Sunday, January 17, 2010

Osmanthus

A family of 15 attractive foliaged ornamental trees and shrubs in the Olive family. Many have fragrant scented flowers smelling like that of Gardenias and Jasmine. They grow best in fertile well drained soils though the Osmanthus's tend to be very tough plants growing equally well in the Pacific Northwest and Western Europe as in the Southern U.S. They are rarely bothered by insect pests or disease. Most species can be propagated from cuttings taken during early summer.

Osmanthus americanus ( Devilwood )
Native to the southeast U.S. ( central Louisiana to North Carolina and south ); this Osmanthus is hardy far north of its native range reaching as far north as Missouri to Boston - Osmanthus heterophylla also reaches to Massachussetts ). It is a fast growing, strong branched, handsome narrow crowned tree growing to 30 feet in height; though on ideal sites in the south it can grow much larger. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 5 years - 6 x 6.5 feet ( average ); largest on record - 70 x 30 feet and the largest trunk diameter ever recorded is 2.5 feet. It is found on stream banks and swampy areas in the wild.
The leathery, oblong leaves, up to 9 x 3 inches in size, are smooth to somewhat curled margined. They are glossy deep green above, light green beneath throughout the year. The evergreen leaves persist 2 or more years.
The fragrant, small, creamy-white flowers are borne on axilliary clusters during early spring.
The oval, deep blue fruits are almost an inch in length. They ripen in autumn and persist through the winter.
The bark is scaly and reddish to gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating as low as - 25 F and even reported to grow in Michigan ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. It is best transplanted from container in early spring while dormant. Rarely bothered by insect pests or disease, it is tolerant of full shade, salt and heavy clay. Devilwoods prefers afternoon shade in extremely hot climates as well as protection from winter winds. It can be clipped as a hedge but looks best left to its natural shape.

* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


var megacarpus

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Osmanthus armatus ( Toothed Osmanthus )
Native to western China; this is a slow growing, densely-foliaged large shrub to 15 feet or very rarely a small tree to 30 x 13 feet with a trunk diameter up to 9 inches. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 1.5 feet.
The thick, stiff, spiny, Holly-like leaves are up to 8 x 2.7 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The sweetly-fragrant white flowers appear during autumn.
The dark blue fruits are up to 0.7 inches long.
Grows well in sun or shade from zone 6 to 9. Deer resistant.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA




* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Hess'
Vigorous, dense and upright, reaching up to 15 feet.
The foliage is deep green.
The fragrant flowers are white.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, hardy as far north as Long Island.

'Jim Porter'
Similar except moderate growing when young.

Osmanthus x burkwoodii ( Burkwood Osmanthus )
A tough, slow to moderate growing, heavy set, dense, rounded, evergreen large shrub that is the hybrid between Osmanthus decorus & O. delavayi. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 6 years - 5 feet; 8 years - 8 x 8 feet; largest on record - 13 x 13 feet. Makes a great hedge.
The leathery, finely toothed, oval leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The abundant, very fragrant, small, white, tubular flowers are borne in clusters during mid to late spring. It blooms on previous years wood.
Hardy zone 6 to 9 in sun or shade on fertile, well drained soil. Very heat, drought and alkaline soil tolerant.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Osmanthus decorus
A rare rounded shrub native to western Asia; it can eventually reach up to 10 x 17 feet after many years. The leathery, slender leaves reach up to 7 x 2 inches and are shiny dark green above and paler below. The spring flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne in clusters, are small, fragrant and pure white. Rounded purplish-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches, follow. Hardy from zone 7 to 9 ( a form called 'Baki' from the mountains of Turkey is hardier to zone 6 and only grows to 4 x 6 feet )

Osmanthus delavayi ( Delavay Osmanthus )

A sturdy, arching, irregular, bushy, rounded, evergreen large shrub, averaging around 10 feet, that is native to western China.
Some records include: 5 years - 5 x 5 feet; largest on record - 20 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of up to 10 inches.
The finely-toothed, small, oval leaves, up to 1.5 x 0.5 inches, are glossy deep green above, paler beneath.
The profuse, highly fragrant, white flowers are carried in axilliary clusters during mid to late spring. They are followed by purplish-black 0.5 inch fruits that ripen in autumn.
Hardy from zone 7 to 9 in full sun or partial shade on fertile, acidic, well drained soil. Shade and very heat/drought tolerant. Very tolerant of clay if well drained
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

Osmanthus x fortunei ( Fortune's Osmanthus )
A dense vigorous large shrub that is the hybrid of Osmanthus fragrans & O. heterophyllus. With ideal conditions and the right pruning it can become a small tree with the extreme largest size being 30 x 25 feet with trunk diameter of 3.3 feet. Such plants would be extremely old as a 6 year plant would be around 8 feet at most. Very long-lived, it can persist for as long as 400 years.
The foliage is generally sharply toothed on young plants and sometimes becoming smooth edged on mature plants. The leathery, large leaves are prominently-veined and up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The very fragrant, white flowers persist up to 2 months during early to mid autumn.
The attractive bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 9, thriving in sun or shade. It is very tolerant of heat, drought and clay soils.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Bigleaf'
Hardy zone 7 to 9 with leaf size and growth rate double that of regular Osmanthus x fortunei

'Fruitlandii'
Fast growing with narrower very dark green foliage. Hardier surviving north into zone 6. Not much different than 'San Jose'

'Carl Wheeler'
Moderate growing, dense and compact in habit, reaching up to 20 x 15 feet.
The thick, Holly-like foliage is darker than the species.
Hardy zones 7a to9. It is also more cold tolerant than the species.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2016 in Columbia, MD


'San Jose'
Fast growing with longer leaves to 5 x 2 inches. The dark green foliage is also spiner than the typical Osmanthus x fortunei. Also hardier tolerating as low as
- 12F making it a possible zone 6 plant in sheltered locations.

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Semperflorens'
Creamy-white flowers borne over a very long period lasting months.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -15 F ).

Osmanthus fragrans ( Sweet Olive )
Also called Fragrant Olive; it is a native of China and Japan. A moderate growing evergreen; it is sometimes keep sheared as a hedge or rounded shrub to about 10 feet or can also be trained as a tree. The largest ever recorded is a heavy set 60 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.8 feet. One plant is recorded to have grown 36 x 35 feet with a massive trunk of 3.3 feet in diameter in just 70 years. Very long-lived, it is known to survive for as long as 1200 years.
The toothed, elliptical to oval leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The smooth, leathery foliage is glossy deep green.
The fragrant, pure white flowers are produced from late winter into early summer. The smooth bark is grayish-brown.
This Osmanthus as with most is rarely bothered by insects or diseases. Hardy from zones 7 to 11. Excellent in sun or shade.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Aurantiacus'
Showy, abundant, bright orange flowers and smooth-edged leaves; otherwise identical to species.
Tolerates close to 0 F.

'Fudingzhu' ( Nanjing's Beauty Tea Olive )
very heavy blooming with up to 6 times as many flowers as regular Osmanthus fragrans
over a very long season. Same growth rate and size as species.

'Thunbergi'
Fast growing to 8 feet in 4 years; it eventually grows equally large as the species. Larger leaves and hardier

Osmanthus heterophyllus ( Holly Osmanthus )
A moderate growing, erect, evergreen large shrub to small tree, rarely exceeding 20 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2.5 feet; 20 years - 23 x 23 feet; largest on record - 50 x 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.7 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet. Long-lived, it is known to survive for up to 950 years. It is excellent as an attractive yet inpenetrable privacy barrier, hedge or screen.
The thick foliage is shaped like the English Holly ( Ilex aquifolium ) and is oppositely-arranged, spiny and glossy deep green. The leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
The clustered, very fragrant, pure white flowers, up to 0.3 inches across, are borne autumn to early winter.
They are followed by purplish-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches.
The smooth bark is grayish-white.
Hardy zones 7 to 11 ( zone 6 in some clones ) in sun or shade on light, well drained soil. It is tolerant of shade, heat, drought, clay and urban environments. The Holly Osmanthus is native to Japan and Taiwan and is very well adapted to the southern and Mid Atlantic U.S. It is not bothered by insect, disease or insects.


* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.



'Aureomarginatus'
Large growing and has leaves splashed and margined with wide patches of pale yellow.

'Fastigiata'
Very narrow and upright, reaching up to 10 x 2 feet, growing at a rate up to 1 foot per year when young. It is generally not damaged by heavy snowfalls unlike the similar shaped Skypencil Japanese Holly.
Tolerates as low as -10 F.

'Goshiki' ( Goshiki Osmanthus )
Slow growing and compact, with attractive yellow splashed evergreen spiny leaves with additional pink to bronze overtones in spring.
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 6 x 6 feet; largest on record - 10 x 11 ( rarely over 8 ) feet.
Hardy zones 6a +.





* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on June 18 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 12 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 5 2015 in Mt Airy, MD

* photo taken on Oct 17 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 22 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Feb 23 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photos


* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Mar 22 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 24 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 15 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Gulftide'
Fast growing ( recorded up to 4 feet per year ) and very dense, averaging around 7 x 7 feet in 5 years, 14 x 14 feet in 10 years, eventually much larger if not sheared. It is great for use as an inpenetrable informal hedge.
The foliage is spiny and very glossy deep green. It is otherwise not much different than Osmanthus heterophyllus.
Hardy north to zone 6.

* photos taken on Feb 25 2014 in Glen Burnie, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photos taken on May 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Wash., DC

* photo taken on Oct 27 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 15 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Ogon'
Moderate growing to 12 inches in a year and eventually reaching up to 5 x 7 feet ( rarely to 15 x 10 feet ).
Very spiny leaves are yellow in spring and early summer later fading to yellow-green.
Hardy zones 7 ( 6b on protected sites ) +

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Party Lights'
Intense bright pink and creamy new foliage on a compact shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet. The foliage eventually turns to deep green. It makes a great low hedge.
It is hardy to -15 F.

* photo taken on June 2 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Purpureus'
Similar to regular Osmanthus heterophyllus except with very attractive black-purple spring foliage turning glossy very deep purple-green.
Hardy north to zone 6.

* photo taken on Oct 23 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Rotundifolius'
Moderate growing and compact in habit, reaching up to 10 x 6 feet. This form is spineless with thick, leathery, glossy deep green leaves, up to 2 x 1.3 inches in size.
It makes an excellent substitute for the overabundant Otto Luyken Laurel.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.



* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Sasaba'
Reaching up to 20 x 13 feet and upright pyramidal in habit making an excellent deep green inpenetrable screen. The foliage is the most spiny of all cultivars.
This is a female clone that does produce berries.
Tolerates as low as -10 F.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Variegata'
Dark green foliage is boldly edged and marked with creamy white.
It grows much larger than 'Goshiki'; the largest on record in Cornwall, England is about 27 feet in height, wihth a trunk diameter of 1 foot. Typically it is slower growing and smaller, reaching around 10 feet at maturity.
Hardy to zone 6 ( if leaves do freeze in unusual severe winters in zone 6 do not remove the plant since it may releaf in the spring ). Great for sun or shade. Should be used alot more in the landscape ( I like it much better than similar colored Euonymus ).

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


Osmanthus sandwichensis ( Hawaiian Osmanthus )
A tropical Osmanthus hardy only to zone 10 and warmer. It is an evergreen tree to 30 feet ( the record being 66 x 31 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet ).
The leathery, glossy, elliptical leaves are up to 8 x 3 inches in size.
The blue fruits are up to o.7 inches long.
Hardy zones 10 to 11.

Osmanthus serrulatus
A small, vigorous, upright evergreen tree native from the Himalayas to Guangxi, Fujian and Sichuan Provinces in China. It can grow to 20 feet though some reach as much as 40 x 15 feet.
The leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches, can be either smooth or serrate-edged. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The fragrant, pure white flowers are borne from the leaf axils.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 and should be tested in zone 6. Very drought tolerant and thrives in both the Southeast and Mid Atlantic U.S. as well as the maritime Pacific Northwest. It is not prone to pests or disease.
Propagation is from seed or cuttings taken in late summer.

Osmanthus yunnanensis ( Yunnan Osmanthus )
A fast growing broad, dome-shaped small tree to 25 feet, that is native to western China. On ideal sites it can grow much larger and the record is 50 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
It is similar in appearance to Osmanthus serrulatus with glossy lance-shape leaves to 9 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is attractive rich purple in the spring and are smooth edged.
Hardy zones 6 to 9, preferring climates with maritime summers. It grows especially large in England and some of the largest ever recorded are there.

Phillyrea
A genus of trees and shrubs that are closely related to the Osmanthus.

Phillyrea angustifolia
A dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 12 x 12 feet, that is native to China and Japan. They are usually used for screening.
The olive-like, narrow leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The fragrant, small, white flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by black fruits.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soils.

Phillyrea latifolia
A moderate growing, dense, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 30 x 27 ( rarely 50 ) feet, that is native to the Mediterranean region of southern Europe & Turkey. They are usually used for screening.
The finely-toothed, ovate leaves, up to 2.5 x 0.8 inches in length, are glossy very deep green.
The fragrant, small, greenish-white flowers are borne on axilliary clusters during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, bluish-black fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The smooth gray bark later becomes ridged.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( becomes deciduous below -3 ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soils. Drought, sand and salt wind tolerant, making it a great screening plant for the coast. It thrives in both the southeastern U.S. as well as the more maritime climate of the British Isles and Pacific Northwest. Protect from wind where winters are cold and windy.

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