Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Tropical and Dry Climate Legume Trees

Legumes
One of the largest as well as most valuable families of plants in the world; they range from the gigantic Acrocarpus fraxinifolius to the extremely valuable agricultural crops of Soybeans, Beans and Peas to the Clovers and Alfalfa which are used as cover crops to replenish worn soil with nitrogen so that future crops can thrive. There is much research currently being done. Many species of Legumes enrich the soil and provide food and pharmaceutical chemicals which are currently not being used. If there is a family of plants that can feed the world; other than grain grasses nothing else comes close to the Legumes.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida.




Adenanthera colubrina
Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet; 6 years - 9 feet; 7 years - 12 feet; 10 years - 14 feet

Atelea cubensis
Some records include: 4 years - 8 feet; 5 years - 10 feet; 6 years - 15 feet; 9 years - 20 feet
Thrives in the extreme heat of Yuma.

Bauhinia

* historical archive photos


Bauhinia blakeana ( Hong Kong Orchid Tree )
A briefly deciduous, rounded, small tree, reaching up to 40 x 35 feet. Some records include: 1.5 years - 6 feet.
The 2-lobed, rounded leaves are bright green.
The tubular, white, pink or purple flowers are borne on terminal clusters during spring, repeating sporadically during late autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on moist, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. Pruning is important during the first few years to encourage structural integrity; this included shortening overreaching side branches. Propagation is from softwood cuttings.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida






Bauhinia bowkeri
A fast growing, evergreen shrub reaching a maximum height of 20 feet, native to South Africa.
The leaves are up to 1.5 x 2 inches. The flowers are white.
Hardy north to zone 8

Bauhinia divaricata
A small tree, reaching up to 20 feet.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 ( a form from Mexico is hardier to zone 9b tolerating 20 F ).

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



Bauhinia faberi
A shrub reaching a maximum height of 7 feet that is native to southwest China.
The leaves are up to 2.5 inches in length. The flowers are white.
Hardy north to zone 9 tolerating as low as 14 F

Bauhinia forficata
Also called Bauhinia candicans. A vigorous tree native to southern Brazil and northern Argentina.
Some records include: 4 years - 4 feet; largest on record - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The leaves, up to 5 x 3.5 inches fork into 2 narrow lobes.
The narrow petalled, white flowers are borne in clusters from the leaf axils during summer.
Hardy zones 9a to 12 tolerating as low as 12 F

Bauhinia foveolata ( Pore Leaved Bauhinia )
A huge vine up to 100 feet or more.
The leaves are very large, up to 14 inches across.

Bauhinia galpinii ( South African Orchid Bush )
An fast growing, evergreen large shrub to small tree with horizontal branching habit that is native to South Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 25 feet.
It is easily espaliered.
The rounded leaves, up to 3 x 3 inches, have 2 distinct lobed.
The leaves are deep green above and pale green beneath. The foliage becomes deciduous at 32 F or lower.
The showy bright red flowers, up to 3 inches, are borne in inflorescences from summer through late autumn.
They are followed by persistant, flattened, woody pods that are green ripening to brown.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 tolerating as low as 20 F. It may be grown as a perennial in zone 8. Seed germinates better if soaked overnight before sowing.

Bauhinia lunaroides ( Anacacho Orchid Tree )
A moderate growing, semi-evergreen, large shrub or small tree native to northeastern Mexico and the Anacacho Mountains of Texas where it is endangered. Some records include: 3 years - 4 feet; 6 years - 7 feet; 10 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 18 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches.
The attractive leaves are small ( up to 1 inch long ) and butterfly-like twin lobed.
The fragrant, orchid-like, white ( rarely pale pink ) flowers cover the bare branches in early spring. The blooms attract hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun or partial shade. Extremely drought and heat tolerant. Also very soil tolerant including of alkaline soils.

Bauhinia macranthera
A gracefully arching shrub reaching up to 8 x 12 feet.
Some records include: 10 years - 6.5 feet
The large, bi-lobed, glossy green leaves are excellent for tropical effect.
The exotic light purple flowers are borne intermittently throughout the year.
Hardy zones 8a to 10 tolerating as low as 4 F with no damage. Prefers hot sunny sites
on just about any well drained soil.

Bauhinia mexicana ( Mexican Orchid Tree )
A semi-evergreen tree reaching a maximum size of 27 x 25 feet.
The lush green leaves are up to 5 x 4 inches.
The flowers are white.
Hardy north to zone 9 tolerating as low as 16 F. Salt tolerant.

Bauhinia natalenis ( Natal Bauhinia )
A shrub reaching a maximum size of 8 x 10 feet that is native to South Africa.
The leaves, up to 1 inch, are 2 lobed.
The white flowers are up to 2 inches wide.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 tolerating as low as 20 F. It is drought tolerant.
Easy to rainse from seed.

Bauchinia punctata
An evergreen vine reaching up to 20 x 20 feet.
The flowers are red.
Hardy north to zone 9b

Bauhinia reticulata
Some records include: 2 years - 6 feet; 6 years - 12 feet; 8 years - 14 feet

Bauhinia thonningii
Some records include: 2 years - 6 feet; 7 years - 9 feet; 8 years 12 feet
Thrives in Yuma

Bauchinia variegata
A small, upright, rounded, semi-evergreen tree that is native to India and southern China. Some records include: 2 years - 12 x 8 feet; 8 years - trunk diameter of 6 inches; largest on record - 50 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The leaves are up to 3 inches wide.
The white, pink or purple flowers are borne on terminal panicles during early spring.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( tolerating 22 F ) in full sun on moist, acidic to neutral, well drained soil. Pruning is important during the first few years to encourage structural integrity; this included shortening overreaching side branches. Propagation is from softwood cuttings.

* photo taken on Jan 2011 in Deerfield Beach, Florida

Bauchinia yunnanensis ( Yunnan Bauhinia )
A large shrub to tendril climbing vine native to southeast Asia.
Hardy zone 9 to 12 ( zone 8b if protected ). Loves heat.

Bolusanthus specoisus
Some records include: 2 years - 12 feet; 4 years - 16 feet; 5 years - 18 feet; eventually up to 22 feet.
A foliage in perennial, reaching up to 10 feet in 5 years.

Bulnesia arborea

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida





Callictome villosa
Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet

Ceratonia siliqua ( Carob )
A moderate growing, dense, domed, medium-sized, evergreen tree, reaching up to 40 x 45 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 6 inches long, are composed of 4 to 10 obovate leaflets, up to 2 inches in length.
The creamy-white flowers are borne on upright racemes.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, it is extremely heat and drought tolerant and thrives in the desert southwest.

* historical archive photo


Colophospermum mopane
A small tree with atttrative horizontal branching and deep green leaves.
Some records include: 2 years - 4.5 x 6 feet; 7 years - 13 feet; 9 years - 17 feet; 12 years - 20 feet.
Thrives in Yuma

Dalea candidum
Also called Petalostemon candidum.
Reaches up to 28 inches.

Dalea purpureum
A very attractive bush clover.

Desmanthus illinoensis ( Prairie Mimosa )
A perennial plant native to prairies of the midwest U.S. ( North Dakota to Minnesota to Ohio; south to Colorado to Texas to Alabama ).
Thrives in full sun on just about any fertile, well drained soil.
Roots are known to contain DMT.

Desmodium cinerascens
Some records include: 2 years - 8 feet; eventually to 10 feet



Eysenhardtia orthocarpa ( Kidneywood )
A small tree that is native from southeastern Arizona into southwestern New Mexico; south to Sonora state in Mexico. Some records include: 2 years - 6 feet; 5 years - 12 feet; 8 years - 20 feet; 15 years - 25 feet; largest on record - 28 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.8 feet.
The leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of 21 to 41 leaflets, each up to 0.8 inches long.
Hardy at 15 F

Eysenhardtia polystachya

* historic archive photo


Eysenhardtia texana ( Texas Kidneywood )
A moderate growing, small tree, reaching up to 17 feet in height, that is native to southern Texas where it is nearly extinct, as well as northeastern Mexico. Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet; 5 years - 7.5 feet; largest on record - 27 x 21 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.1 feet.
The pinnate leaves are composed of 15 to 47 leaflets.
The white flowers appear during spring.
It is very tolerant of heat and alkaline soil.

Faiaherbia albida
An extremely vigorous, beautiful upright tree
Some records include: 2 years - 14 feet; 3 years - 25 feet; 4 years - 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; 5 years - 40 feet; 8 years - 45 feet; 9 years - 50 feet
Thrives in Yuma

Geoffroea decorticans
Some records include: 4 years - 6.5 feet; 11 years - 8 feet

Haematoxylum brasiletto
Some records include: 2 years - 9 feet; 5 years - 14 feet; 9 years - 19 feet; 10 years - 22 feet; 12 years - 25 feet
Thrives in Yuma

Havardia mexicana
Some records include: 2 years - 3 x 6 feet; 3 years - 9 feet; 4 years - 14 feet; eventually to 15 feet

Havardia sonorae
Some records include: 2 years - 9 feet; 5 years - 14 feet

Inga paterna

* photos taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida





Lonchocarpus capassa
Some records include: 2 years - 7 feet; 8 years - 23 feet
Thrives in Yuma

Lonchocarpus hermanii
Some records include: 3 years - 9 feet; 9 years - 20 feet


Medicago arborea
Some records include: 2 years - 4 feet

Mimosa distachya
Some records include: 3 years - 8 feet

Mimosa dysocarpa ( Velvetpod Mimosa )
A deciduous, medium-sized shrub, reaching up to 8 x 6 feet, that is native to the Sonoran Desert in Mexico. Some records include: 2 years - 4 x 6 feet; 3 years - 5 feet.
The flowers are pale pink.
Hardy zones 9 to 10 in full sun on well drained soil.

Mimosa emoryana
Some records include: 2 years - 3 x 5 feet;7 years - 7 feet; eventually 8 feet
Tolerates as low as 15 F

Mimosa ephedroides
Some records include: 3 years - 5 feet; 7 years - 7.5 feet
Hardy to 15 F in Tucson

Mimosa farinosa
Some records include: 2 years - 7 feet; 5 years - 11 feet; 9 years - 13 feet; 12 years - 17 feet.
Hardy to 15 F in Tucson

Mimosa palmeri
Some records include: 2 years - 9 feet; 3 years - 13 feet; 4 years - 15 feet; 10 years - 20 feet.
Hardy in Yuma

Mimosa strigillosa
Some records include: 2 years - x 15 feet; 2 years - x 25 feet.
Hardy north to 15 F in Tucson

Mimosa xantii
Some records include: 2 years - 8 feet; 5 years - 12 feet


Parachidendron pruinosum
Reaches up to 50 feet. The pinnate leaves are composed of up to 11 leaflets, up to 1 x 0.3 inches.
Hardy north to zone 9b. Soak seeds in boiling water before sowing.



Piscida mollis
Some records include: 8 years - 9 feet

Piscida piscipula
Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 feet.

* photos taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



Pterocarpus indica ( Burmese Rosewood )
Some records include: largest in Japan - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 28 inches.
Pterocarpus lucens
Some records include: 3 years - 6 feet; 5 years - 9 feet; 8 years - 12 feet.
An attractive tree in Yuma.

Pterogyne nitens
Attractive small tree where hardy.
In Tucson it is a 7 foot perennial that gets killed to the ground at 20 F

Retama reatam
Some records include: 4 years - 4 feet; 8 years - 6.5 feet; eventually up to 7 feet
Hardy to colder than 15 F at Tucson

Sabinia carinalis

* photo taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida


Schotia brachypetala
Some records include: 4 years - 3 feet; 9 years - 7 feet
Thrives in Yuma.

Sesbania drummondii
A large shrub native from Arkansas and Texas to Florida.
Some records include: 2 years - 10 feet; 4 years - 12 feet; largest on record - 20 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.1 inches.
The pinnate leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of up to 50 leaflets, up to 1 inch in length.
Hardy zones 9 to 10, growing in zone 8 as a perennial.
Fully hardy at 15 F in Tucson.

Sesbania grandiflora
Some records include: 3 years - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches; largest on record - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.

Sesbania punicea ( Orange Wisteria Shrub )
Some records include: largest on record - 13 x 8 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of 6 to 20 pairs of leaflets, up to 1 inch in length.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 tolerating as low as 20 F. It can also grow in zone 8 as a perennial. Potentially extremely invasive in Florida and California, it has also naturalized in parts of coastal North Carolina.

Sesbania sesban
An evergreen, small tree. Some records include: 1 st year - 17 feet; largest on record - 20 + feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
Leaves up to 6 inches in length.
The flowers are pale yellow.
They are followed by pods up to 10 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 11. It is easily grown from seed sown directly on site.

Sutherlandii frutescens ( Baloon Pea )
Some records include: 2 years - 3.5 feet; largest on record - 16 x 5 feet.
The pinnate leaves, up to 3.5 inches in length, are composed of 13 to 21 leaflets, up to 0.7 inches.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Tamarindus indica ( Tamarind )
A long-lived, large evergreen tree. Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 91 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.1 ( reports of even 10 ) feet; first season - 2 feet; 2nd year - 4+ feet; fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet. The pinnate leaves, up to 6 inches in length, are composed of 18 to 24 oblong leaflets up to 0.6 inches in length. The foliage is gray-green. Hardy zones 10 to 11. It requires 32 + inches of yearly rainfall. It is not prone to insect pests or disease.

* photo taken on Jan 11 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida


TIPUANA
A genus consisting of a single species of tree in the Acacia family.

Tipuana tipu ( Pride of Bolivia )
A fast growing, very beautiful, dense, spreading crowned tree reaching around 70 feet that is native to northern South America. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4+ feet; largest on record - 135 x 100 with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. It makes for an excellent shade and street tree in the tropics.
The pinnate leaves, up to 24 inches in length, are composed of 11 to 29 oblong leaflets, up to 2.5 inches in length. The deep green foliage is generally evergreen, but may become briefly deciduous during drought. Foliage is similar to that of the Black Locust.
The very showy orangish-yellow flowers are borne in profuse racemes at the branch tips during spring.
They are followed by winged, woody seed pods up to 4 inches in length.
The bark is reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 tolerating as low as 18 F. Prefers full sun on fertile, moist, well drained soil. Propagation is from seed that is sandpapered then left in water for 24 hours before sowing.

VIRGILIA
A small genus of trees native to South Africa. It prefers full sun on light, well drained soil. It likes summer irrigation and hates shallow clay soil where it may be unstable. Young trees are less tolerant of frost than mature trees.
Propagation is from seed which should be soaked in hot water for a day before sowing.

Virgilia divaricata
A fast growing, rounded spreading small evergreen tree native to South Africa.
Some records include: 6 years - 27 feet; largest on record - 40 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It typically lives only around 20 years.
The leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of up leaflets, up to
The foliage is smooth, deep green above, lighter beneath.
The pink flowers are borne in dense clusters during spring.
They are followed by
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Virgilia oroboides ( Cape Lilac )
Also called Virgilia capensis. A very fast growing, broadly conical, evergreen tree native to the southwest coast of South Africa. Some records include: 2 years - 15 feet; largest on record - 59 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The Cape Lilac is generally short lived. It has been grown in England, only surviving outdoors in Cornwall, where it has reached over 25 feet.
The alternately arranged leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 11 to 31 leaflets.
The lightly fragrant, rosy-purple flowers are borne in clusters during spring, sometimes repeating during summer.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 preferring Mediterranean climates with winter rainfall. Tolerant of exposed sites and poor soil.

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