Sunday, January 31, 2010

Barberry

A massive genus of 450 species of evergreen and deciduous shrubs native to a huge portion of the Northern Hemisphera as well as South America, tropical and northern Africa. The berries on most Barberries are edible, though often quite small.
Prefers sun to partial shade on just about any moist, well drained soil including clay. Most are drought and urban tolerant. Deer do not generally eat Barberry.
Most Barberries can be reproduced from half hardened cuttings taken in late summer and the deciduous ones can also be propagated from softwood cuttings taken in early summer. Seed sown in spring isn't very reliable because Barberries hybridize easily and resulting plants are variable. If grown from seed it is recommend to plant the entire seed during autumn.

Berberis aggregata ( Salmon Barberry )
A fast growing, medium size, deciduous shrub native to Sichuan and Gansu Provinces in China. Some records include: largest on record - 7 x 6 feet.
The oblong leaves that are toothed towards the tip, are up to 1.3 inches in length.
They are gray-green in summer turning to deep red in autumn.
The light yellow flowers are borne in axilliary clusters during spring.
They are followed by red berries that are covered in gray bloom.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

'Ruby Watson'
Deep ruby-red fruits.

Berberis amurensis ( Amur Barberry )
Also called B. vulgaris var amurensis. A very ornamental, upright, large deciduous shrub, reaching up to 12 x 12 feet, that is native to Siberia, northern China, Korea and Japan.
The oblong or elliptical leaves, up to 5 ( rarely over 3.2 ) inches in length, are glossy bright green at first, turning to deep green above, bright green beneath. The foliage turns to yellow or red during autumn.
up to 23 fragrant, golden-yellow flowers are borne on dropping racemes, up to 4 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by glossy scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.8 x 0.3 inches in size. They are edible but sour tasting.
The stems are armed with spines up to 0.8 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun to partial shade. It is extremely heat, cold and drought tolerant.

Berberis aristata ( Spinetooth Barberry )
A moderate growing, deciduous shrub that can reach a maximum size of 13 x 12 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches, often have 5 spines per side however may also have a smooth edge.
The foliage is glossy deep green above.
The flower racemes, up to 6 inches in length, may have been 3 to rarely as much as 25 yellow flowers that are tinged orange.
They are followed by oval, glossy red berries.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis bergmanniae 'Acanthophylla' ( Bergmann Barberry )
A very striking, rare shrub native to western China.
The leathery, "Holly-like" leaves, up to 2 x 0.7 inches, are white beneath.
The berries, up to 0.3 inches, are blue-white.
Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis x bristolensis ( Bristol-tooth Barberry _
A dense mounding evergreen shrub which is the hybrid between Berberis calliantha and B. verruculosa, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 8 feet. It makes an excellent low hedge.
The spine-tip toothed, smooth surfaced, elliptical leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are glossy deep green above and white beneath. The foliage turns to scarlet-red in winter in cold climates making for an excellent contrast with the oval berries, up to 0.7 inches in length, which are black but covered in blue bloom.
The yellow flowers are borne in clusters of 2 or 3s in the leaf axils during late spring.
The stems are warty.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. Cold, frost and heat tolerant. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis buxifolia
An erect to arching evergreen shrub native to Argentina and Chile that reaches up to 8 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 28 feet.
The spine tipped, elliptical, leathery leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are deep green.
The orange-yellow flowers are borne either singly or in pairs in the upper leaf axils during early spring.
They are followed by deep purple berries. A single plant may yield up to 2 pounds of fruit per year, which make tasty juice.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis calliantha ( Black Berried Barberry )
An attractive, dense, neat, small to medium-sized, evergreen shrub native to southeast Tibet that can reach up to 6.5 x 8 feet in 10 years, rarely growing larger.
The spine-tip toothed, "Holly-like", elliptical leaves, up to 3 x 0.7 inches in size, are reddish at first turning to glossy deep green above and showy white beneath.
The large, bright yellow flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne singly ( rarely in 2s or 3s ) in the upper leaf axils during early spring.
Oval, blue-black berries, up to 0.7 inches in length, follow.
The red-brown stems are armed in small spines.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis canadensis ( American Barberry )
The North American native Barberry which is similar to Berberis vulgaris however is native to Maryland, Virginia and North Carolina ( very rare and isolated to a few mountain & Piedmont Counties ). Generally a moderate growing, low to medium size, clonal deciduous shrub, it can reach a maximum size of 6.6 x 6 feet. Unlike most other Barberries, this one may spread by rhizomes and usually forms clumps under 4 feet in height. The botanical name of this Barberry is misleading, it is not native to Canada. Having recently been informed that this is one of the many rare plants growing at Soldiers Delight Natural Environmental Area near Owings Mills, Maryland; I hope to photograph it next growing season. This is especially of interest because other sources consider it now extinct in Maryland,
Endangered in Indiana and it is ranked as of Special Concern in Tennessee. It is also extirpated in Pennsylvania ( previous local occurance in western part of state ), Alabama, Missouri, Illinois and Kentucky. It is rare in Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, West Virginia and Virginia. It is now a threatened species however was once much more common before being systematically being eradicated due to it being a host for black stem rust which infects wheat.
This plant is very attractive and can be used as an erosion control or barrier plant in non agricultural areas.
The narrow, bristly-tip tooth, obovate leaves, up to 3 x 1.3 inches ( usually less than 2 inches in length ), are bluish-green, turning to deep orange during autumn.
The leaves are clustered at the ends of spur branches appearing as whorls.
The light yellow late spring flowers are later followed by elliptical red berries up to 0.4 inches across.
The berries are considered edible however I have not tried them yet.
The stems are armed with spines, up to 0.5 inches in length, that are often 3-parted.
It is unfortunately prone to Barberry Rust eliminating this shrubs chances of ornamental use in most of North America due to the fact the same rust can also infect wheat and ruin crops.
Hardy zone 5 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. It is drought tolerant.

Berberis candidula
A moderate growing, stoloniferous, low, neat, dome-shaped evergreen shrub native to Hubei Province in the western part of China, that reaches up to 4 x 5 feet in 10 years and a maximum eventual size of 5 x 5 feet. Excellent for low hedging and use in rock gardens.
The smooth ovate or oblong leaves, up to 2 inches in length are tipped with a spine and rolled over at the leaf margins.
The dense foliage is glossy deep green above and waxy white beneath. The leaves turn to bronze ( rarely scarlet-red ) during winter.
The solitary, bright yellow flowers, up to 0.5 inches, borne in the leaf axils are followed in autumn with oval purple berries that are covered in white bloom.
Hardy zone 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis x carminea
A vigorous deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis aggregata & B. wilsoniae that can reach a maximum size of 13 x 10 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are dull deep green above turning vivid scarlet-red in autumn.
The late spring flower panicles borne in late spring consist of 10 to 16 yellow flowers.
They are followed by dense clusters of orange and red berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Barbarossa'
Semi-evergreen with very showy displays of bright scarlet-red berries.

'Bountiful'
Reaches up to 4 x 4 feet in 10 years. Profuse pink-red fruits are covered in a fine bloom.

'Buccaneer'
A large shrub reaching up to 5 x 5 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 13 x 10 feet. The dark red berries persist into mid winter.
Hardy north to zone 6

'Pirate King'
A dense, arching, vigorous shrub with intense orange-red berries.

Berberis chingii
An extremely rare shrub native to Anhui Province in eastern China that can reach a maximum size of 6 x 6 feet.
It is extremely beautiful having white berries.
Hardy north to zone 7
Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis comberi
A very stiff suckering shrub native to elevations of around 3000 feet in the Argentine Andes Mountains, that can reach a maximum size of 4 x 12 feet.
The stiff, spiny, "Holly-like", leathery, oval leaves, are up to 1.5 x 1.3 inches in size.
The profuse fragrant flowers are orange-yellow.
There are no stem spines.
Hardiness has not been fully tested.
Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis concinna ( Dainty Barberry )
A small, semi-evergreen shrub reaching up to 3.3 x 3.3 feet in 10 years.
The "Holly-like" leaves, up to an inch in length, are green above and white beneath.
The solitary flowers are followed by red fruits.
Hardy north to zone 6
Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis congestifolia
An evergreen shrub, reaching up to 6 x 4 feet, that is native to Chile.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne on dense clusters.
They are followed by blue fruit.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 on well drained soil. Drought tolerant.

Berberis coxii
A very attractive, vigorous, dense, medium-sized, evergreen shrub native to northeast Burma that reaches a maximum size of 7 x 14 feet.
The leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length are glossy deep green above and very white beneath.
The flowers, up to 0.5 inches in size, are followed by blue berries up to 0.5 inches in length.
The yellowish stems are armed with flattened spines.
Hardy north to zone 6. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis darwinii ( Darwin Barberry )
A fast growing, arching, large, evergreen shrub reaching around 11 feet that is native to mountains of southern Chile and Argentina. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet; largest on record - 15 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.3 feet. Excellent for use in hedging.
The spine-toothed, "Holly-like" leaves are up to 1.5 inches in length.
They are very deep, glossy green above, bright green beneath.
The pendulous flower racemes up to 4 inches in length consist of up to 30 deep golden-orange flowers during mid to late spring ( sometimes repeating in autumn ). The abundant, oblong deep blue to purple fruits follow. Birds do enjoy the fruit and you may end up with Darwin Barberries seeding themselves into areas you did not intend. Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating as low as -5 F ) in sun or partial shade, . Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown. They are tolerant of wind and seashore conditions.

* photo of unknown internet source



'Flame'
Dwarf, reaching a maximum size of only 5 x 5 feet with orange-red flowers.

'Goldilocks'
Very vigorous, reaching up to 12 x 10 feet with larger leaves up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Berberis dasystachya ( Kansu Barberry )
A very attractive large deciduous shrub reaching up to 14 x 18 feet.
Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches.
The rounded leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
The flowers are borne in clusters up to 2.5 inches in length.
The gray stems are armed with spines up to 0.6 inches in length.
Hardiness not fully tested, it is known to thrive in the British Isles.
Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis diaphana ( Reddrop Barberry )
A deciduous shrub native to northwest China that can reach a maximum height of 7 feet.
The obovate leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, have up to 10 spines per each side.
The foliage is dull green above, gray-green beneath, turning scarlet-red in autumn.
The bright yellow flowers are borne in racemes of up to 5.
They are followed by shiny, translucent, red berries in autumn.
The stems are armed with thick spines that are arranged in 3s.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

'Aemulans'
Very vigorous with very red attractive stems.

Berberis dictyophylla ( Chalkleaf Barberry )
A very striking, fast growing, medium sized, erect to arching, deciduous shrub native to southwest China. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6 feet; largest on record - 13 x 8 feet.
The smooth obovate leaves are up to 2 inches in length.
They are matt green above, white beneath, turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
The light yellow solitary flowers are followed in fall by red berries.
The young stems are covered in white bloom.
The stems are armed with coarse spines that are arranged in 3s.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis edgeworthiana ( Edgeworth Barberry )
A small deciduous shrub native to the northwest Himalayas that can reach a maximum size of 3.5 x 3 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are dull green.
The flower panicles borne in spring carry up to 25 flowers.
They are followed by brilliant, glossy scarlet-red oval berries in autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis empetrifolia ( Crow Barberry )
A rare, low spreading, dense, evergreen shrub native to coastal and foothill areas of Chile and Argentina which can reach up to 20 inches x 2 feet in 10 years and a maximum eventual size of 2 x 3.5 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 6.5 feet.
Excellent for use in patio containers or rock gardens.
The bristle-toothed, spine-tipped, lance-shaped leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are deep green above, grayish beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne singly or in pairs in the upper leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by black berries that are covered in blue bloom.
The young shoots are red and the stems are armed with spines that are longer than the leaves.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in sun to partial shade on fertile, light, well drained soil. It does not like shallow alkaline soil. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis fendleri ( Fendler's Barberry )
A deciduous, medium-sized shrub, reaching up to 8 x 8 feet.
The oval leaves are blue-green.
The profuse, yellow flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by abundant, showy, red fruit borne on hanging racemes during early autumn.
Hardy zones 4a to 9 in full sun. Drought tolerant.

Berberis x frikartii
A very attractive, arching, evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis candidula & B. verruculosa that can reach a maximum size of 8 x 8 feet.
The spine-tipped, elliptical leaves are up to 1.3 inches in length.
The foliage is glossy deep green above, silvery beneath, turning to intense scarlet-red during winter.
The golden-yellow flowers borne in pairs ( rarely in groups up to 4 ) in the upper leaf axils during late spring.
They are followed by black berries that are covered in blue bloom.
Hardy zones 5b to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Amstelveen'
A fast growing, dense, arching shrub only reaching up to 4 x 5 feet.

Berberis gagnepainii ( Black Barberry )
A fast growing, upright, dense, spiny, evergreen shrub native to western China. Some records include: 8 years - 5 feet; 10 years - 6.6 x 6.6 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet. It makes an excellent hedge that can be sheared after flowering.
The sharply-toothed, narrow leaves are up to 4 x 0.3 inches in size. Excellent for use in hedging.
The very attractive foliage is shiny bright to deep green above; bluish and sometimes reddish beneath.
The profuse yellow flowers borne in large clusters during late spring are followed by blackish-blue fruits up to 0.7 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on light, fertile, well drained soil. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Chenaultii'
Reaches up to 10 x 10 feet with evergreen foliage that is very glossy deep green above, white beneath, turning to rich bronze in winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

'Red Jewel'
Also called Berberis x media 'Red Jewel'. A moderate growing, semi-evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 10 feet with foliage that is red at first later turning to green with a reddish tint.
Hardy north to zone 5.

'Tottenham'
A vigorous, arching, semi-evergreen shrub reaching up to 6 feet. Foliage turns red in autumn.

Berberis gilgiana ( Wildfire Barberry )
A rare, thorny, medium-sized deciduous shrub native to China that can reach a maximum size of 7 x 6 feet.
The elliptic leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are olive green turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
The dangling bright yellow flowers are borne in clusters up to 3 inches in length.
They are followed by 0.4 inch red berries in autumn.
The stems are purplish.
Hardy north to zone 5. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis gladwynensis ( William Penn Barberry )

'William Penn'
A fast growing evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 6 x 10 ( rarely over 6 x 6 ) feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green turning to bronze in winter.
The flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are yellow.
The blue-black fruits, up to 0.5 inches, follow.
Hardy north to zone 6. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

* photo taken on Mar 22 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 5 2013 in Elkridge, MD


Berberis glaucocarpa
A vigorous, suckering, semi-evergreen shrub native to the Himalayas that can reach a maximum size of 13 x 12 feet.
The elliptical green leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size.
The berries are black.
The stems are yellowish.
Hardy north to zone 6. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis gyalaica
A very attractive arching deciduous shrub native to southeast Tibet that can reach up to 7 feet in 3 years, with a maximum eventual size of 10 x 6 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 0.6 inches, are dull green above, gray beneath, turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
The berries are bluish-black.
Hardy north to zone 7. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis henryana ( Henry Barberry )
A medium size deciduous shrub native to China that can reach a maximum size of 9 x 5 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are edged with thorny teeth.
The yellow flowers are borne in clusters up to 2 inches in length.
They are followed by red berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis hookeri ( Hooker Barberry )
A dense, thicket-forming evergreen shrub reaching up to 6.6 x 5 feet in 10 years.
The leathery, "Holly-like" leaves, up to 3.2 x 1 inches, are deep green above, blue-white beneath.
The spiny angled stems are armed with 3-fork spines up to an inch in length.
The fragrant flowers are pale yellow.
They are followed by black-purple fruits, up to 0.5 inches in length, that persist into winter.
The stems are angled.
Hardy north to zone 7. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Wallichii' ( Wallich Barberry )
Longer leaves up to 4.7 inches in length.

Berberis insignis
A beautiful, vigorous evergreen shrub native to Sikkim in the Himalayas, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 12 feet. This is one of the very few Barberries that are spineless.
The very long, lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 1.7 inches in size.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The showy flower clusters consist of up to 25 individual flowers.
The berries are black.
The stems are typically thornless.
Hardy north to zone 8. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis integerrima ( Edged Barberry )
An attractive, dense, arching, thorny, xerophytic shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet, that is native to Iran, central Asia and northwest China.
The leathery, oblong leaves are up to 2 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 0.4 inches in size, are borne on clusters up to 4 inches in length.
They are followed by purplish-red fruits, up to 0.3 inches.
The stems are brownish-red.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 on alkaline soil only. It is drought, cold, frost and heat tolerant.

Berberis x interposita
An attractive, medium size evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis hookeri 'viridis' & B. verruculosa. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 15 inches; largest on record - 10 x 8 ( usually half that ) feet.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( tolerating as low as -20 F ) in full sun.

'Wallich's Purple'
The somewhat spiny, elliptical leaves are up to an inch in length. The foliage is bronze-purple at first, turning to glossy mid-green above, gray-green beneath.
The yellow flowers borne late spring are followed by large black berries ( up to 2 incehs ) in autumn.
It makes an excellent low hedge.

Berberis jamesiana ( Jame's Barberry )
A vigorous, handsome, deciduous, large shrub native to southwest China that reaches a maximum size of 15 x 15 feet.
The leaves, up to 4 inches in length, turn attractive scarlet-red in autumn.
The abundant, yellow flowers are borne on racemes, up to 4 inches in length, during spring. They are followed by showy, pinkish-red berries, up to 0.5 inches in length, during late summer and autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun. Drought tolerant. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis julianae ( Wintergreen Barberry )
A vigorous, erect, dense, very spiny, medium to large size shrub native to western Hubei province in China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 14 years - 10 x 13 feet; largest on record - 17 x 17 feet. It is an excellent hedging and screening plant which is typically pruned after flowering.
The very leathery, stiff, spine-toothed, obovate leaves, up to 5 x 1 inches, are coppery at first, turning to glossy deep green above and bright green beneath.
The profuse yellow flowers are borne in dense clusters of up to 10 in early spring.
They are followed by oblong fruits, up to 0.3 inches, that are black and covered in white bloom.
The angled stems are viciously armed with stout 1.5 inch spines which along with attractive dense evergreen foliage and exceptional hardiness make this among the best hedges for "keep out barriers". Only a complete moron would ever try to climb through a Julian Barberry hedge.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 tolerating as low as -20 F. It prefers full sun to partial shade on fertile, acidic, well drained soil. Moderately salt tolerant and very heat / humidity tolerant, even thriving in northern Florida. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

* photo taken on March 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Mar 22 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD


'Lombart's Red'
Foliage is red beneath

'Nana'
Dwarf only reaching up to 4 feet.

'Spring Glory'
Reaches up to 6 x 6 feet with red new foliage.

Berberis koreana ( Korean Barberry )
A compact, rounded, extremely hardy, vigorous, deciduous shrub reaching around 5 feet that is native to Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 10 years - 8 x 10 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 feet.
The spine-toothed, oblong leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length. They are deep green during summer turning to intense orange and purple-red late in autumn. It is like Euonymus alatus, among the best of all shrubs for fall color.
The flower clusters, up to 4 inches in length, consist of up to 20 yellow flowers. The flowers are much larger and more showy than those of Berberis thunbergii.
They are followed by persistant glossy red berries up to 0.2 inches.
The forked, flattened spines encircle the stems.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

* photos taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


Berberis linearifolia
A very attractive, spiny, rigid, erect, sparsely branched evergreen shrub native to the Andes Mountains in Chile that reaches a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet in 10 years.
The leathery, narrow oval leaves, up to 2 inches in length, have undulating rolled edges.
The foliage is glossy deep green.
The showy flower clusters borne from late spring through late summer consist of up to 6 deep orange flowers.
They are followed in fall by oval, black berries that are covered in blue bloom.
The stems are armed in small spines.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. More shade tolerant than most Barberries being native to shady moist woods in the wild. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Orange King'
upright, vigorous and stiff branching, reaching up to 8 x 8 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 13 x 13 feet. The leaves are larger, up to 2.5 inches in length. The deep orange flowers are also larger.

Berberis x lologensis
A large evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis darwinii & B. linearifolia and reaches up to 13 x 10 feet in 10 years and a maximum eventual size of 13 x 17 feet.
The 'Holly-like" leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The large orange flowers are borne in clusters of up to 7 during mid to late spring.
They are followed by oval, bluish-black berries in autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Chalk tolerant. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Stapehill'
A vigorous arching shrub reaching up to 13 x 15 feet with prolific deep orange flowers.

Berberis lycium ( Boxthorn Barberry )
A moderate growing large semi-evergreen shrub native to Nepal and Kashmir in the Himalayas that reaches a maximum size of 13 x 13 feet.
The smooth edged ( rarely toothed ) oblong leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are light green above, whitish-blue beneath.
The flower clusters, up to 3 inches in length, consist of up to 20 golden-yellow flowers during summer.
They are followed by a blue-purple berry, up to 0.4 inches in length, during autumn.
The slender stems are armed with short spines up to an inch in length.
Hardy zone 6 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis x mentorensis ( Mentor Barberry )
A dense, upright,fast growing deciduous to almost evergreen shrub reaching around 4 feet that is the hybrid between Berberis julianae & B. thunbergii. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 8 x 13 feet.
The toothed to smooth edged, elliptical leaves are up to 2 inches in length.
In cold climates where it is deciduous, the foliage turns to scarlet red in autumn.
The light yellow flowers are borne either singly or paired in early spring.
They are followed by oval red-brown berries.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Thrives in the Midwest and is very drought tolerant. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis x media 'Red Jewel'
Moderate growing, reaching a maximum size of 6.6 x 10 feet.
The very glossy, semi-evergreen foliage is deep bronze-red at first, turning to deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Berberis montanus
A very beautiful large deciduous shrub native to Chile and Argentina that can reach a maximum height of 17 feet.
The papery obovate leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are deep green.
The orange flowers are followed by mauve fruit.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy north to zone 6. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis nigricans
A tropical Barberry native to central America that can become a tree and reach a maximum height of 20 feet.
Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis nummularia ( Moneyleaf Barberry )
A large shrub native to Iran and central Asia that reaches a maximum size of 13 feet.
The rounded leaves are up to 1.3 x 1.3 inches in size.
The leathery foliage is purplish at first before turning to green.
The flowers are borne in long clusters, up to 2.8 x 1.6 inches in size.
They are followed by abundant scarlet red berries up to 0.4 inches wide.
The stems are armed with thorns up to 1.2 inch in length. The older branches are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and drought tolerant. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis x ottawensis ( Ottawa Hybrid Barberry )
A very vigorous large deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis thunbergii & B. vulgaris. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 20 x 17 feet.
The smooth edged, oval leaves, up to an inch in length, are medium green.
The light yellow flowers are borne in clusters of up to 10 during spring.
They are followed by oval red berries.
The stems are yellowish.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. It is prone to Black Stem Rust and cannot be used in agricultural areas where Wheat is grown.

'Silver Miles'
Young foliage is deep purple-red and heavily marked with silver, later turning more solid purple-red then to red in autumn.

'Supberba' ( Hybrid Purple Barberry )
Extremely vigorous with leaves, up to 2.3 inches in length, that are bronze at first turning to purple in summer then to red in autumn.

Berberis prattii
Also called Berberis polyantha. It is a very striking dense shrub native to Sichuan Province in western China that reaches a maximum size of 14 x 10 + feet.
The semi-evergreen, oval leaves, up to 1.7 inches in length, are clustered in whorls of up to 10. The leaves are typically smooth edged though sometimes have tiny spine tipped teeth. The foliage is medium green above, gray beneath.
The erect yellow flower clusters up to 8 inches in length during summer consist of up to 8 blooms each. They are followed by bright pink berries that persist until Febuary is not consumed by birds.
The stems are armed with small spines less than 0.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

'Laxipendula'
Huge flower and fruit clusters are up to 12 inches in length.

Berberis pruinosa ( Hollygreen Barberry )
An evergreen shrub native to Yunnan Province in China that reaches up to 10 x 6.5 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 13 x 10 feet.
The spine tip toothed, lance shaped leaves, up to 3.6 x 0.7 inches, are glossy deep green above and white beneath.
The light yellow flowers are borne in clusters of up to 25 during late spring.
They are followed by black berries that are densely covered in white bloom.
The stems are armed in spines up to 1.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Wind tolerant. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

Berberis replicata
An arching, evergreen shrub reaching up to 8 x 9 feet in 20 years. It makes a great barrier plant, especially for keeping deer out of a garden.
The very attractive foliage is linear and evergreen. The new foliage which is rich purple continues to be produced all summer. The older foliage is deep green which also turns to rich purple during winter.
The fragrant, bright yellow flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by black berries.
The stems are armed with yellowish spines.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. It is very easy to grow and is heat and humidity tolerant even in the deep south. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis x rubrostilla
A vigorous, arching, medium size, deciduous shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis aggregata & B. wilsoniae. Some records include: 5 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 6 x 8 feet.
The narrow oval leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are medium green above, gray beneath. The leaves typically have 6 spines on each side. The foliage turns scarlet-red in autumn.
The pale yellow flowers are borne in racemes of up to 4 during early summer.
They are followed by oval, translucent red fruits up to 0.7 inches in length during late summer into autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in sun to partial shade on light, fertile, well drained soil. Plants can be cut back hard immediately after flowering for renovation.
Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

'Barbarossa'
Vigorous and arching in habit, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 8 feet.
The leaves are narrowly-oval and deep green. The foliage is semi-evergreen.
The intense orange-red berries are borne profusely during late summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Berberis sanguinea
A slow growing, dense, arching, evergreen shrub native to Sichuan Province in China that can reach a maximum size of 10 x 12 feet.
The spine edged, linear leaves, up to 3 x 0.4 inches, are gray-green.
The yellow flowers are borne in clusters of 2 to 7 during late spring.
They are followed by black fruits in autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis sargentii ( Sargent Barberry )
A dense, erect, medium sized, evergreen shrub native to western China that reaches up to 8 x 8 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 9 x 8 feet.
The spine-toothed, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 5 x 1.3 inches have up to 25 spines on each side. The foliage is deep green above, yellow-green beneath, turning to red late in autumn.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne in clusters of up to 6 during late spring.
They are followed by oblong, bluish-black fruits, up to 0.3 inches in length.
The stems are armed with spines up to 2.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis shensiana ( Redtwig Barberry )
A medium-sized deciduous shrub native to China that reaches a maximum size of 7 feet.
The spiny-toothed leaves turn to red in autumn.
The yellow flowers are borne in pendulous clusters.
They are followed by purple fruits.
The twigs are bright red, later turning to deeper red.
Hardy north to zone 6. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis sibirica ( Siberian Barberry ) A thorny, spreading, xerophytic, deciduous small shrub, reaching up to 3.3 x 5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, that is native to Siberia; south to Mongolia to northeast China.
The bristle-tip margined, oblong or obovate leaves, up to 1 x 0.3 inches in size, are bright green at first, turning to deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by red berries, up to 0.4 x 0.3 inches in size.
The stems are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( est ) in full sun on very well drained soil.

Berberis sieboldii ( Siebold Barberry )
An attractive, rare, moderate growing, suckering, compact, rounded deciduous shrub native to Japan that reaches up to 5 x 4 feet in 10 years, its mature size is rarely more.
The somewhat bristly leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are reddish at first, turning to bright green. The foliage turns glowing scarlet-red during autumn.
The bright yellow flowers are borne in racemes up to 1.3 inches in length, during late spring.
They are followed by tiny glossy, deep red berries.
The glossy reddish-brown stems are sparsely armed with small weak spines.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun or partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Tolerant of coastal conditions. Unfortunately prone to Black Stem Rust and cannot be grown in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis soulieana ( Soulie Barberry )
A medium-sized deciduous shrub reaching up to 6.5 x 5 feet in 10 years.
The narrow leaves are up to 4 inches in length.
The abundant, small, yellow flowers are borne during spring.
The fruits, up to 0.2 inches, are pink ripening to purple-black covered in glaucous bloom.
Hardy north to zone 6. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis sphaerocarpa ( Sharoplodny Barberry )
Also called B. heteropoda. An arching, spreading, deciduous, medium-sized shrub, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet, that is native to mountains of central Asia ( Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan ).
The finely-toothed, elliptic or obovate leaves, up to 2.4 x 1.6 inches in size, are bright green above, turning to gray-green above, light green beneath.
Up to 10 showy, fragrant, golden-yellow flowers are borne on panicles during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, deep blue berries. The edible berries are very high in Vitamin C and can be dried for use in kebabs and rice pilaf.
The deep red stems are armed with 1 to 3 forked, purplish-red thorns up to 1.2 inches in length.

Berberis x stenophylla
A showy, graceful, dense, arching, vigorous, large evergreen shrub that is the hybrid between Berberis darwinii & B. empetrifolia. Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 17 feet. An excellent informal hedge that is trimmed after flowering.
An excellent hedge, though it is considered invasive in New Zealand.
The very narrow, spine-tipped, elliptic leaves, up to an inch in length, are deep green above, blue-gray beneath.
The profuse deep yellow flowers are borne in clusters of 7 to 14 during late spring.
They are followed by 0.2 inch black fruits covered in a blue bloom.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Drought tolerant. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

'Coccinea'
Reaches up to 4 x 3.3 feet with flowers that are deep red in bud opening to orange.

'Corallina Compacta'
A miniature reaching 3 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, bearing bright orange flowers that are red in bud.

'Cornish Cream'
Also called 'Lemon Cream'. Reaches up to 5 feet with deep green foliage and creamy-white flowers.

'Crawley Gem'
A dense, rounded shrub reaching up to 3.5 feet with reddish flowers.

'Irwinii'
Reaches up to 5 x 5 feet with golden-yellow flowers that are coral-red in bud.

'Pearl'
Reaches up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet. Foliage has white and pink variegation. Flowers are also pink or can be pink and cream.
It has a tendency to revert to all green if green shoots are not removed.

'Semperflorens'
Reaches up to 6.5 x 6.5 feet with flowers that are red in bud, opening to orange over a long season.

Berberis temolaica
A very striking, arching, fast growing, medium sized deciduous shrub native to southeast Tibet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 10 x 10 feet.
The toothed, oblong leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are very blue above, white beneath.
The solitary, bright yellow flowers, up to 0.5 inches across, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by red fruits, up to 0.8 inches, are covered in white bloom.
The stems, armed with short spines, are glaucous later aging to purple.
Hardy zones 5 to 9. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

Berberis thibetica ( Tibetan Barberry )
A large shrub closely related to Berberis thunbergii that is native to western China Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate- 5 feet; largest on record - 10 x 14 feet.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, appear very early in spring.
The red berries are large and are an added ornamental feature.
Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.
Hardy zones 6 to 8


* photo taken on March 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum



* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum





'Stearnii'
Bright red spring foliage.

Berberis thunbergii ( Japanese Barberry )
A rounded deciduous shrub native to Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 10 x 17 feet. Excellent for use in hedging. Though commonly planted in North America, in the east it does have invasive potential in many areas.
The smooth, oval leaves up to an inch in length are fresh green above and blue-green beneath. The foliage appears early in spring. In mild climates, the foliage may persist very late in autumn or even until early winter. During the mild December of 2011, many Japanese Barberries still had leaves just a week before Christmas.
The pale yellow flowers are borne in small racemes during mid spring.
They are followed by shiny red fruits, up to 0.4 inches, during late summer persisting through winter.
The stems are armed with short single spines.
It is often used for hedging.
Hardy zones 4 to 8; it will grow further north into zone 3 however as in Winnipeg, Manitoba is will be reduced to a foliage perennial. Berberis thunbergii even survives in much of Alberta. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown. Very easy to grow, they are virtually immune to pests and disease. Tolerates poor dry soil, compacted soil, clay, urban conditions as well as shade ( except forms with colored foliage will revert to green if lacking sun ). While drought tolerant, plants installed during the growing season will need generous water until they have a chance to develop a root system penetrating deep into the earth. Japanese Barberries are best planted during mid autumn to early spring; plants installed during late spring or summer will often drop their foliage if hot weather quickly follows. As for pruning you can do just about anything you want to a Japanese Barberry; they can be sheared but are usually allowed to grow their natural shape with a selective cut here or there to shape them. Old overgrown plants can be cut back to near groundlevel during early spring for renovation.
Many of the dwarf varieties collect litter, especially during fall. Often even a leaf blower won't work in removing this since the litter ( dried Oak leaves etc ) lodges on the thorns. I will typically prune off the lowest 4 inches of branches completely and remove any self layers thus making it easier to reach or rake under to give a neat appearance or get a good clean sweep with mulch.
Cultivars can be propagated from softwood or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

'Admiration'
Upright, bushy and broad in habit, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet.
The foliage is glossy, intense-red with a narrow bright yellow border.
The flowers are showier than average.

'Atropurpurea'
Similar except for attractive purple red stems and red-purple foliage that turns to red in autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Aurea'
Compact in habit, with golden-yellow spring foliage turns to lime green during summer. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 6 x 7 ( typically half ) feet.
The foliage often turns intense golden-yellow during autumn.
* photo taken on April 29 2012 in Ellicott City, MD



'Bagatelle'
A dense, compact, dwarf shrub typically only reaching a foot in height with burgundy foliage. Some records include: largest on record - 2.5 x 3 feet




* photo taken on June 22 2013 in Columbia, MD


'Bonanza Gold'
Low growing with bright yellow-green foliage. Some records include: largest on record - 2 x 3 feet.

* photos taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA



'Cherry Bomb'
Similar to 'Royal Burgundy' with a low compact habit and deep red foliage, however it is hardier in Alberta. Reaches up to 15 inches x 2.5 feet in 5 years.

'Concorde'
Low growing with rich red-purple foliage all season. Some records include: 10 years - 2 x 2.5 feet ( average ); largest on record - 3 x 5 feet. It is more compact with more superior, larger foliage than 'Crimson Pygmy'.
It makes an excellent low hedge.

* photo taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 12 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park


'Crimson Pygmy'
Semi-dwarf and dense, typically reaching up to 4 feet with foliage that is reddish-purple all season. Some records include: largest on record - 6 x 7 feet. While this is the most commonly sold "dwarf Barberry" it is not very consistent in growth habit and is inferior to more compact newer forms such as 'Concorde' and 'Royal Burgundy'.
With careful pruning, the Crimson Pygmy often has a very attractive, gnarled habit during the winter and it's purple stems add color to an often barren landscape.


















* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on April 27 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

'Emerald Caroussel'
Some records include: 6 years - 5 feet; 10 years - 7 x 7 feet.
Clean bright green foliage up to 3.5 inches in length all season long turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
Hardy north to zone 3

'Golden Nugget'
The golden-yellow leaf version of 'Bagatelle', only reaching up to 15 inches x 2 feet.

'Gold Piller'
Also called 'Maria'. A narrow, columnar form, reaching up to 5 x 4 ( rarely over 2 feet across ) feet. The foliage is orangish at first, turning bright-yellow to lime-green all summer long. In autumn, the foliage turns to glowing orange-red. The foliage does not burn in full sun.

* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Howard Co., MD


'Gold Ring'
Dense in habit, reaching up to 6 x 8 ( rarely over 4 x 6 ) feet, with foliage that is reddish-purple and variegated with a narrow golden-yellow margin.

'Helmond Piller'
Densely columnar in habit, reaching up to 6 x 2 feet in 5 years, eventually up to a maximum size of 10 x 6 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet.
The foliage is deep red.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

'Kobold'
Reaches up to 4 x 5 feet with rich glossy green foliage that turns to yellow in autumn.
Red berries in autumn.

'Red Chief'
Fast growing, reaching up to 9 x 9 feet with glossy wine-red foliage that is variegated pink.

'Red Pillar'
Columnar in habit with purple-red foliage. It can reach up to 5 feet x 8 inches in 10 years, eventually widening to 5 x 2 feet.

'Rose Glow'
Forms a dense, medium to large size bush with red-purple foliage that is flecked and edged with pink and silvery-white. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; largest on record - 8 x 9 ( averaging 5 ) feet. Exceptionally hardy, it even thrives in much of Alberta.

* photo taken on June 26 2011 in Bel Air, MD



'Royal Burgundy'
A low growing form with excellent form and deep red-purple foliage. In the Mid Atlantic, this form looks far better not requiring the frequent pruning of 'Crimson Pygmy' to keep it uniform in shape. Some records include: largest on record - 3.5 x 5 feet


* photo taken on Aug 4 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 9 2012 in Pine Grove, PA

* photos taken on Mar 22 2012 in Ellicott City, MD


* photo taken on June 18 2012 in Ellicott City, MD


'Royal Cloak'
A fast growing large shrub reaching up to 8 x 8 feet that is similar to Purple Smokebush in appearance.
The unusually large leaves, up to 2 x 2 inches, are red in spring turning to deep red-purple in summer.
The flowers are orangish-yellow.

'Ruby Carousel'
Reaches up to 3 x 4 feet with burgundy red foliage.
Hardy north to zone 3b

'Sparkle'
Reaches up to 4 x 5 feet. Profuse red berries in autumn.

'Sunsation'
An exceptionally hardy golden-yellow leaf form thriving even in Calgary, Alberta.
Some records include: 5 years - 20 inches x 2 feet.

'Thornless'
Forms a rounded bush up to 6 x 6 feet with no thorns and green foliage.

Berberis turcomanica
A fast growing, spiny, dense, arching to spreading, large deciduous shrub, reaching up to 15 x 15 feet, that is native to the mountains of Turkmenia in central Asia.
It is closely related to Berberis integerrima.
The obovate leaves are up to 1.8 x 1.2 inches in size. The attractive foliage is mid-green above, pale green beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers are borne up to 10 per raceme/panicle.
They are followed by reddish-purple fruits.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( estimate, it may be hardier through has not been fully tested outside its native range ). It is very tolerant of drought.

Berberis valdiviana
A luxuriant large evergreen shrub to small tree reaching around 15 feet that is native to Chile. Some records include: 3 years - 6 x 6 feet; 10 years - 17 x 10 feet; largest on record - 23 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The smooth, thick, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.3 inches, are lush deep green above, bright green beneath.
Up to 20 or even 30 bright orange flowers are borne in very showy long pendulous racemes during late spring.
They are followed by rounded black berries covered in blue bloom.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 thriving in the Pacific Northwest and the British Isles.
Prone to Black Stem Rust eliminating its use in agricultural areas where Wheat is grown.

Berberis verruculosa ( Warty Barberry )
A spiny, arching, fast growing but compact, evergreen shrub reaching up to 5 feet that is native to western China. Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 x 6.5 feet; largest on record - 7 x 10 feet. Excellent for hedging and use on banks.
The sparsely toothed, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green above, blue-white felted beneath.
The golden-yellow flowers borne singly or in pairs during late spring.
They are followed by purplish-black, oval berries covered in a blue bloom.
The warty shoots are armed with slender spines.
Hardy zone 3 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on light, fertile, well drained soil. Resistant to Black Stem Rust and is ok to plant in agricultural areas where wheat is grown.

* photos taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Berberis vulgaris ( European Barberry )
A large, spiny, deciduous shrub reaching around 7 feet that is native to Europe, temperate Asia, the Middle East and northern Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 12 x 12 feet.
The serrate margined, elliptical to oval leaves, up to 2 or rarely 3 x 1 inches are green.
Up to 20 yellow flowers are borne in a pendulous raceme during late spring.
They are followed by a showy fruit display.
Hardy zone 3 to 9. Unlike the similar Berberis thunbergii, the European Barberry is prone to rust which also infects wheat making it illegal to plant in agricultural areas in North America.

'Alba'
White fruits

subsp. 'Amurensis'
A larger form, reaching a maximum size of 17 feet, that is native to mountain woods from the Amur region of Russia to Japan. It is threatened in the wild.
It has larger leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, that are bright green above and white beneath, turning to red in autumn.
The flower clusters are larger, up to 4 inches in length.
They are followed by large clusters of red berries, persisting well into winter.
It is also sparsely spines.

'Atropurpurea'
Purplish-red foliage

'Lutea'
Yellow fruits

'Marginata'
Foliage is silver margined

Berberis wilsoniae ( Wilson Barberry )
A very spiny, dense, mounding, deciduous to semi-evergreen, dense, arching shrub reaching around 5 feet that is native to Yunnan and western Sichuan Provinces in China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 1 foot; 10 years - 8 x 10 feet; largest on record - 8 x 10 feet:
The oval leaves, up to 1.3 inches in length, are blue-green turning to orange and scarlet-red in autumn.
The light yellow flowers in clusters of 4 to 7 are borne in mid-summer.
They are followed by very profuse, translucent scarlet-red berries, up to 0.2 inches, that persist well into winter.
Hardy zones 3 to 9. it is unfortunately prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

'Joke'
Vigorous with large berries

'Orangeola'
Has striking red fruits up to 0.5 inches in length.

Berberis wisleyensis ( Three Spine Barberry )
An attractive, fast growing, medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet, that is native to central China. Some records include: 3 years - 3.5 feet. It makes a great barrier hedge, its spines are 3-parted.
The spine-tipped, smooth-margined, linear foliage is deep green above, bluish-white beneath; often turning purplish-red during severe winters.
The pale-yellow ( with red tinge ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne in clusters during spring.
They are followed by blue-black fruits, up to 0.4 inches in length.
The twigs are yellowish.
Hardy zones 5 to 8, it is tolerant of hot humid summers of the Mid Atlantic and upper southeastern U.S.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Berberis yunnanensis ( Yunnan Barberry )
A spiny deciduous shrub reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 feet that is native to Yunnan Province in China.
The slightly toothed to smooth edged leaves, up to 2.5 x 1 inches, are deep green above and felted gray beneath. The foliage turns scarlet-red in autumn.
The flowers appear in early summer.
They are followed by shiny red fruits.
Hardy zone 6 to 9. Prone to Black Stem Rust which can infect Wheat crops.

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