Sunday, January 17, 2010

Beauty Berry

Callicarpa

A genus of close to 140 species of trees and shrubs that are relatives of the Verbena.
They prefer full sun to partial shade on most soils as long as it is moist and well drained. Callicarpas are very tough and easy to grow.
They can be pruned in winter, after the fruit has fallen. Many species are cut back to a height of 4 inches during this time. This improves fruit production since it is produced on vigorous new wood.
Callicarpas are not often bothered by pests or disease and the foliage remains very healthy into autumn. Plants are heavier fruiting when 2, 3 or more plants are grown together. Overgrown plants can be cut to 1 foot in height during early spring.
Propagation is from soft or half-hardened cuttings which easily root or seed sown in spring.

* photos taken on October 15 2010 in Howard County, MD


* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Callicarpa americana ( American Beauty Berry )
A deciduous ( evergreen in zone 10 ) shrub reaching around 8 or 9 feet, native to the southeast U.S. from Oklahoma to south-central Missouri to southern Maryland; south to Mexico to Florida. The largest on record is 17 x 12 feet and it can reach up to 4 feet in a single season if cut back to ground by a severe winter. Being that it is a natural insect repellent, mosquitos generally avoid it.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 9 inches in length, are deep green above, white to rust felted beneath. The foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The violet flowers are followed by profuse densely clustered intense purple-pink berries. It flowers on first year wood meaning it will bear fruit even if it freezes to the ground during winter.
The shoots are downy.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 though may survive in zone 5 ( esp native Missouri population ) as a perennial if mulched. It thrives in sun or shade and prefers hot humid summers. Tolerant of drought, salt, flooding and even heavy, wet soil. For large foliage and improved berry displays they are often cut to within 2 feet of the ground in March even in mild climates.
Rarely bothered by insects, unfortunately deer will eat it.

* photos taken on Nov 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Alba'
White fruits, otherwise identical to species.

* photos taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD


'Welsh's Pink'
Glowing bright pink berries; otherwise identical to species.

Callicarpa ampla
A tree reaching a maximum size of 50 feet that is native to mid elevation forests of Puerto Rico where it is endangered.
The entire leaves, are up to 10 x 3 inches and are green above and white beneath.
Hardy zones 11 to 12.

Callicarpa bodinieri ( Bodinier Beauty Berry )
A deciduous shrub native to western and central China that reaches around 8 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 12 x 10 feet; largest on record - 15 x 20 feet. It is the Asian counterpart to the native Callicarpa americana. It reaches up to 4 feet as a dieback perennial.
The toothed, broadly-elliptical leaves are up to 8 x 4 inches in size. The deep green foliage turns to yellow in autumn.
The flowers are lilac pink in clusters up to an inch across. They are followed by profuse violet-purple berries where persist all winter. The berries are very bitter tasting but not poisonous. Birds do not like the berries and will only eat them if there is nothing else around.
Hardy zone 6 to 9 tolerating as low as -20 F. It may be grown as far north as zone 4 as a perennial rather than shrub.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


subsp 'giraldii' ( Girald Beauty Berry )
Larger growing, reaching a maximum of 17 feet with very abundant autumn berries which persists all winter. The deep green foliage turns to red and red-purple late in autumn.

* photos taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD


'Profusion'
Similar except for very large foliage which is bronze at first in spring.
The very abundant fruits are borne in larger, denser clusters of up to 40.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


Callicarpa dichotoma ( Purple Beauty Berry )
A very vigorous deciduous shrub native to eastern China and Korea that reaches around 6 feet or more. Some records include: fastest growth rate recorded - 7 feet; 3 years - 7 x 5 feet; largest on record - 14 x 12 feet.
The toothed oval leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The pink flowers during early summer are followed by purple berries.
Hardy zone 5 to 10 ( zone 4 if sheltered though may die back in harsh winters ). The Japanese Beauty Berry usually takes a few years after planting to reach quality fruit set and often varies from year to year.

* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




* photo taken on July 10 2013 in Ellicott City, MD
* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 13 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Albifructus'
Similar, except for bearing white fruits.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Duet'
The striking foliage is deep green in the center with a broad white margin.
Vigorous growing, reaching up to 7 x 8 feet in 5 years, eventually more.
The berries are white and extremely attractive after the leaves drop in autumn if planted in front of a dark background.
Fully hardy to -20 F

* photo taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Sep 1 2011 in Howard Co, MD

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Early Amethyst'
The bright purple berries ripen up to 2 weeks earlier than average.

'Issai'
Spectacular abundant autumn fruit set. It is more compact, reaching around 4 x 6 feet in 10 years.
The leaves are also smaller giving it a more refined look.

* photo taken on Oct 28 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 7 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Spring Gold'
Spring foliage is bright golden-yellow before turning to green. Otherwise identical.

Callicarpa japonica ( Japanese Beauty Berry )
A fast growing, deciduous shrub that is a widespread native to eastern China, Korea and Japan. It reaches a maximum size of 17 x 12 feet though typically 5 x 5 feet in 10 years. It reaches up to 4 feet as a dieback perennial.
The very finely-toothed, taper-pointed, elliptical to obovate leaves, up to 8 x 4 inches in size, are mid-green. The leaves can be used in the making of herbal tea.
The light pink flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne in axilliary clusters, up to 1.3 inches across, during early summer.
They are followed by abundant, showy violet berries during autumn.
The smooth bark is deep grayish-brown.
Hardy zone 5 to 8 ( seed source from Liaoning Province should be tested in 4 ). Requires hot summers for good fruit set.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


'Leucocarpa'
Identical except for the berries which are white and look spectacular against a dark background.

'Luxurians'
Larger leaves, up to 10 ( rarely over 8 ) inches in length.

Callicarpa kwangtungensis ( Kwangtung Beauty Berry )
A fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 8 feet in height, that is native to southern China.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 10.5 x 2 inches in size. The very attractive leaves are deep green with a red midrib.
The pinkish-white flowers during early summer are borne on clusters up to 1.3 inches across.
They are sometimes followed by violet berries during autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( possibly 5 as a dieback perennial ).

Callicarpa macrophylla ( Bigleaf Beauty Berry )
One of the larger species of Callicarpa that is a widespread native of the Himalayas. It is a fast growing, evergreen, large shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.
The large, elliptical leaves, up to 14 x 4.5 inches in size, are hairy white beneath. A herbal drink can be made from the leaves.
The tiny, purplish-pink flowers are borne on showy, large flowerheads during autumn.
They are followed by white drupes. The fruits on this species are edible if the seeds are removed.
Hardy zone 9 to 11

Callicarpa mollis ( Fuzzy Beauty Berry )
A large deciduous shrub native to Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4.5 feet; largest on record - 15 x 10 feet.
The toothed, ovate or oblong leaves, up to 6.5 x 2 inches in size, are mid-green.
The pale pink flowers are borne in axilliary clusters during early summer.
They are followed by bright purple berries during autumn.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

Callicarpa pedunculata
A medium size evergreen shrub reaching a maximum height of 13 feet, is native from India to tropical regions of Australia.
The leaves are up to 7 x 1.3 inches in size.
The pink flowers are borne on axilliary clusters.
They are followed by berries that range from white to dark rosy-purple.
Hardy zone 10 to 12

Callicarpa pilosissima ( Taiwan Beautyberry )
A deciduous to semi-evergreen shrub, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet in height, that is native to Taiwan.
The fuzzy lance-shaped leaves are up to 12 x 3 inches in size.
The small flowers are followed by small white berry clusters.
The stems are fuzzy.
Hardy zones 8 to 9, thriving in the hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S.

Callicarpa 'Purple Pearls'
A fast growing, upright shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet. It is a hybrid between Callicarpa dichotema and C. kwantungensis.
The large leaves are purplish in color.
The flowers are pink.
The very large berries are purplish-violet.
Hardy zones 6 to 8b.

Callicarpa rubella ( Chinese Beauty Bush )
A compact, semi-evergreen shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6 feet that is a widespread native of southern China and southeast Asia. As a dieback perennial, it reaches up to 4 feet.
The ovate leaves, up to 9 x 4 inches, are bright yellow-green.
The pink flowers are borne in dense heads, up to 1.6 inches wide, during early summer.
They are followed by purple-red berries, ripening during mid-summer, persisting into late autumn.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 as a shrub, zones 6 to 9 as a perennial.

Callicarpa shikokiana ( Shikoku Beauty Berry )
Also called Callicarpa yakusimensis. A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 6 x 6 feet in size, that is native to southern Japan.
The elliptical leaves are bright green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The pale pink flowers are borne on axilliary clusters towards the stems tips.
They are followed by abundant bright purple berries during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun to partial shade.

No comments:

Post a Comment