Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Elms

Ulmus

* All the Elms that I picked for review in the first half of this article are highly resistant to the Dutch Elm Disease which devestated North American and European Tree cover in the previous century. With careful selection Elms are among the most useful trees for urban shade as well as reforesting harsh climates.

Many Elms are very urban and wind tolerant, making them excellent trees for everything from farmland shelterbelts to urban shade.
The attractively grained, durable ( if wet ) wood is tough and is resistant to splitting, thus holding nails well. Elm wood is good for panelling, fenceposts, veneer, boatmaking and cabinetwork. It does not make very good firewood however, giving off only 20 million Btu per cord.
Most Elms prefer fertile, moist, neutral soil. Cultivars can be propagated from cuttings, layering and suckers. Species can be grown from fresh seed either stratified for 3 months at 40 F or planted immediately during autumn. Elms are easy to propagated by softwood cuttings taken during early summer...often rooting in less than 4 weeks.
Very fast growing, the record growth rate recorded on an Elm is 15 feet!

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour

* photo taken on June 17 2010 in Silver Spring, MD

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.



* photo taken in May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* historical archive photos




THE ELM SPECIES CATALOG

Elm, Accolade
Also called 'Morton'. A hybrid of Ulmus davidiana is shaped just like the American Elm but is seldom bothered by insect pests or disease. A very fast growing ( often 3.5 feet per year ), large tree. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 5 + feet; 3 years - 14 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 inches; 6 years - 24 feet; 20 years - 45 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - will likely exceed 80 x 45 feet.
The leaves are small, only up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating - 30 F ) and is also very tolerant of flooding as well as being drought hardy.

* photos from unknown source


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Elm, American ( Ulmus americana )
Largely wiped out by the accidently imported Dutch Elm Disease; some truly huge trees grew in the old growth forest that greeted the European settlers to North America. One Elm in Pennsylvania yielded 8820 board feet of lumber ( A board foot is a piece of wood 1 foot square and 1 inch thick ). The American Elm tolerates winter flooding but not summer flooding. They can live up to 300 years.

Elm, ( New harmony ) American ( Ulmus americana 'New harmony' )
An amazing cultivar; identical to the original American Elm but is resistant to Dutch Elm Disease and Elm Leaf Beetle. It also grows extremely large ( well over 100 feet tall & wide )and at a rate up to 6 feet per year in height and over an inch in trunk diameter! It may be the fastest growing of all Elms; some records include: fastest growth rate - 11 feet; 8 years - 34 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches.

* photo taken June 1993 @ Niagara Falls, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Aug 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


Elm, ( Princeton ) American ( Ulmus americana 'Princeton' )
Very similar to New Harmony American Elm and almost as resistant to Dutch Elm Disease. Some records include: 3 years - 14 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 inches; 6 years - 32 x 19 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; 8 years - 37 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches.
The large leaves are deep green above, whitish beneath.

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on June 8 2017 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Jul 17 2017 @ Gatineau, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Nov 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


Elm, ( Prairie Expidition ) American ( Ulmus americana 'Lewis & Clark' )
Was discovered as a lone survivor tree in Fargo, North Dakota and has high resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. It also has a classic umbrella vase shape and is very fast growing to 28 feet tall in 7 years and to 55 feet tall in 25 years. Foliage is kush and dark green turning yellow in fall

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


Elm ( Valley Forge ) American ( Ulmus americana 'Valley Forge' )
100% American Elm and is very resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, even when injected with the disease. 'New Harmony' is similar. Both are very fast growing with trunk diameters increasing up to an inch per year!
The leaves are large, up to 7 x 6 inches in size.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on Nov 7 2017 in Columbia, MD


Elm, Chenhoui ( Ulmus bergmannii )
An extremely endangered tree from central China that most people never heard of - this tree actually grows very well in Eastern North America and is not prone to Dutch Elm Disease. It is also very similar to the native Elm making it an excellent replacement. It also grows extremely fast ( to 20 x 20 feet in 4 years in U.S.; 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches recorded in England ) and while it's mature size in the U.S is not known it probably does have the potential to equal some of the largest American Elms ever known - 200 x 150 x 8 feet!
The coarsely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 7 x 5.5 inches in size. The foliage is very deep green above and light green below. The fall color likely similar to the American Elm.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it makes an excellent windbreak tree for the edges of farms in severely deforested areas of the Midwest such as Ohio, IN, ILL and southern Ontario. However young trees would need to be irrigated during drought and kept free of sod and weed competition or their growth would be stunted and considerable slower.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* July 2007 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC




* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.







Elm, Cathedral
A hybrid between Japanese and Siberian Elms. It is fast growing and can become huge, up to 150 feet tall and 125 feet wide with a trunk diameter up to 7 feet. Generally resistant to Dutch Elm Disease however it may sometimes affect some branch tips.
The large leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The lush green foliage turns yellow and orange during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

Elm, Cherry-Bark ( Ulmus villosa )
Unique among Elms; this is a very beautiful, fast growing, spreading, large tree, that is native to the Himalayas. It was once common but is now rare in the wild. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; 56 years - 97 feet with trunk diameter of 34 inches; largest on record - 120 x 80 feet. It can live up to 800 or more years.
The deeply-toothed leaves are up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is downy red at first, turning to deep green.
It has orange twigs and its bark is smooth and silver with horizontal banding somewhat like that of Prunus serrula.
It makes a great street tree with a spreading crown and is reportedly not prone to Dutch Elm Disease though has not been thoroughly tested in the U.S. Not well known yet in cultivation though one such tree has already reached 72 feet in Kew, England.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

Elm, Chinese ( Ulmus parvifolia )
The following Chinese Elms all make for excellent urban street trees as well as being grown as windbreaks in farm country. The Chinese Elm is a widespread native of China, Korea, central & southern Japan and Taiwan. Typically around 50 feet though sometimes as much as 100 feet; the Chinese Elm typically has a dense, rounded canopy with weeping branches. Some records include: 5 years - 30 feet; 53 years - trunk diameter of 3.9 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. Very large trees grow in Pennsylvania at Morris Arboretum, Philly and Charles Evans Cemetary in Reading.
The blunt-toothed, elliptical leaves are glossy deep green above, smooth pale green beneath.
The small flowers are borne in small clusters in late summer or fall. They are not pendulous and are followed by small ( 0.3 inch ) circular fruits with a large seed and very narrow wing. The fruits ripen in autumn though often persist in winter.
The zigzag twigs are brown and slender with small brown buds.
The bark is gray-green flaking to reveal orange bark beneath.
They are very pest free, very salt, alkaline and clay tolerant, can take high winds and even hurricane wind and are heat and drought tolerant. They can tolerate flooding and usually hold their leaves in fall until 25 F. They are also long lived and will last long over a hundred years.
Different clones vary in hardiness though some are good as far north as zone 4 and others thrive as far south as zone 9

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.




* photos taken on Aug 3 2014 @ U.S. National Zoo, Washington, DC


* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photo taken on July 9 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD



Elm, ( Allee ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Allee' )
Grows large to 100 x 100 feet and is shaped like the American Elm.
The glossy mid-green foliage turns orange to rust red during autumn.
Has very attractive mottled exfoliating bark.
It can tolerate cold down to - 22 F and grows well in most of the U.S. & s. Ontario with exception of the desert southwest.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA


Elm ( Athena ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Athena' )
A vigorous, broad-rounded tree.
The glossy very deep green leaves turn to deep red during autumn. The exfoliating mottled bark is very attractive.
Hardy zones 5 to 8; it is one of the most cold and drought hardy Chinese Elms.

* photo taken on May 26 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 3 2017 in Columbia, MD




Elm, ( Bosque ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Bosque' )
This Chinese Elm grows very fast and dense, up to 60 feet tall and 40 feet wide in 20 years with a dominant central leader.
The deep green foliage turns to orange during autumn.
The bark is grayish orange and mottled
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Elm, ( Burgundy ) Chinese( Ulmus parviflora 'Burgundy' )
Hardy from zone 5 to 8 and fast growing ( to 50 feet tall and wide in 20 years ).
The large, thick, deep green foliage turns deep-red during autumn.
The attractive orange-brown bark exfoliates

Elm, ( Drake ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Drake' )
Reaches up to 50 feet tall and wide and is very fast growing and especially well adapted to the desert Southwest. Has upright spreading branches.
The foliage is deep green.
It is not as cold hardy as some of the cultivars and is not recommended where winter temperatures can drop below -10 F.

Elm, ( Dynasty ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Dynasty' )
With a graceful vase shape this Chinese Elm also grows very fast up to 8 feet in 2 years and 30 feet in 5 years.
Fall color is red or orange-yellow.

Elm, ( Elsmo ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Elsmo' )

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.



Elm, ( Everclear ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Everclear' )
An imitation Lombardy Poplar this Elm grows to only 33 feet with a width of 8 feet in 20 years. It is unusually narrow fastigiate in habit and is also fast growing

Elm ( Frosty ) Chinese
A slow growing, rounded, dwarf tree, reaching up to 8 x 8 feet.
The foliage is boldly margined creamy-white.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( 4 on protected sites ).

Elm ( Hakkaido ) Chinese
A dense, low, domed shrub, reaching up to 1 x 3 feet in 5 years, eventually to 3.5 x 10 feet.
The very small, leathery foliage is glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Elm ( Hallelujah ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Hallelujah' )
It is a large fast growing tree with very attractive foliage and bark.
Extremely hardy on the Great Plains and can tolerate as cold as - 35 F and grows well as far north as zone 4.

Elm, ( King's Choice ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Kings Choice )
An excellent large shade tree Elm to 100 feet tall and wide with a trunk diameter up to 5 feet this Chinese Elm is also very cold hardy ( to - 22 F ). Its leaves turn yellow in fall and it unfortunately lacks the attractive mottled bark of alot of Chinese Elm hybrids. Its leaves are bright green and larger than usual.

Elm, ( Evergreen ) Chinese( Ulmus parviflora 'Sempervirens' )
EVERGREEN in milder climates!!! Rounded crown with arching graceful branches. Foliage is deep green and persists to temperatures as low as 5 F.

Elm ( Zettler ) Chinese ( Ulmus parviflora 'Zettler' )
Very fast growing, with strong upright growth habit and excellent branching structure. Some records include; fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 2nd year - 4 feet; 7 years - 18 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 inches; 21 years - 42 x 23 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath; turning attractive orange or red during autumn.
Is the most hardy of Chinese Elm cultivars and is known to withstand - 33 F with - 80 F windchills with absolutely no damage. It is also very wind, ice, heat and drought tolerant.

Elm, Chestnut Leaf ( Ulmus castaneifolia )
A little known exotic Elm from China with Chestnut-shape leaves to 6 x 2.5 inches. It is a medium-size tree to 70 x 20 feet. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease

Elm. Coolshade ( Ulmus 'Coolshade' )
A hybrid between Ulmus rubra & pumila - it looks like a faster growing, more vigorous, taller, wider, lusher Siberian Elm. It weeps slightly and is generally resistant to snow damage. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease.
Very dark green foliage

Ulmus 'Dodoens'
A hybrid between Ulmus glabra 'Exoniensis' & U. wallichiana; making a very fast growing tree with upright branches. Reaches up to 60 x 27 feet in size with a trunk diameter up to 14 inches in 21 years and can eventually reach well over 100 feet.
The leaves, up to 5.5 x 4 inches in size, are deep green.
Good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease.

Elm, Elongated ( Ulmus elongata )
A little known, large tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is native of China.
The leaves are large, up to 8 x 3 inches in size.

Elm, Emerald Sunshine ( Ulmus propingua 'Emerald Sunshine )
A cultivar of an Asian Elm that was developed in w. Oklahoma and is extremely tolerant of hot windswept plains with acid or alkaline soils. With a sturdy upright habit, it reaches up to 35 x 25 feet and possibly much more. It is fast growing to 40 inches per year with trunk diameter increase up to 0.5 inches.
The handsome deeply-corrugated foliage is coppery-bronze during spring turning to golssy green during summer
Hardy zones 5 to 9. It is very insect resistant.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




Elm, Fiorente ( Ulmus 'Fiorente' )
A hybrid derived from a crossing Ulmus pumila clone S.10 with Ulmus minor in Florence, Italy. 'Fiorente' is monocormic, and of very rapid growth in temperate climates. Average growth during trials on poor clay soils exceeded 3.5 feet in height and 0.5 inch in trunk diameter per year. The tree's habit is conical, with a pronounced apical dominance. The lateral growth on the current year's growth is very limited; the crown is therefore rather columnar.
The alternately-arranged, lance-shaped leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is rough above and pubescent below; remaining green well into the autumn and shed relatively late.
Tested by inoculation, 'Fiorente' revealed a moderate resistance to Dutch Elm Disease,
The cultivar's rapid growth suggests an economic importance as a hardwood timber tree.

Elm, Frontier
A hybrid between the American, Chinese and Siberian Elms and grows fast up to 37 feet tall and 30 feet wide in 13 years. It can eventually exceed 100 feet tall, rarely flowers and cultivated trees have not produced seed.
The foliage is vibrant orange-red at first during spring turning to glossy deep green. The foliage finally turns coral-red for some spectacular long-lasting fall color. The oval leaves are up to 4.5 x 2 ( averaging 2.2 x 1.3 ) inches in size.
The smooth grayish-brown bark has orange lenticels and does not exfoliate.
It is only hardy from zones 5a to 8 - limiting its use in the northern Great Plains. It is disease resistant, very heat ( even in Oklahoma ) and urban tolerant as well as moderately salt tolerant. Propagation is from softwood cuttings under mist ( 3000 to 8000 ppm IBA ) - rooting in 3 to 5 weeks.

* photos taken on Jul 17 2017 in Ottawa, ON



* photos of unknown source on internet


* photo taken on July 13 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 20 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 in Silver Spring, MD


Elm, Gansu ( Ulmus glaucescens )
A stiffly-branched, medium-sized tree, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet, that is native to Mongolia and northern China. Is highly recommended for use on the U.S. Great Plains.
The small, ovate leaves are up to 2 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The fissured bark is sometimes also peeling.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Extremely drought tolerant and disease resistant.

Elm, Homestead ( Ulmus glabra 'Homested' )
A Wych Elm hybrid that is extremely disease resistant and has an American Elm shape. It can reach up to 36 feet tall and 25 feet wide in just 11 years and eventually grows very tall but usually not exceed 40 feet in width. Growth rates to 6.5 feet a year are possible. This tree has a pyramidal upright crown.
The oval leaves are up to 3 x 1.7 inches in size. The deep green foliage turns buttery-yellow late during autumn. It will occasionally be eaten by leaf beetle but is otherwise a very low maintenance tree.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, very tolerant of road salt and pollution


* photo taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 in Ottawa, ON



* photos taken on Aug 13 2017 in Columbia, MD





Elm, Japanese ( Ulmus davidiana )
A large disease resistant Elm, reaching up to 120 feet in height, that is native to eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, northeast Mongolia, central & eastern China, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. Some records include: 5 years - 15 x 11 feet; 26 years - 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.5 feet. Long-lived, this tree is known to survive as long as 500 years. This Asian counterpart to the American Elm can be vase-shaped, however is more often heavy-set and rounded in habit.
The leathery, deeply-toothed leaves are up to 4 inches in length. They develop a sandpapery texture as the season progresses. The mid-green foliage turns to intense golden-yellow or orange during autumn.
The tiny flowers appear during early spring.
The deeply fissured bark is dark grayish-brown. The young stems are often winged.
Very tolerant of drought, heavy clay and flooding but only moderate Dutch Elm Disease resistant however many of its cultivars are almost identical yet extremely trouble free. Variety Ulmus davidiana var. japonica 'Mitsui Centennial' originating in Manitoba, Canada is very fast growing, cold & clay tolorant, very Dutch Elm Disease resistant and can survive north to zone 3 compared for typical zone 5 for Ulmus davidiana

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook




* historic archive photo

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Elm, Laciniata ( Ulmus laciniata )
A large, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 feet, that is native to eastern Asia ( eastern Siberia, Kamchatka, China, Korea & Japan ). It is not well known outside of Asia.
The large, double-toothed, obovate leaves reach up to 7 x 6 inches in size. The rough foliage is deep green and resembles that of the closely related Wych Elm. The leaves are sometimes lobed near the tips.
The flowers appear before the foliage during early spring.
The fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( may prove much hardier with testing ).

Elm, Lincoln
A hybrid between Siberian Elm and the Slippery Elm this extremely hardy ( zone 3 ), disease resistant large Elm retains its deep green leaves late into autumn

Elm, Macrocarpa ( Ulmus macrocarpa )
Also called Large Fruit Elm. From northeast Asia, this Elm is fast growing ( up to 6 feet per year ) but only medium-sized ( to 66 x 20 feet ) at maturity. Its natural range includes eastern Siberia and Kamchatka; south through eastern Mongolia into central & eastern China. It is vase-shaped to rounded in habit.
The heavily-toothed, broadly-obovate leaves, up to 5 x 3 inches, are downy below. The leathery foliage is glossy mid-green, turning to yellow and orange during autumn.
The small flowers are borne during mid-spring.
The longitudinally fissured bark is dark gray. The bright gray young stems are often winged.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating as low as -33 F )and is resistant to Dutch Elm Disease. It is very drought and extremely cold tolerant. This Elm thrives in much of central and eastern North America.

Elm, Nanguen ( Ulmus 'Nanguen' )
One of the last Dutch hybrid cultivars to be released, 'Nanguen' (Lut├Ęce) is a complex fourth generation tree with an ancestry including U. minor, 3 U. glabra including var. 'Exoniensis', and a frost-resistant selection of U. wallichiana. The trunk usually forks at a height of 4 to 7 feet, where 3 - 5 steeply ascending branches develop with more spreading lower side branches. This Elm at maturity will likely reach massive proportions well over 100 feet or over 40 feet in 20 years. Rapid growing on moist, well-drained soils, growing over 3 feet per year, this tree usually begins flowering around age 7 in late March.
The nearly rounded leaves are around 4 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is bright green with a rough upper surface. It generally leafs out late ( May in England ).
It is highly resistant to Dutch Elm Disease!!! and is being widely planted in France and being tested in England. It is very hardy, tolerant of summer droughts, sea winds, summer droughts, and ground waterlogged during winter. It can tolerate - 22 F and possibly colder. It should be tested in North America

Elm, Patriot
A hybrid of Ulmus americana 'Urban' & Ulmus davidiana 'Prospector' and was hybridized at National Arboretum in 1980. A somewhat narrow upswept tree eventually becomes fastigiate vase shaped an exceeds 43 feet tall with a width of 25 feet after only 10 years. Very fast growing often up to 5 feet per year and increasing trunk diameter by up to an inch. An 8 year old tree may have a trunk diameter around 5 inches.
Its toothed, obovate leaves are about 4 x 3 inches in size. The glossy deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
It is not troubled by disease and has almost complete resistance to Dutch Elm Disease and moderate resistance to leaf beetle. It is also extremely cold hardy ( zones 4 to 7 ) tolerating as cold as - 36 F and tolerates alkaline soil and salt. One of the best urban shade trees for the Midwest and Northern Plains. Softwood cuttings root and grow rapidly under mist ( 3000 ppm IBA ) in about 4 weeks.

Elm, Pioneer ( Ulmus glabra 'Pioneer' )
A Ulmus carpinifola x glabra hybrid that is extremely disease resistant and very fast growing, reaching an average eventual size of 90 feet or more. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet; 11 years - 30 x 30 feet; 20 years - 50 x 50 feet; largest in North Dakota - 62 x 74 feet. After many centuries, it may have potential to grow huge ( up to 164 feet tall and 80 feet wide with a trunk diameter of 9 feet ).
The deeply-toothed leaves average around 4.2 x 2.2 inches in size. The deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
Hardy north to zone 3 and is great for use in Minneapolis but unfortunately does find itself tasty to the Elm Beetle.

* Feb 2009 U.S. National Arboretum


Elm, Pruneleaf ( Ulmus prunifolia )
* text coming soon

* photo taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Elm, Prospector ( Ulmus davidiana 'Prospector' )
A fast growing tree, reaching 80 feet or more, with light gray bark and a vase shape with lower drooping branches. Trees can increase in diameter at a rate of almost an inch per year. Some records include: 10 years - 23 x 21 feet ( average ), eventually much larger. Due to very vigorous early growth, young trees need to be pruned to develop a good form.
The large, obovate leaves are around 4.5 x 3.3 inches on average. The foliage is orangish-red at first, turning to glossy deep green during summer. The leaves finally turn to yellow during autumn.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease as well as Elm Leaf Beatle! Very heat tolerant, thriving even in Oklahoma. Propagation is from softwood cuttings under mist ( 3000 to 8000 ppm IBA ) - rooting in 3 to 4 weeks.

* photos taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario




Elm, Regal ( Ulmus 'Regal' )
A complex Siberian vs American Elm hybrid that has a strong central leader forming an upright columnar ( eventually oval to rounded ) form similar to making it excellent for street planting. In tests it has reached 22 to 27 feet in 10 years in the harsh climates of the Great Plains from Fargo, ND to Wichita, Kansas. It grows fast and eventually large, reaching 66 feet or more. Lawns grow well in the dappled shade beneath.
The leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is bright green during spring turning to luxuriant glossy mid-green.
It has good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease but is very susceptible to the Elm Leaf Beetle in the USA. It is very tolerant of the hot and arid conditions in the eastern part of Arizona, exhibiting little leaf scorch.

Elm, Russian ( Ulmus laevis )
Very closely related to the American Elm this Elm ranges in the wild from France to eastern Europe and the Caucasus. It is very fast growing up to 7 feet a year and can reach 60 feet in 20 years. Trees up to 150 feet tall and 80 feet wide with trunk diameters of 10 feet are known. It has an open spreading crown and dark gray to brown bark. Is often planted in northern China. The broad leaves are up to 7 x 4 inches in size. The rough foliage is hairy gray beneath. Hardy zones 3 to 8 and some clones which strongly survived innoculation with Dutch Elm Disease show great promise for future use as a tree for floodplain reforestation. On that note this Elm often grows on very swampy soils in its native range. It is not prone to leaf beetles and not often bothered by Elm Bark Beetles either

Elm, San Zanobi ( Ulmus 'San Zanobi' )
A hybrid Elm developed in Florence, Italy that resulted from crossing the Dutch hybrid 'Plantyn' with the Siberian Elm Ulmus pumila clone 'N15' This fastigiate, monocormic tree is very fast growing, growing at over 3.5 feet per year. The leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size, are bright green. The tree lacks significant autumn color with the foliage remaining green almost until they fall in late November. It begins blooming and seeding in its 6th year. Bloom time is very early spring. It is very resistant to Dutch Elm Disease, however intolerant of saturated soil and flooding.

Elm, Sapporo Autumn Gold
A hybrid between Siberian and Japanese Elm; this rapid growing urban tolorant elm hybrid is notable for its extreme disease resistance. Strongly upright in habit when young; this Elm eventually develops a broad crown though often retains a strong central leader. This Elm is very fast growing to 3.5 feet in a year & 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 29 inches in 22 years. Mature size may become huge over its centuries long lifespan reaching massive proportions up to 150 feet tall, 120 feet wide with trunk diameter up to 7 feet though half that is more likely within a 50 year span.
The foliage is a soft reddish green during spring, maturing to lime-green then finally vivid yellow during autumn. The leaves are up to 4 x 3.2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 4 - 9

Elm, ( Green King ) Siberian ( Ulmus pumila 'Green King' )
An extremely hardy pyramidal shape Siberian Elm hybrid which is extremely fast growing ( growth rates to 11 feet per year are known! ) and makes an excellent shelter tree for the Great Plains. Mature size of this cultivar is unknown however Siberian Elm averages around 60 feet and the largest on record is 146 x 95 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.9 feet. The Siberian Elm is native from Kazakhstan to eastern Siberia; south to most of Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea.
The toothed small leaves are gray-green above and paler beneath.
The flowers are borne in tight clusters in very early spring before the foliage emerges.
The slender gray-brown twigs bear tiny, dark, pointed buds.
The rugged bark is dark brown and deeply furrowed having interlacing ridges.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, thriving even in central Alaska and in Ontario at least as far north as Kenora. Disease resistant and very wind and drought tolerant! Siberian Elm is among the most common trees on the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies where it is used as for shelterbelts and shade trees. It is among the toughest trees there and grows anywhere it can find enough groundwater. Resistant to Dutch Elm Disease.


* photo taken on Aug 2 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photo taken on Apr 6 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD


* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* photo of unknown internet source




Elm, Szechuan ( Ulmus szechuanica )
A spreading, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum size of 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.7 feet, that is native to the Yangtze River Valley in central and eastern China.
The elliptical or obobovate leaves are up to 3.5 x 2.2 inches in size. The foliage is deep red at first, turning to dull deep green. The foliage turns to purplish-red during autumn. Hardy zones 5b to 8.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.










Elm, Thompson ( Ulmus davidiana 'Thomson' )
A hybrid originating from Manchurian planted Elms at Indian Head, Saskatchewan this is ONE OF THE BEST shade and shelter trees for north central Canada, northern Ontario and the Canadian Prairies. Shape typified with vase shape crown originating from single trunk splitting into strong branches that weather high winds and storms extremely well. It is completely resistant to Dutch Elm Disease as well as elm leaf beetle. Unexplainably it is no longer in commerce due to propagation restrictions imposed by the Canadian Government. Another variety 'Jacan' is similar, als very cold tolorant and was bred at the horticultural research station at Morden, Manitoba. It develops an attractive rounded crown and its foliage turns deep red in the fall. Unfortunately it is somewhat more prone to past than the Thompson Elm. Another Japanese Elm hybrid called 'Discovery' fared poorly in most trials.

Elm, Vada ( Ulmus 'Wanoux' )
A Netherlands origion hybrid from the crossing of the hybrid 'Plantyn' with another self-pollinated specimen of 'Plantyn'. It is a more fastigiate tree intended for street planting.
The deeply-veined, coarsely-toothed leaves are up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
It is fully resistant to Dutch Elm Disease and fast growing to 47 feet in 20 years. Can tolerate wet soil including winter waterlogging up to 3 months. Easily propagated from cuttings.

Elm, Vietnam ( Ulmus lanceifolia )
A disease resistant Elm for subtropical climates this southeast Asian native grows huge up to 150 feet tall with a somewhat weeping canopy up to 100 feet across. The bark is brown and exfoliating. The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4.5 x 1.5 inches in size. The thick foliage is glossy mid-green above, whitish beneath. It is generally semi-evergreen but may be evergreen in zone 10. It is hardy north to zone 9 ( possibly 8 ) and is an excellent tree for the Gulf Coast region though has not been tested much in the U.S. It is resistant to Elm Beetles and is most likely also resistant to Dutch Elm Disease.

Elm, Wallich ( Ulmus wallichiana )
Also called Himalayan Elm. A very large deciduous Elm, reaching a maximum size of 120 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.7 feet. It is native to the Himalayan Mountains from Afghanistan to Nepal; south to northern India. Some records include: 29 years - 57 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It is endangered in most of its natural range.
The leaves are large for an Elm, up to 8 inches in length.
The flowers are borne during mid-spring before the foliage emerges.
The gray bark is rough and scaly.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( most seed source is probably not hardy north of zone 7 ). It is to Dutch Elm Disease and other diseases. Wallich Elm thrives in high elevations of subtropical region and is useful for forestry plantations. It requires an average yearly precip exceeding 30 inches. .

Elm, Water ( Planera aquatica )
The lone member of a genus closely related to the Ulmus - Elm. It is a broadly-rounded medium to large size, deciduous tree. Some records include: largest on record - 106 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. Water-Elm is native to floodplains in the southeastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southern Illinois to South Carolina; south to the Gulf Coast of Texas to northern Florida ).
The deeply-toothed, ovate leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green above and pale green beneath.
The small, axilliary flowers appear with the foliage in early spring.
The nut-like fruits, up to 0.3 inches, ripen in mid spring. The seeds are important as a food source for ducks.
The thin bark peels in large scales, exposing reddish bark beneath.
Hardy zones 5b to 9. It is very flood tolerant and can even take inundation for several months in the year. Water Elm is also drought tolerant. It makes a great tree for use on difficult urban sites.

* historic archive photos

_____________________________________________________________________

OTHER ELMS

Unlike the above - most of these DO NOT have proven resistance to Dutch Elm Disease. However individual trees of their kind may prove to be resistant and therefore might prove useful for breeding future generations of Elm.

American Elm ( Ulmus americana )
This is a large, arching vase shaped tree reaching around 100 feet or often more, that is a widespread native to North America ( from central Saskatchewan to Armstrong, Ontario to the southern tip of James Bay to Gaspe and Cape Breton, Nova Scotia; south to central Texas to central Florida ). It was very abundant throughout Windsor/Esssex County, Ontario as well as the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Growing rapidly up to 8 feet per year and reaching as large as 60 feet with 3 feet trunk diameter in as little as 20 years, the American Elm was once one of the most impressive large hardwood trees on the continent. Heights and widths over 100 feet and trunk widths over 5 feet were common. Some Elms lives up to 700 years and grew to 200 x 150 feet with trunk diameters up to 12 feet ( or 16 feet at the base ). Other records include: trunk diameter of 19 inches in 20 years; 38 years - 70 x 72 feet; 250 years - 9 foot trunk diameter. One American Elm cut in Jefferson Co., PA yielded 8820 board feet of lumber ( A board foot is a piece of wood 1 foot square and 1 inch thick ). It is often found on fertile floodplains in the wild, and on upland sites as well.
When young the growth habit is upright but then becoming arching and spreading with age.
The coarsely double-toothed, elliptic leaves are up to 7 x 5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and whitish to light green beneath; turning to bright yellow during autumn. The leaves can be either rough or smooth above.
The drooping red flowers borne on long stalks are borne very early in spring before the foliage emerges. They are replaced by the fruits ( up to 0.5 inches ) as the foliage emerges.
The reddish to brown twigs bear pointed, small, light brown buds. To tell apart from Slippery Elm, look for short alternate twigs coming off of 2nd and 3rd year stems.
The scaly bark is furrowed into interlacing narrow ridges.
This was one of the most adaptable trees in North America. It is hardy from zone 2 to 9 ( tolerating - 50 F ) and even grows well in Edmonton and Winnipeg. In trials at Brandon, Manitoba and Indian Head, Saskatchewan; trees from native seed source thrived where seed from east of the Great Lakes produced trees that were not fully winter hardy. The American Elm can grow in some of the worst clays and can tolerate winter flooding ( not summer flooding ) and road salt. It grows best in deep rich moist loam.Before 1960 it was one of the most popular urban shade and street trees in central and eastern U.S. and Canada. However the accidentely introduced Dutch Elm Disease has already begun its destructive spread ( mass die offs of Elms in Southern Ontario noted in 1950s ) across the continent eradicating the dominant tree in many areas. Dutch Elm Disease is only 2nd to also accidentely introduced Chestnut Blight as the most destructive tree disease on the North American continent. In some places such as Southern Ontario, the forests still not recovered from this double hit are being hit again by the Emerald Ash Borer. All in all Dutch Elm Disease has killed around 15 billion Elms in North America. Some large trees however survived and show resistance. These trees have been used and cross breed with the similar but disease resistant Japanese Elm to produce the hybrids listed below. These new hybrids are among the best shade trees now in the nursery market and are highly recommended.
Some large American Elms standing today include one of 112 x 115 x 8 feet near Buckley in Grand Traverse Co., Michigan and 133 feet tall & 5 feet in trunk diameter in Nicolet Twp. in Algoma, Ontario.

* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA



* photo taken on August 3 2010 near Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on October 21 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD




* photos taken on July 11 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Wash, DC






* photo taken on Apr 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Howard Co., MD



USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photo taken by W.H. Shaffer @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photos








































































* photos of unknown internet source





'Brandon'
Very fast growing, reaching up to 18 x 12 feet in 5 years. It has excellent golden-yellow fall color but is otherwise very similar to the species.
Exceptionally hardy north to zone 2a. It is commonly grown in Alberta, Canada where Dutch Elm Disease does not occur.

Elm, Cedar ( Ulmus crassifolia )
A fast growing, narrow tree, reaching a height of 70 feet, that is native to moist bottomland forests in the south central U.S. ( from western Oklahoma to western Tennessee; south to Laredo, Texas to far southeastern Louisiana ). It is also native to a limited area in northern Florida. It makes an excellent shade tree within its native range. Cedar Elm is deciduous in colder climates, semi-evergreen in the milder parts of its range. Some records include: 8 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 150 x 106 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet.
The stiff, thick, toothed leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is very rough, glossy deep green above, slightly downy beneath; turning yellow-bronze during late autumn. The Cedar Elm has the smallest leaves of all Elms.
The downy reddish twigs often have corky wings.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. It is resistant to Dutch Elm Disease and is very tolerant of drought, extreme heat, soil PH and clay, making it valuable as a street tree in the south central U.S..

Elm, Dutch ( Ulmus x hollandica )
A very large tree that is the hybrid between Ulmus glabra & U. carpinifolia ( minor ). Some records include: 20 years - 55 feet; largest on record - 160 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet; longest lived - 440 years.
The heavily-veined, toothed leaves are up to 7.5 inches in length. The glossy deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Very drought tolerant.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


'Belgica' ( Belgian Elm )
Straight trunked and upright with a broad canopy, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet.

'Dampieri'
An upright, somewhat columnar, large tree, reaching up to 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet.
The double-toothed, ovate leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length. The foliage is glossy deep green.
Has good resistance to Dutch Elm Disease.

'Dampieri Aurea'
The double-toothed, ovate leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are glossy bright yellow.
It is similar in size and habit to 'Dampieri'

'Groenveldt'
Fast growing, dense, upright and somewhat narrow, reaching up to 90 ( est ) feet. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet.
The foliage is luxuriant mid-green.
It is moderately resistant to Dutch Elm Disease.

'Hollandica'
Very vigorous, forming a large arching, domed-canopy tree. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; 98 years - trunk diameter of 5.3 feet; 108 years - 100 x 103 feet; 135 years - trunk diameter of 6.7 feet; largest on record - 126 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. It made for a spectacular street tree before the ravages of Dutch Elm Disease.
The leaves are large, up to 6 inches in length.

'Jacqueline Hillier'
Shrubby and densely branched, rarely reaching up to 15 x 15 feet in 10 years. Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches.
The leaves are smaller, to only 1.5 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is deep green, often turning to orange during autumn.

'Major'
A fast growing, tall tree, reaching a maximum height of 120 feet with a broad canopy. It is prone to suckering from the base and the trunk. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet.
The broad leaves are up to 5 inches in length.

'Modolina'
A vigorous, tall, vase-shaped tree.

'Sarniensis'
Strongly upright and fastigiate to conical in habit. Some records include: 16 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 127 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.

* historical archive photo


'Vegeta' ( Huntington Elm )
Very vigorous, forming a large arching, domed-canopy tree. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet.
The foliage is nearly identical to that of the Wych Elm.

Elm, English ( Ulmus procera )
A straight-trunked, broad crowned tree reaching over 100 feet, that is native to the British Isles and mainland Europe. Some records include: 20 years - 55 feet; 50 years - trunk diameter of 3 feet; 140 years - trunk diameter of 6.8 feet; largest on record - 200 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 feet; longest lived - 300 years. The largest English Elm ever known was an incredibly massive 17 feet in trunk diameter, It grew at Crawley in West Sussex, England and was felled in 1824. Some very large trees in Pennsylvania grow at Longwood Gardens and Woodlands Cemetary in Philadelphia. The English Elm often spreads by suckering.
The toothed oval leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size. The deep green foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn.
The dark red flowers are borne during early spring before the foliage emerges.
The majority of the bright green fruit borne during spring are sterile.
The deeply-fissured, square-plated bark is dark brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.




* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD


* photos taken on Jul 11 2014 in Washington, DC



* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 in Washington, DC




* historical archive photos



* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 @ Belmont Estate, Elkridge, MD


















* historic archive photo






'Argenteovariegata'
Foliage is speckled white.

'Louis van Houtte'
Foliage is yellow all season turning to bright yellow during autumn.

'Purpurea'
Foliage is somewhat purplish at first.

Elm, Rock ( Ulmus thomasii )
A large tree native to central and eastern North America ( from eastern North Dakota to International Falls, Minnnesota to the northern tip of Michigan's lower peninsula to Tobermory, Ontario to Pembroke, Ontario to southern Quebec and Vermont; south to northeast Kansas to Tennessee ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario regions; it was considered abundant around Windsor during the 1800s. It can be found on both rich bottomland forests as well as rocky, well drained soils in the wild. The anti-Elm; the Rock Elm is usually oval and columnar in habit rather than the vase shape of the famous American Elm. Typically reaching around 80 feet; some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 170 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.5 feet; longest lived - 300 years.
Rarely used in landscaping; this rugged yet attractive tree is one that I really do like. Unfortunately it will not likely be used in landscaping in the future since it too just like the American Elm has been ravaged by the accidently introduced Dutch Elm Disease. The Rock Elm is endangered in Illinois, Ohio and New York State.
The sharply-toothed leaves are up to 7 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above, downy whitish beneath; rarely coloring much during fall.
The small, dangling red flowers are borne very early in spring before the foliage emerges.
The hairy, reddish stems have protruding cork-like bark and pointed brown buds. The wood is about 44 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zone 2 to 8, in trials at Indian Head, Saskatchewan; it proved fully hardy on protected sites while trees did not survive the first few years out on the open prairie.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario




* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historical archive photos













Elm, Russian ( Ulmus laevis )
Also called European White Elm & Hungarian Elm. An open, spreading-crowned, large tree native from France, Belgium & Sweden to the Caucasus. Some records include: 180 years - trunk diameter of 6.5 feet; largest on record - 150 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.2 feet. Long-lived, it can persist up to 800 years. It is very similar to the American Elm.
The broadly-oval leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches in size, are gray hairy beneath.
The small, reddish flowers are borne in clusters during early spring before the foliage emerges.
The deeply-ridged bark is brownish-gray. The twigs are deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Elm, September ( Ulmus serotina )
A broad spreading tree with drooping outer branches, reaching a height of 50 feet, that is native to the U.S. from eastern Oklahoma to southern Illinois to northeast Kentucky; south to far northeast Texas to central Alabama and northwest Georgia. Some records include: largest on record - 150 x 65 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet; largest in Michigan - 71 x 70 feet in Monroe; largest in Pennsylvania - 63 x 55 feet @ St Cyril Academy, Danville, PA. It is rare in the wild, found in moist, rich woods and limestone outcrops. September Elm looks alot like Rock Elm but flowers and fruits in autumn instead.
The toothed leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is rough glossy deep green above, downy pale gold beneath. The foliage often turns to scarlet-red during autumn.
The brown twigs often have corky wings.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo of unknown internet source


Elm, Slippery ( Ulmus rubra )
Native to North America ( from North Dakota to Batchewana, Ontario to Chalk River, Ontario to southern Quebec and Maine; south to central Texas to southern Alabama and central Georgia ); this Elm is prone to Dutch Elm Disease however the one below ( largest in Canada ) seems to have some resistance and should be used for breeding purposes. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was considered uncommon in southern Essex County; abundant on the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. A very beautiful tree however it does not usually have the trademark vase shape of the most well known American Elm. It typically reaches around 75 feet though trees as large as 153 x 78 feet with trunk diameters of 7.5 feet are known.
The leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The thick, very rough foliage is deep green above, softly hairy pale green beneath.
The short stalked flowers are borne in very early spring before the foliage emerges.
They are replaced by bright yellow-green fruits that ripen with the unfolding leaves.
The light brown twigs are stouter than most other Elms and bear large, rusty haired, dark brown, blunt tipped, oval buds.
The red-brown bark is divided into long scaly plates.
Hardy zones 2 to 9; it thrives in continental climates with hot summers. The Slippery Elm is one of the few Elms that does not grow well in England and western Europe.

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario







* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, ON



* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON





* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON


* historical archive photos





* photo of unknown internet source


Elm, Winged ( Ulmus alata )
A rapid growing, open, rounded crowned tree reaching around 70 feet, that is native to the southeast U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to northern Missouri to Maryland; south to eastern Texas to central Florida ). Some records include: largest on record - 131 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The small, thick, elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, somewhat hairy and pale green beneath. The fall colors are usually not all that spectacular but can be yellow.
The non-dangling flowers are borne in clusters less than an inch in length during very early spring before the foliage emerges.
The young fast growing red-brown stems look like that of Euonymus alata -Burningbush but are even more corkier.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 on just about any well drained soil, it is easy to grow from seed and also east to transplant. It is fairly resistant to Dutch Elm Disease but is prone to leaf mildew ( though some clones seem to not be affected my mildew ). Flood tolerant, moderately salt and very drought tolerant; it makes a great tree for scorching parking lot islands.

* photo taken on Aug 30 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 5 2017 in Ellicott City, MD





* historical archive photos




'Lace Parasol'
An interesting weeping form, that is also smaller growing, reaching 20 x 30 feet at best.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD







Elm, Wych ( Ulmus glabra )
A dome-canopied, large tree reaching over 100 feet that is native from northern Europe into western Asia. It is widespread being found in the wild as far south as the Alps and Carpathian Mountain Ranges. To the north it is found as far north as Scotland, Finland and parts of Russia surrounding the Baltics. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 11 feet; 20 years - 53 feet; 110 years - trunk diameter of 6.4 feet; largest on record - 164 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet; longest lived - 500 years. The largest ever known was felled in 1636 in Uttoexeter, Staffordshire, England. There were 10 people to witness the measuring of this giant. It was 123 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 16 feet. The trunk diameter was still 8 feet at 60 feet off the ground.
The deeply-toothed, rounded leaves are up to 7 or rarely 10 x 5 inches in size. The rough, deep green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The tiny purplish-red flowers appear in dense clusters during very early spring before the foliage emerges.
The attractive spring fruits are bright lime green.
The bark is silvery-gray and smooth on young trees; later becoming fissured and grayish-brown. The twigs are deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it is tolerant of floodplain conditions. It has been planted as far north as Batchewana in Ontario.

* historic archive photos






'Aurea'
The larger than average foliage is up to 10 x 7 inches. The foliage is yellow-green at first on this fast growing tree.

'Camperdownii'
A dense, strongly weeping form that is usually grafted. It rarely exceeds 20 x 25 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 43 x 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
It is moderately resistant to Dutch Elm Disease.

* historical archive photos




'Pendula'
A weeping form that grows much larger than 'Camperdownii'. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.

* historical archive photo


'Purpurea'
The large foliage is purplish-red during spring.

'Variegata'
Foliage was creamy-white markings.

3 comments:

  1. Really thanks for this list. It will definitely help learners like me.. keep it up.....Thanks

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  2. Fantastic list and descriptions :) Am involved in growing disease resistant Elms in Britain, where I and many others hope the Elm makes a comeback soon.

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