Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Linden

The Lindens are a genus of 45 species of upright single trunked trees native to North America and most of temperate Eurasia.
Most Lindens have heart shaped bright green spring foliage that turns to medium green in summer then to golden yellow in autumn.
The flowers of Linden can be used for herbal tea. Linden tea makes an excellent bedtime drink being that it is a mild sedative or tranquilizer.
Lindens are often buzzing with Honeybees during the bloom season. Only a fool would complain. Linden Honey is among the best Honey you can find and the Honey Bees usually stick around to pollinate other valuable plants.
Some species are grown for their limber. Lindens sprout readily from stumps when cut down during the dormant season. They can be coppiced or cut in 10 to 25 year rotation for using for poles.
Linden wood is evenly grained, soft and light. The wood is acoustically dead making it a prized timber for guitar makers. It is also valued by cabinetmakers and wood carvers.
The wood does not make good firewood, giving off only around 14 million Btu per cord.
The main complaint commonly heard about Lindens is of honeydew collecting beneath the trees coating surfaces and cars. Honeydew is the result of aphids feeding on the leaves. For this reason, many people would rather not have a Linden next to a driveway or a patio; however they still make a great lawn tree. The aphids do not harm the Lindens much, rather they stimulate nitrogen fixing bacteria in the soil beneath therefor increasing the growth of the tree.
The Lindens prefer deep, moist, fertile, well drained soil in sun to partial shade and do tolerate both acidic and alkaline soil very well. The Lindens have a deep, wide root system and ALL Lindens easily become stunted on shallow soil. They do not like soil compaction and many do not like pollution either.
Young trees should be pruned to a single leader and feathered ( spacing limbs ).
Suckers should be removed.
Most Lindens can be prone to gypsy moth, leaf anthracnose and aphids though this varies upon year, species and of course vigorous trees are often less susceptible.
Propagation of species is from seed which germinate best after soaking 24 hours in hot water then stratified. The seeds have a hard coat and may take 2 to 3 years to germinate ( unless hard seed coat is removed through acid scarification ) and need shade in the first year. Cultivars are reproduced from cuttings.

* photos from unknown source on internet


* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 in Columbia, MD

* historical archive photos


Tilia americana ( American Linden )
A large, very dense, rounded crowned, upright tree reaching around 70 feet that is native to rich woods of eastern North America ( from Alberta to southern Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Batchewana, Ontario to Haileybury, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick; south to the Gulf Coast. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 4 years ( after seedling stage ) - 20 feet; 10 years - 43 x 27 feet; 20 years - trunk diameter of 17 inches; 100 years - trunk diameter of 5.1 feet; largest on record - 170 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.4 feet; largest in Ontario - 70 x 5.7 ft. diam. in Alderboro Twp., Elgin Co.; largest in PA - 95 x 100 x 8 feet in Pottsville; largest in MI - 8 ft. diameter in Kalamazoo; largest in Colorado - 90 feet; largest in North Dakota - 75 x 65 feet. Pre 1900 extremely large American Linden were common in the Ohio Valley.
The toothed, taper-pointed, heart-shaped leaves are large for a Linden, to 10 x 10 inches in size or sometimes even larger. In 2000 one sucker shoot in the Canard River Valley outside Amherstburg, Ontario bore leaves are large as 17 x 14 inches. The foliage is glossy deep green above and downy, light green beneath. The foliage appears early in spring and turns to golden-yellow during autumn.
Up to 10 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.5 inches across are borne in pendulous clusters during early summer. They are are accompanied with oblong green bracts up to 5 x 1.3 inches.
The flowers are later replaced by round, pale gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches across that last into winter.
The slender twigs are brown and zigzag.
The light brown bark cracks into long scaly ridges.
The wood is light and strong. Its timber is valuable for many purposed, including guitars.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 ( zones 2 in some cultivars or far northerly seed source ). This extremely hardy tree is known to be cultivated as far north as Juneau, Alaska. Seed from native populations in Manitoba were fully hardy in trials in Brandon, Manitoba and grew fairly well at Indian Head, Sask. where seed source from east of the Great Lakes did not survive the winters.
The American Linden requires hot summers. Seed grown trees are slow to start, reaching only 2 inches in the first year and often only 4 inches in the second year. Growth after that speeds up quickly. Seedling trees require shade though older American Lindens thrive in sun or partial shade. Poplar trees can be planted temporarily to protect young Linden plantations. Young trees should be trunk wrapped in winter to prevent damage from voles and rabbits which eat the bark and can girdle and kill the tree. Japanese Beetles feed on the leaves and can result in a very ugly tree by mid summer, in areas where lawns are treated with milky spore this tends to much less frequently occur.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.



* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Audubon Sanctuary in Maryland



* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA





* photo taken on Mar 28 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 in Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Apr 12 2015 in Mt Airy, MD

* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor, Columbia, MD

* photo taken by W.R. Mattoon @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Ampelophylla'
Large lobed foliage

'Continental Appeal'
Fast growing, tall and upright, with a moderately wide, upright canopy.
The attractive large foliage is glossy deep green above and silvery beneath ( it may actually be a cultivar of T. heterophylla ).
It is more pest and disease resistant than the species and is tolerant of harsh conditions.

'Dropmore'
May be a hybrid with Tilia cordata; very fast growing and pyramidal, reaching up to 100 feet.
The foliage turns golden-yellow during autumn.
Hardy north to zone 2, thriving on the northern Great Plains, including Alberta.

'Fastigiata'
Forms a narrow columnar to conical tree, reaching a maximum size of 70 x 40 feet.

'Glenleven'
May be a hybrid with Tilia cordata; very fast growing and pyramidal, reaching up to 100 feet. Known to reach 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches in just 16 years.
The foliage turns golden yellow in autumn. Hardy north to zone 3.

* photo taken on July 17 2016 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 1 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Legend'
Scorch and rust resistant foliage. The thick leaves, are silvery beneath and do not develop a brown tinge during drought.
It is pyramidal in habit.

'Macrophylla'
Very large foliage.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Aug 1 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Redmond'
Very vigorous forming a large, dense conical tree. Very hardy on the Canadian Prairies, thriving north to Edmonton, Alberta, reaching up to 15 x 6.5 feet in 5 years.
The large foliage is glossy green turning intensely yellow during autumn.

'Rosehill'
Exceptionally vigorous

'True North'
An exceptionally hardy clone, hardy north to zone 2. It even grows well in Alberta.

'Wandell'
Known to reach 100 feet or more in Germany. Foliage is deep green and the bracts as well as winter buds are scarlet red.

Tilia amurensis ( Amur Linden )
A moderate growing, medium size tree to 50 feet that is native to Korea and surrounding parts of Russia and China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 48 years - 86 feet with trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet.
It is basically the eastern Asian counterpart to Tilia cordata being very similar in appearance except with thinner bark and somewhat larger foliage ( sometimes as much as 6 inches in length ) that emerges early in spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 and requires a hot summer.

* excellent photo link of Amur Linden
http://cfile208.uf.daum.net/image/203C653A4D22972E38B503


* photos taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Tilia begoniifolia ( Begonia Leaf Linden )
A dense, pyramidal ( eventually oblong ), large deciduous tree reaching a maximum height of 82 feet that is native from southern Russia to Iran. The toothed, broadly-oval leaves are deep green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8. Not yet in cultivation.

Tilia caroliniana ( Carolina Basswood )
A large fast growing tree reaching around 70 feet that is native to the southeast U.S. from eastern Oklahoma to Kentucky to North Carolina; south almost of the Gulf Coast. Some records include: 12 years - 23 feet with trunk diameter of 7 inches; largest on record - 125 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. A very attractive urban street tree. The Carolina Basswood is now rare in Texas where it was once widespread on river bottoms. In fact it is now rare and isolated over its entire range which was once quite extensive.
The leaves are more heavily toothed with larger triangular teeth than the closely related American Linden. The leaves, up to 10 x 9 inches in size, are deep blue green above and hairy brown beneath.
Up to 15 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.5 inches across are borne in pendulous clusters during early summer. They are are accompanied with oblong green bracts up to 5 x 1.3 inches.
The flowers are later replaced by round, pale gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.1 inches across that last into winter.
Hardy north to zone 7 ( reports of as far north as 3 though this tree has not been tested much outside its native range ). This tree does tolerate flooding and grows in rich forests and swamps in the wild.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Tila caucasica ( Caucasian Linden )
A large, conical to rounded tree reaching up to 70 feet, that is native to the Crimean Peninsula and the Caucasus. Some records include: 20 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The toothed, taper-pointed, heart-shaped leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is shiny deep green above and lighter and downy beneath. The foliage often turns intensely bright yellow during autumn.
The small, pale yellow flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 6.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

* excellent photo link
http://lipalinden.ru/Linden_caucasica_edsr.jpg

Tilia cordata ( Littleleaf Linden )
A large, dense, round canopied tree reaching around 80 feet that is native from the British Isles to western Russia. Some records include: 10 years - 53 x 33 feet; 80 years - trunk diameter of 5 feet; 210 years - trunk diameter of 6.6 feet; largest on record - 160 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 feet; longest lived - 800 years ( some coppiced stumps may exceed 2000 years ). The National Tree of the Czech and the Slovac Republic. A large tree grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA.
The Littleleaf Linden is very stong wooded and makes an excellent urban street tree.
The finely-toothed, taper-pointed, heart-shaped leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is deep green in summer turning to golden-yellow during autumn.
Up to 10 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in flower heads during mid summer. They are are accompanied with green bracts up to 4 inches in length.
The flowers are later replaced by round, gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.25 inches across.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, reported to even thrive in Edmonton, Alberta. East Europe selections may be even more drought and cold tolerant, to zone 2. The Littleleaf Linden is tolerant of pollution and temporary flooding. It does like its roots cool and it is recommended to mulch young trees in regions with hot summers.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD


* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo from unknown source on internet

* photo taken on Aug 2 2011 in Hyde Park, NY

* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 30 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 3 2013 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* historical archive photo


'Corinthian'
Forms a pyramidal tree with thick foliage and very pale cream flowers.

'Fairview'
A vigorous tree with larger leaves ( to 4.5 inches ).

'Greenspire'
A rapid growing form with a straight trunk and a narrow crown. Some records include: 5 years - 20 feet. It even thrives on the northern Great Plains including Alberta, where it may reach up to 13 x 5.5 feet in 5 years, eventually much larger.
It is more heat and urban tolerant than the species.

* photo taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD
* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photo


'Norbert'
Very fast growing!!!

'Norlin'
Originating from Portage La Prairie, Manitoba, this cultivar is rapid growing with larger than usual foliage. Hardy zones 3 to 7 and is resistant to sunscald.
Thrives on the northern Great Plains, including Edmonton, Alberta.

* excellent photo link
http://www.jcbakker.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/18001_CorinthianLinden.jpg

'Rancho'
A dense, upright conical tree to 50 feet with glossy foliage.

'Swedish Upright'
A compact, pyramidal tree reaching at most only 35 x 12 feet in 50 years. The tallest on record is 43 feet.

'Winter Orange'
Orangish twigs and bark in winter; it is otherwise similar to the species and grows very large.

Tilia dasystyla
A large tree reaching a maximum height of 100 feet that is native to northern Iran and southwest Asia.
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is glossy mid-green above, bright green beneath.
The twigs are reddish.
Hardy zones 4b to 8, it thrives at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

* excellent photo links
http://www.plantarium.ru/dat/plants/2/228/133228_9530ed89.jpg
http://www.arbolesornamentales.es/Tiliadasystyla.jpg

Tilia x euchlora ( Crimean Linden )
A large broadly columnar tree with arching to pendulous branches, reaching up to 80 feet in height that is the hybrid between Tilia cordata and Tilia dasytyla. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 20 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet; largest on record - 120 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
The thick, finely-toothed, broadly-ovate, pointed leaves up to 6 x 6 inches are borne on yellow stalks. The smooth foliage is rich, very shiny, deep green above and pale blue-green with brown hair tufts below. The foliage turns to yellow late in autumn.
Up to 7 pale yellow, 5 petalled flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in relatively large, pendulous flower heads during mid summer. They are very attractive to Honey Bees and are accompanied with green bracts up to 3 inches in length.
The flowers are later replaced by round, gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches across.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 and prefers hot summers. This Linden is free of pests ( incl. aphids ) and tolerates extremely hot summers as well as drought. Reproduced from cuttings only.

* excellent photo links
http://bomen-inventaris.irisnet.be/medias/trees/3484-1-Tilia_x_euchlora.jpg
http://www.landscape.ru/images/plant/tilia-euchlora-08.jpg

Tilia x europaea ( Common Linden )
Also called Tilia x vulgaris; is the hybrid between Tilia cordata & Tilia platyphylla. It is a large tree reaching up to 80 feet or more with a broad pyramidal crown. Some record include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 10 years - 53 x 33 feet; 20 years - 66 feet; 100 years - trunk diameter of 5 feet; 200 years - trunk diameter of 8 feet; largest on record - 160 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 11.5 feet; largest in Maryland - 91 x 71 x 7 feet in Montgomery Co; maximum age - 1000 years! Unlike most other Lindens; this one suckers from the trunk, sometimes profusely. Two very large trees grow at 344 W Street Rd., Kennett Square, PA.
The rounded, heart shaped leaves are up to 4 x 4 or rarely 5 x 5 inches. The luxuriant foliage is deep green above, paler green below and turns to a spectacular show of golden yellow early in autumn.
Up to 10 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in flower heads during mid summer. They are very attractive to bees and are are accompanied with green bracts up to 4 inches in length.
The flowers are later replaced by oval, gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches in length.
The bark is gray-brown with shallow fissures.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. Unfortunately, this is the Linden that is notoriously prone to aphids which leave Honeydew on everything beneath the tree. In trials in Indian Head, Saskatchewan; trees on protected sites where hardy but trees on the open prairie would not survive the winters.

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario


* photos taken on Mar 27 2012 in Howard County, MD


* photos taken on Sep 5 2013 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on Oct 31 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on May 9 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


'Longevirens'
Foliage very persistant in late autumn

'Pallida'
An excellent street tree of stongly upright pyramidal habit.
Foliage is bright green and larger ( up to 6 inches in length ).

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Wratslaviensis'
Foliage is glowing bright yellow in spring before deepening to lime-green; it is otherwise similar to the species.

Tilia florida ( Florida Linden )
Similar to Tilia caroliniana but much smaller despite being fast growing. The largest on record is only 75 feet in height with a 2 foot trunk diameter.
The leaves, up to 6 x 5 inches in size, are coarsely-toothed but with smaller teeth than Tilia caroliniana. The foliage is hairy and reddish at first during spring before turning to deep green above and white beneath.
The bark is furrowed and red brown.
While only native from Arkansas to South Carolina, almost south to the Gulf Coast; this tree is hardy much further north to zone 5

Tilia henryana ( Henry's Lime )
A large tree native to central China that reaches up to 70 feet or more. Some records include: 8 years - 14 x 8 feet; largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a diameter of 9 feet.
The large, bristly-edged, broad, taper-pointed, ovate leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is bronze-red at first turning to sea green.
The creamy white cymes in summer consist of up to 20 flowers.
The bark is smooth and silver, becoming lightly fissured at maturity.
Zones 5 to 9, this tree requires hot summers.

* photo from unknown source on internet

* excellent photo links of Henry's Lime
http://gardenbreizh.org/modules/pix/cache/photos_290000/GBPIX_photo_296531.jpg
http://gardenbreizh.org/modules/pix/cache/photos_150000/GBPIX_photo_150964.jpg
http://pepinieres-albert.com/img_varietes/4103.jpg
http://gardenbreizh.org/modules/pix/cache/photos_0/GBPIX_photo_2240.jpg

Tilia heterophylla ( Beetree Linden or White Basswood )
Also called White Basswood; this is a fast growing, dense, large, handsome tree to 80 feet or more that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from southern Iowa to New York State to Maine; south to Louisiana to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically around Lasalle and along Lake St Clair during the 1800s through is most likely now extinct from southern Ontario. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 151 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest in Colorado - 80 feet in Denver. The White Basswood can live over 220 years. Despite being rare, this is a very handsome shade tree and is by far one of my favorite Lindens.
The finely-toothed leaves are large, to 8 inches or sometimes even as much as 12 x 6 inches in size. The foliage very shiny green above and downy white beneath. Professor Charles Sargent, in The Silva of North America, says of it: "Few North American trees surpass it in beauty of foliage" - I agree!
10 to 24 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.5 inches across are borne in pendulous clusters during early summer. They are are accompanied with oblong, light green bracts up to 5 x 1.3 inches.
The flowers are later replaced by round, pale gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches across that last into winter.
The bark is reddish and deeply furrowed.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Transplants easily.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA








* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario


* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Tilia insularis ( Korean Linden )
The Korean cousin of Tilia japonica, is a large tree to around 70 feet. Some records include: 4 years - 5.5 feet; largest on record - 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The foliage is similar to that of Tilia japonica but is more coarsely-toothed and has tiny tufts of hairs beneath.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

* excellent photo links
http://www.malvaceae.info/Genera/Tilia/Tilia152.jpg

Tilia japonica ( Japanese Linden )
An attractive, upright, large tree to around 70 feet that is native to much of Japan and surrounding parts of China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.2 feet. Long-lived, the Japanese Linden can live up to 300 years. The Japanese Linden is an excellent street tree.
The toothed, heart-shaped, pointed leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size. They are mid-green above and blue-green beneath.
The abundant, fragrant, pale yellow flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, appear during early to mid summer.
The rough bark is grayish-brown to brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and requires hot summers. It tolerates temporary flooding and is often found on floodplains in the wild.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* excellent photo of huge Tilia japonica
http://hosho.ees.hokudai.ac.jp/~tsuyu/top/plt/linden/tilia/jap_05.jpg

Tilia johnsonii

Known only from fossils 49 million years old from the Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington State

Tilia kiusiana ( Kyushu Linden )
A fine-textured, small, rounded crowned tree to 30 feet that is native to the island of Kyushu, Japan. Some record include: 20 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 50 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The toothed, pointed-oval leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and downy beneath.
The small creamy flowers are borne in cymes carrying up to 36, in summer.
The bark is shaggy.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Tilia mandshurica ( Manchurian Linden )
A very attractive, somewhat pendulous, tall tree reaching a maximum height of 70 feet, that is native to northeast China, Manchuria and Korea. Some records include: largest trunk diameter - 6.4 feet. Moderately long-lived, it can survive 200 years or possibly more.
The deeply-toothed, heart-shaped leaves are very large, up to 12 inches in length and appear early in spring. The foliage is smooth and deep green above, slightly felted gray beneath.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, thriving in continental climates with cold winters and hot summers only ( should do especially well in southern Ontario and midwestern U.S. ). In maritime climates such as the British Isles, it is often forced into leaf too early by mild winter weather only to be severely damaged by a late freeze.

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos

* excellent photo link
http://www.plantarium.ru/page/image/id/202354.html

Tilia maximowiczii
A large tree reaching up to 60 feet that is native to northern Japan. Some records include: 20 years - 35 feet; largest on record - 100 x 78 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.A tree of 56 x 78 x 3.7 feet grows at Bryn Mawr College in Bryn Mawr near Philly, PA.
The coarsely-toothed, rounded leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches are deep green above, downy bluish-white beneath. The foliage turns to deep golden-yellow during autumn.
The fragrant flowers are borne on long clusters during mid-summer.
The shallowly-fissured is grayish-brown to purplish-gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8, it tolerates temporary flooding and is often found on rich floodplains in the wild.

Tilia mexicana ( Mexican Linden )
A medium size tree native to Mexico that reaches a maximum height of 70 feet. Very fast growing, it is known to reach up to 23 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches in only 11 years.
The ovate foliage, up to 7 x 5 inches, is glossy deep green above and gray below.
Hardy north to zone 7.

Tilia miqueliana ( Bodhi Linden )
A broadly-conical large tree to 70 feet that is native to eastern China. Some records include: largest on record - 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. Long-lived, it can survive as long as 700 years.
The ovate leaves are up to 7 x 4 inches in size and are shiny deep green above and gray below. The foliage appears early in spring; turns yellow and lasts late during autumn.
This tree is a great pollen producer with its fragrant flowers attracting an abundance of bees.
The bark is light brown and furrowed.
Hardy north to zone 5.

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo links
http://homepage3.nifty.com/ibnzeidoun/arboles/photo/034_2.jpg http://mikawanoyasou.org/data/bodaijyu.jpg

Tilia 'Moltkei'
A massive tree up to 100 feet in height that is the hybrid between Tilia americana and Tilia 'Petiolaris' with an open crown made of slightly arching branches. Some records include: 20 years - 50 feet; largest on record - 170 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The coarsely-serrated, oval to rounded leaves, up to 10 x 6 inches in size, are deep green above and gray downy beneath.
The flowers are borne in clusters of 5 to 8. The narcotic pollen can kill bees that over indulge.
The rounded fruits are lightly furrowed.
Hardy zones 3 to 9; it thrives in most of midwestern and eastern North America.

* excellent photo links
https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3376/3482379646_13172d3a62_z.jpg
http://www.cirrusimage.com/Trees/Tiliaceae/moltke_linden-900-vert.JPG

Tilia mongolica ( Mongolian Linden )
A moderate growing, graceful, dense, medium size tree reaching around 50 feet that is native to Mongolia and surrounding parts of Russia and northern China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 5 years - 11 x 7 feet; 20 years - 27 x 17 feet; 50 years - 47 x 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.4 feet; largest on record - 80 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.4 feet. Long lived, it can exceed 100 years in age.
A large tree grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA.
The pointed, cordate, 3 to 5 "Maple-lobed" leaves have triangular teeth and are up to 3.7 x 3 inches in size. They are borne on red stems.
The foliage is red tinged at first turning to shiny deep green above, blue green beneath. The leaves turn gold early in fall.
Up to 20 ( rarely 30 ) pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in pendulous flower heads during mid summer. They are are accompanied with narrow bright green bracts up to 4 inches in length.
The flowers are later replaced by round, gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches across.
The stems are thin and red.
The bark is gray and smooth, later becoming fissured and gray with purple tints.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 and even grows in the extremely harsh climate of Edmonton, Alberta while also thriving in Englands gentle maritime climate. Clay and drought tolerant.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario




* historical archive photo


'Harvest Gold'
Fast growing with some records including: 8 years - 16 x 8 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 inches; 15 years - 25 x 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches. The leaves are also larger, up to 4 x 4 inches. It grows in Alberta, however even hardier clones should be searched in the native range of Tilia mongolica.

* excellent photo links
http://search.shelmerdine.com/Content/Images/Photos/D005-10.jpg
http://plants.makeitgreen.ca/Content/Images/Photos/A151-24.jpg
http://www.wiecherhuisman.nl/website/uploads/userfiles/image/tilia_mongolica_12002.jpg

Tilia oliveri ( Oliver's Linden )
A spectacular, very rare, very large, broadly rounded tree reaching over 100 feet that is native to western China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2.5 feet ( at least based on my own observations, can likely grow faster ); 20 years - 40 x 20 feet; 30 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.2 feet. It is possible that even larger trees exist.
This very stately tree is definately one of my favorite Lindens.
The finely toothed, heart-shaped leaves are large for a Linden, up to 8 x 4 inches.
The very handsome foliage is deep green above and pure white-felted beneath.
The leaves are held horizontally.
The fragrant flowers are borne on pendulous clusters of 7 to 10 in summer.
The twigs are hairless and somewhat pendulous.
The bark is silver, smooth and Beech-like even when mature.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( reports of 4 ) and is lime tolerant, scorch free and NOT affected by aphids. The Oliver's Linden requires hot summers
and thrives in the central and eastern U.S.

* excellent photo link
http://www.esveld.nl/plantdias/29/29278.jpg

'Chelsea Sentinel'
Forms a dense, broad upright columnar tree with weeping branches.

Tilia petiolaris ( Weeping Silver Lime )
A very handsome, massive tree to 100 feet, with a very dense, pyramidal crown and strongly weeping branches, often considered and likely to be a cultivar of Tilia tomentosa.
Some records include: 10 years - 53 x 33 feet; 20 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 150 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 6 inches in size, are borne on long stalks. The foliage is deep green above and silver-white felted beneath. The foliage on the Weeping Silver Lime persists late into autumn.
The very fragrant, cream color flowers are borne in clusters in summer. The flowers are intoxicating to bees.
The gray bark is narrowly ridged.
Hardy zones 4 to 9.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.




Tilia platyphyllos ( Broadleaf Linden )
A large dome shaped tree reaching up to 90 feet that is native from western Europe to southwest Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 10 years - 55 x 33 feet; 20 years - 60 feet; largest on record - 160 x 115 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 feet and 26 feet at the base; largest in Maryland - 94 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. Very long lived, the Broadleaf Linden can exceed 300 years and sometimes even reaches 1500 years though rumored trees of 6000 years of age in Europe are certain to not exist. One of the largest trees recorded grows at Hanover, Germany. A very large tree grows at Charles Evens Cemetary in Reading, PA.
In Washington, DC tourists can find this tree at East Potomac Park and the Smithsonian Castle.
The deeply veined, sharply-toothed, round, heart-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 7 ( very rarely 11 x 10 inches ) inches are very hairy, especially when emerging. The foliage is deep green above, lighter below and turns to yellow during autumn.
Up to 5 pale yellow, 5 petalled, fragrant flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in pendulous flower heads during early summer. They are are accompanied with green bracts up to 5 inches in length.
The flowers are later replaced by round, gray-green, 5 ribbed, woody fruits up to 0.5 inches across. They remain on the tree after the leaves have fallen.
The bark is very light gray with shallow fissures.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 and prefers moist, light soil and a humid climate. It is very wild tolerant.

* photos taken on Apr 16 2015 @ Oakland Manor, Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 19 2015 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* historical archive photos


'Laciniata'
Very deeply cut and coarsely toothed foliage. Generally slower growing but can still reach up to 80 feet.

'Morton'
The bee friendly flowers are produced more abundantly than species; otherwise similar.

'Prince Street'
Strong growing. Similar to species except for having red fruit bracts.

'Rhodopetola'
Large fruit. Twigs have red buds.

'Rubra' ( Red Stem Lime )
Vivid red twigs as well as flower bracts; otherwise similar to species.

'Vitifolia'
Deeply lobed foliage resembles that of Grapes.

Tilia sibirica ( Siberian Linden )
A fast growing, large tree closely related to Tilia cordata, that is native northern Asia, especially in Siberia. it is a narrow and strong growing tree that is erect in habit when young, later becoming broad crowned. It can reach up to 60 feet or possibly more.
The bright green foliage becomes golden yellow in fall.
The bark is gray.
The tree is hardy zones 3 to 8 ( possibly hardier ).

* excellent photo link
http://pisum.bionet.nsc.ru/kosterin/landscap/linden/tree.jpg
http://ic.pics.livejournal.com/superbarok/10289644/860840/860840_original.jpg
http://24medok.ru/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/114749781310729179.jpg

Tilia tomentosa ( Silver Linden )
A strong growing, very dense, dome-shaped tree to 80 feet or more, that is native from northern Hungary to western Ukraine; south to the Balkans to the Black Sea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; 4 years - 20 feet; 60 years - 80 x 60 x 3.2 feet; 200 years - trunk diameter of 6.5 feet; largest on record - 150 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.8 feet; largest in Maryland - 85 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet ( Montgomery Co. ). Very large trees are known to grow at Swarthmore College in PA as well as at the Arnold Arboretum, Boston.
The coarsely-toothed, rounded, heart-shaped leaves are up to 6.5 x 5 inches in size. The handsome foliage is very deep, glossy green above, silvery-white and downy beneath; turning to yellow late in autumn.
Up to 10 pale yellow, 5 petalled, highly fragrant flowers up to 0.6 inches across are borne in pendulous flower heads during early summer. They are are accompanied with green bracts up to 4 inches in length. Unfortunately the scented flowers can be lethal to bees that overindulge in its narcotic qualities.
The flowers are later replaced by round, gray-green, woody fruits up to 0.25 inches across.
The brown bark is shallowly ridged.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 preferring light soil but tolerating clay and compaction as well as heat and drought. This is the easiest Linden to grow, it is tolerant of salt, urban pollution and is resistant to Japanese Beetle and gypsy moth. This is one of my top 10 street trees for temperate climates and my all time favorite of the Lindens!

* photos taken on June 1 2010 in Columbia, MD









* photo taken on Feb 14 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2017 in Columbia, MD

* historical achive photos

* excellent Tilia tomentosa link
http://www.vdberk.fr/public/site/uploads/bomenboek/til031-1.jpg

'Chelsea Sentinal'
Very fast growing and columnar in habit. Known to reach 47 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches in only 17 years.

'Green Mountain'
Rapid growing to 4 feet per year and growing with broadly conical habit. The leaves are thick in texture and up to 6 x 6 inches in size.
Both heat and very drought tolerant and possible even more heat tolerant than regular Tilia tomentosa.

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Nov 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Sterling Silver'
Broadly-conical habit and very resistant to Japanese Beetles; otherwise similar to species.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA




* photos taken on July 18 2016 in Grand Bend, ON


Tilia tuan ( Tuan Linden )
A moderate growing, massive tree with a huge trunk, that is native to central China.
The taper-pointed, broad-ovate leaves are up to 6 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and gray down below.
The tiny yellow flowers are borne in clusters of up to 20 in summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and needs hot summers to thrive.

* excellent photo link
http://www.wiecherhuisman.nl/website/uploads/userfiles/image/westinbird%20209.jpg

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