chinese Quince does not have thorns.
Hardy from zones 5 to 8 in full sun.
The Chinese Quince is tolorant of drought but prefers rich, well drained sites and areas with hot humid summers. After blooming prune to remove overcrowded branches and limb up. It is rarely bothered by pests or disease.

* photos taken @ U.S. National Arboretum on Feb 2009


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

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