Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Cycads



Ceratozamia

Ceratozamia hildae
Reaches up to 6 feet in height.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 15 F ). It thrives as far north as Gainesville and Jacksonville, Florida.

Ceratozamia koesteriana
A slow growing native of Mexico, reaching up to 6 x 7 feet. Hardy north to zone 8 ( tolerating as low as 18 F, lower on protected sites )

Ceratozamia latifolia

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Ceratozamia miquelianum

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Ceratozamia norstogii

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Cycas


CYCAS

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 @ Rawlings Conservatory, Baltimore, MD


Cycas circinalis

* photos taken on November 2009 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida


* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* historical archive photo


Cycas panzhihuaensis ( Dukou Sago )
A hardy Cycad that with heavy feeding is very fast growing with up to 3 flushes per year and growing a trunk up to 2 feet tall within 5 years from seed. It reaches an eventual maximum size of 10 x 7 feet, with a trunk up to 6 feet in height. Dukou Sago is native to dry wooded slopes in southern Sichuan and Yunnan provinces in China where it is endangered.
The leathery foliage is very glossy deep blue-green. The leaves, up to 4 feet, consist of 140 to 280 leaflets, each up to 9 x 0.3 inches in size. Each plant may have up to 80 leaves or fronds.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. Dukou Sago is very tolerant of drought and alkaline soil. There are reports of zone 7 survival on protected sites, however with near total winter leafkill ( some winter mulch and a site along a warm south facing wall to prevent deep soil freeze will definately increase your chances of survival with growing this plant in cool climates ). Winter damaged plants may not sprout new foliage until late spring, so don't be quick to give up and remove your Dukou Sago Palm.
They thrive in the mildest parts of the British Isles. Dukou Sago is enjoys hot humid summers and flourishes in the southeastern U.S.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


Cycas revoluta ( Sago Palm )
A slow growing, very primative plant growing up to 6 x 5 feet in 25 years, and eventually to 13 x 16 ( typically half that ) feet. Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Extremely long-lived, it can live up to 1000 years.
Its leaves are extremely glossy, lush, mid green fronds up to 8 feet long and are composed of hundreds of sharp tip narrow leaflets up to 6 inches long.
Native from the southern islands of Japan through Java, it can tolerate temperatures as low as 15 F ( reports of 5 F survival but it defoliates at 10 ) and as high as 120 F. Generally it grows best in full sun however in desert areas it does benefit from some afternoon shade. It is a tough urban plant as long as it has well drained soil. It is moderately salt tolerant, pure sand and very drought tolerant. Fertilize heavily in April before the 1 early growth spurt.



* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo


Cycas taitungensis ( Emperor Sago )
Very similar in appearance to Cycas revoluta to which it is closely related, but is much faster growing with larger ( in both length and width ) leaflets. It is endangered in its native Taiwan, and its numbers continue to decline to Cycad Aulacaspis Scale which was accidently introduced to the island in 2004. the Emperor Sago reaches up to 20 feet in height, with a trunk up to 1 foot across. It is among the fastest growing Sagos. Compared with Cycas revoluta, the Emperor Sago will usually flush new growth twice a year rather than once and can grow huge, up to 10 feet across, in just 5 years. The leaves are up to 6 feet in length, and consist of 150 to 170 leaflets, up to 7 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is luxuriant deep green. Hardy zones 8b to 11 ( with reports of even zones 8a hardiness with established plants on protected sites with winter mulch ) in sun or shade though young plants prefer partial shade. The foliage may be damaged at temperatures below 20 F however the stems are much hardier on plants that are well established. The Emperor Sago is easy to grow if giving very well drained soil and a climate with hot humid summers. The Emperor Sago thrives very well in the Deep South and milder parts of Texas ( Austin and south ) as well as Southern California ( with some irrigation ) in the United States.

DIOON

* photo taken on Jan 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida

Dioon edule
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( tolerating 19 F ) in full sun to partial shade. It is moderately salt tolerant.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Dioon spinulosum
A huge Cycad, reaching up to 30 feet or more.
Hardy zones 9b to 11 ( tolerating 21 F ) in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


ENCEPHALARTOS
A genus of Cycads of around 100 species from Africa ( mostly South Africa ) that enjoy a 2 inch mulch and a good regular fertilization. The roots can survive fire. Propagation is by seed in spring.
High pressure irrigation systems can kill leaves and stems.
These truly prehistoric evergreen plants have been on the earth for 60 million years.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.



* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Encephalartos altensteinii ( Prickly Cycad )
A strong, very slow growing, large Cycad, reaching a maximum size of 45 x 22 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet, that is native to coastal parts of South Africa. It suckers at the base and often forms a clump. Very long-lived; it can persist for 600 years or more.
The leaves, up to 12 feet in length, are composed of narrow leaflets, up to 6 inches in length, that are glossy green.
The red seeds are contained within a large yellow seedcone, up to 20 inches in length.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, tolerating as low as 26 F

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photo of unknown internet source


Encephalartos ferox
Endangered in the wild, it is native to hot valleys in South Africa though it can also grow in shade on sand dunes.
Slow growing eventually developing a trunk and appearing like a Palm tree reaching up to 7 x 12 feet. The maximum trunk size is 7 feet tall and 1 foot in diameter and the plants can spread up to 9 feet in 8 years.
The leaves are up to 7 feet long with dark green, leathery, spine tip leaflets up to 6 x 2 inches.
Requires deep, sandy, light, well drained soil in partial shade and a climate with 40 to 80 inches of rainfall per year. Some ventilation is good. Saline air tolerant making it a good choice for Maritime locations.
Hardy north to zone 9 tolerating 18 F.

* photos of unknown internet source



Encephalartos frederici ( White Haired Cycad )
Vigorous and easy to grow, reaching up to 13 feet tall with a trunk up to 2 feet in diameter. The leaves are up to 5 feet in length with leaflets up to 7 inches. Hardy north to zone 8b and prefers climates with 15 to 50 inches of yearly rainfall with most of it in summer. Snow tolerant.

Encephalartos ghallinckii
To 10 feet in height with leaves up to 3.3 feet long with leaflets up to 5.5 inches.

Encephalartos gratus
Some records include: largest on record - 8 x 15 feet

Encephalartos hildebrandtii
A large Cycad native to seasonally dry forests of Kenya and Tanzania in Africa.
It has a trunk reaching a maximum height of 20 feet with a diameter of 2 feet.
The leaves, up to 10 feet in length, are composed of up to 240 sharply-toothed, glossy deep green leaflets, up to 9 inches in length. The leaves are woolly at first.
The yellow, orange and red seeds are contained within a yellow seed cone up to 2 feet in length.
Hardy zones 9b to 12, tolerating as low as 24 F



Encephalartos horridus ( Cape Blue Cycad )
A dwarf Cycad, reaching a maximum height of 6 feet, that is native to South Africa.
It is made of very stiff, arching leaves, up to 4 x 1 feet, are composed of leaflets, up to 4 inches in length, that are blue-gray and tipped in fierce spines.
The cones are a warm orangish-brown.
Hardys 9 to 10, tolerating as low as 19 F, requiring hot summers and rainfall between 10 and 28 inches per year on average.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Encephalartos inopinus ( Lydenburg Cycad )
Clumping with 3 to 8 stems up to 13 feet long. Suckers heavily. Hardy north to zone 9 and prefers sun to partial shade in climates with over 15 inches of rain per year with the most falling during the summer.

Encephalartos latifrons ( Albany Cycad )
Fast growing to 10 feet tall with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. The leaves are shiny dark green on this endangered Cycad. Prefers mediterranean climate.

Encephalartos lawrentianus
A large Cycad native to Africa from eastern Congo to northern Angola, that has been around since prehistoric times. It is fast growing with a trunk that can reach a maximum height of 66 feet. The leaves, up to 25 feet in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 20 x 2 inches.
Very drought tolerant, surviving on as little as 3 inches of rainfall in a year.

Encephalartos lebombensis ( Lebombo Cycad )
Forms clumps up to 13 feet with up to 8 stems. Endangered. Hardy north to zone 9 preferring sun to partial shade.

Encephalartos lehmanii ( Karoo Cycad )
Very beautiful Cycad with a trunk up to 9 feet tall and 16 inches in diameter and blue leaves up to 5 feet in length with leaflets up to 8 inches.
The cones are up to 14 x 4 inches.
Hardy north to zone 8b and tolerates heavy frost. Requires full sun to partial shade and rainfall above 10 inches per year. Do not overwater.


* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Encephalartos longifolius
To 15 feet in height with up to 10 stems. The leaves are up to 6.6 feet in length with leaflets up to 8 inches in length in a distinct V shape pattern. Tolerates as low as 26 F

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* historical archive photo


Encephalartos manikensis
Some records include: largest on record - 8 x 12 feet.
Hardy zones 9+

Encephalartos natalens
A large clumping Cycad, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet ( combined multiple stems ), and up to 11 stems.
The leaves, up to 12 feet in length, are composed of leaflets, up to 10 inches, that are glossy green.
Hardy to as low as 23 F

Encephalartos paucidentatus
Vigorous, to 20 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The leaves are glossy dark green and up to 8 feet long. Prefers partial shade to shade.

Encephalartos princeps
Forms clumps up to 13 x 12 feet in size with up to 15 stems. Tolerates as low as 15 F

Encephalartos senticosus
Some records include: largest on record - 14 x 12 feet.
Hardy zones 9+

Encephalartos transvenosus
A large Cycad reaching a maximum size of 43 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter up to 3 feet and living up to 300+ years. The leaves, up to 8 feet in length, are composed of leaflets up to 10 x 2 inches. Fast growing for a Cycad, a 4 year old plant will have leaves up to 3.5 feet in length.
Hardy zones 9 to 10. Good in wet climates.

* photo of unknown internet source


Encephalartos villosus

* photo of unknown internet source


Encephalartos woodii
Extremely endangered and native to South Africa. It can reach up to 25 x 16 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Extremely vigorous and handsome with leaves up to 10 feet in length with up to 150 deep green leaflets up to 10 x 2 inches in size.
The fruits are up to 48 x 8 inches and are formed every 3 years.
Prefers rich, well drained soil with a weekly soaking during summer; in part shade to shade. Hardy zones 8 to 10.

Lepidozamia hopei ( Hope's Cycad )
A very large Cycad, reaching a maximum size of 50 x 21 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet. It is very long-lived, persisting up to 1000 years.

Lepidozamia peroffskyana
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 18 F ).

Macrozamia
Native to Australia; there are 38 species in this genus which is part of the larger Cycad family. They mostly prefer deep, sandy, well drained soil that is moist during the growing season.
They can be reproduced from sowing fertile seed as soon as it ripens.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, D.C.

* photo of unknown internet source


Macrozamia communis ( Burrawang )
A native of New South Wales in Australia; this Cycad reaches a maximum size of 12 x 15 feet though typically it does not develop much of an above ground trunk and remains much shorter in stature.
The leaves are bright green and up to 7 feet in length.
There are up to 100 leaves on a plant.
There are up to 130 leaflets on a leaf and they are thick and up to 14 inches in length.
Tolerant of light frost; the Burrawang is hardy from zones 8b to 11 tolerating as low as 15 F. Very drought tolerant but prefers partial shade especially when young.

* photo of unknown internet source


Macrozamia fawcetii
Leaves reaching up to 5 x 2 feet. Hardy north to zone 9b

Macrozamia hopei
The largest of the Macrozamias; reaching up to 65 feet.

Macrozamia johnsonii
Moderate growing, reaching up to 5 feet. Tolerating as low as 15 F

Macrozamia macdonnellii
Native to the central Australian desert and reaching up to 10 feet. The leaves are up to 7 feet in length with sharp, rigid leaflets up to 12 x 0.5 inches.
Prefers full sun.

Macrozamia miguellii
Slow growing, reaching up to 3 feet. Tolerating as low as 18 F

Macrozamia moorei ( Giant Burrawang )
A giant spectacular Cycad looking like Phoenix canariensis.
It is native to the east coast of Australia; and this giant tree like Cycad can reach a maximum size of 30 x 20 feet with a rounded crown and a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet though on average it will only be about 6 feet in 90 years.
The bright to blue green leaves are up to 10 x 2.5 feet in size and have up to 100 leaflets.
The barrel shaped female cones are up to 30 inches in length and can range from single up to 8 on a plant.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 and tolerates as low as 10 F. Prefers full sun.

Macrozamia riedlei ( Burrawang )
Native to southwestern Australia as an understory Eucalyptus forest plant and usually has underground trunks reaching only about a foot above ground. Occasionally it does however develop a thick trunk above ground and this Cycad will then reach up to 15 x 7 feet in size.
The foliage up to 7 feet long is glossy mid to deep green. The leaflets number up to 150 and are up to 10 inches in length. The leafstalks are spineless.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 and prefers full sun.

Zamia
A genus of close to 55 species of mostly clumping tropical Cycads. Most are easy to grow on well drained soil and can be propagated from fresh seed ( also division of offsets ). The seeds are poisonous and can kill dogs.

Zamia furfuracea ( Cardboard Palm )
It is a small, clumping Cycad, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 8 feet ( with a short trunk up to 8 inches in diameter ), that is native to limestone cliffs and sandy coastal areas of Mexico.
The spiny stemmed leaves are composed of up to 40 stiff, leathery, broad leaflets, up to 8 x 3 inches, that are deep green.
The seeds are pink to red.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil though especially likes sand.

* photo taken on November 2009 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida







Zamia pumila ( Florida Coontie )
Also called Zamia integrifolia. It is a small Cycad, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet, that is native to southern Georgia and Florida in the southeast U.S., the Bahamas, western Cuba and the Caribbean. This is among the best high groundcovers for mass planting where it is adapted.
The thornless leaves, up to 5 feet in length, are composed of up to 60 very stiff, leathery narrow, leaflets, up to 7 x 0.7 inches, that are deep green.
The seeds are orangish-red, maturing during autumn and persisting well into winter.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 7 F ) in partial shade ( tolerates full sun if there is no reflected heat ) on well drained soils. It is one of the very few Zamia's that grow in both the tropics as well as warm temperate climates. Tolerant of salt spray and alkaline soil.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2010 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

'Palatka Giant'
Larger than average, with leaves up to 5 feet high.

Zamia hildae
The fastest growing Zamia, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 5 feet, that is native to northeast Mexico. The erect leaves are up to 6 feet in length.
Hardy zones 8b to 9, in 1990 severe frosts severely burned plants in Texas, they regrew the following summer.

Zamia loddigesii
Hardy zones 9a to 11.

Zamia portoriaensis
Hardy zones 9 to 11 ( tolerating as low as 18 F with little damage.

Zamia tamasunchale
An extremely rare Zamia, native to Mexico, that reaches a maximum size of 3 x 6 feet.
Hardy zones 8b to 10, it is hardy in Gainesville, Florida and probably further north.

Zamia vasquezii
Hardy zones 9b to 11 ( tolerating as low as 24 F ).
Zamia zamiofolia
A Cycad with frond, up to 3 feet in length, with alternate glossy deep green leaflets.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade. Drought tolerant.

2 comments:

  1. Cycads in north Florida had much frond damage from the prolonged cold spell in January. I saw some in Tallahassee that were totally brown. Time will tell whether the roots were killed.

    ReplyDelete
  2. I'm interested in knowing on whether they actually do come back. I'm also going to look up the extreme minimum temperature in Tallahasee this winter.

    ReplyDelete