Sunday, January 17, 2010

Euonymus

A genus of around 175 species of trees, shrubs and vines that are part of the larger Calastraceae family. While variable, most have 4 sided stems and are poisonous if eaten. Most Euonymus are also very early leafing out in spring.
Most are soil tolerant but prefer full to partial sun and fertile, well drained soil.
Most Euonymus tolerate alkaline soil. Evergreen species can tolerate full shade but prefer some protection from winter winds. Most Euonymus can be prone to Oystershell Scale ( introduced from Europe ) and aphids which tend to increase in areas where this shrub is used excessively. A systemic insecticide such as Bayer can be used where this is a problem. Deer and rabbits also eat Euonymus limiting its use in area where deer populations are excessive. In some areas, deer netting is almost essential during winter unless you have a fenced in yard.
Propagation is easy from nodal cuttings taken early summer to mid fall for evergreen species and summer for deciduous species.

Euonymus alatus ( Burningbush )
Also called Winged Euonymus. A horizontally branched, dense, bushy large shrub to small tree that is native to northeast Asia, China and Japan and reaches around 15 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.5 feet; 20 years - 17 x 20 feet; largest on record - 20 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The shallow toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 1.3 ( rarely over 3 ) inches. The deep green foliage turns intense glowing scarlet red during autumn.
The pale green flowers are borne in late spring.
They are followed by 4-lobed light red fruits that reveal bright orange seeds inside upon ripening.
The branches are green at first later turning beige brown with 4 corky wings on the sides.
Hardy zones 2 to 9, the hardiest seed source even thrives in the northern Great Plains in Alberta though others may be 2 zones less hardy. Very alkaline soil and shade tolerant. It is invasive in Massachussetts and New Hampshire and its sale there has been banned ( Itea and Blueberries are excellent fall color substitutes )

* photos taken in Wilkes-Barre, PA


* photo taken on October 2009 near Wilkes-Barre, PA

* photo taken on April 7 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 1 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on October 10 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 1 2011 in Luzerne Co, PA

* photo taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on Nov 6 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Nov 10 2014 in Columbia, MD





* photos taken on Oct 27 2015 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Sep 6 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Compactus'
Dense and compact with corky winged stems, usually reaching around 8 feet though can be sheared or pruned smaller. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 32 inches; 10 years - 6 x 7 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 12 x 23 feet.
The foliage is similar to that of E. alatus.
* photo taken on May 17 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Oct 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 8 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Fireball'
A dwarf, reaching just 7 x 7 ( rarely over 4 ) feet in 15 years, slightly broader with age.
It is an improved form of 'Compacta' and is also slightly more cold hardy to zone 3.

'Monstrosa'
Very vigorous with excellent autumn color. Stems have very broad corky wings.

'Nordine'
The large leaves turn orange in autumn.
Fruits are borne abundantly.

'Rudy Haag'
A dwarf, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 10 x 8 feet though usually much smaller. It makes an excellent low hedge.
Foliage turns glowing pink-red in autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Timbercreek'
Vigorous with arching branches, reaching up to 10 x 8 feet.
The broad leaves turn glowing scarlet red in autumn.
Hardy north to zone 3

Euonymus americanus ( American Euonymus )
A rapid growing large shrub reaching around 9 feet that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to southwest Missouri to central Illinois to western New York State to New York City; south to eastern Texas to central Florida). Some records include: largest on record - 15 feet. It is endangered in Missouri, Illinois, New York State and Pennsylvania.
The oval leaves are scalloped and somewhat wrinkly, reaching up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green persisting until late in autumn.
The flowers are green with red tints and are produced in summer.
They are followed by 3 to 5 lobed pink fruits with white seeds inside.
The bark is gray and ridged. The stems are green.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in sun or shade on well drained soil. Prone to mildew and scale.

* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Apr 17 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Arborea'
Tree form though still never grows very large. The largest on record is only 15 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA




'Evergreen'
Evergreen foliage

'Hearts a' Bustin'

* photo taken on Nov 19 2016 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD


'Narrowleaf'
Narrow willow-like foliage

Euonymus atropurpurea ( Eastern Wahoo )
A fast growing narrow deciduous tree native to rich woods and floodplains in the eastern U.S. ( from southeast North Dakota to central Minnesota to southern Michigan to Bayfield, Ontario to Guelph, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to central New York State, south to Arkansas to northern Georgia ) reaching around 20 feet or rarely more. It is endangered in North Dakota, Michigan, New Jersey, the Carolinas and Mississippi. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred sporadically in Lasalle, along the Canard River Valley, the Detroit River islands, Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan during that time but has declined considerably since. Some records include: 15 years - 15 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches; largest on record - 70 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.4 feet ( pre 1900 ). It is endangered in the wild in Canada.
The finely toothed, pointed elliptical leaves are up to 7 x 3 inches in size. The deep blue-green foliage is finely hairy beneath and turns red late in autumn.
The 4 petalled red-purple flowers up to 0.5 inches wide are borne in cymes in summer.
They are followed by deeply 4-lobed bright purple fruits up to 0.6 inches wide that ripen in October and can last as late as Febuary.
The green stems are 4 angled.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in sun or shade. Pollution tolerant. Leaves may fall early during late summer drought.

* photos taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photo

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON





Euonymus bungeanus ( Winterberry Euonymus )
A fast growing erect to arching tree native to Manchuria and Korea that reaches around 25 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 18 years - 20 x 17 feet; largest on record - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. A very large tree grows at Rutgar Garden in Boston, Mass, others grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA. and at Missouri Botanical Gardens in St. Louis.
The finely toothed, pointed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size.
The foliage is deciduous to semi-evergreen depending on climate and is bright green turning to yellow and pink in autumn.
The yellow flowers borne in cymes up to 2 inches across in spring.
They are followed by yellow fruits with bright orange arils.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. It even thrives on the Great Plains from Colorado to Nebraska.
Prefers soil PH from 5 to 7.5

* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD






USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. North Dakota tree handbook



* historic archive photo


'Pendula'
Pendulous branches

'Persistens'
Semi-evergreen and stays lush green into December.

'Pink Lady'
Bright pink fruits persist into winter.

'Prairie Radiance'
Hardy north to zone 3a, thriving in Winnipeg.

'Verona'
Hardiest cultivar, to zone 3a

Euonymus carnosus
A very beautiful, fast growing, small tree, reaching up to 12 feet tall in just 3 years. It eventually can reach a maximum size of 30 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is native to eastern China and Japan.
The leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 7.5 x 2.3 inches in size, are very glossy dark green. The foliage turns spectacular shades of scarlet red to purple during late fall.
The creamy white flowers up to 0.7 inches in width are borne in showy dense corymbs of 5 to 8 flowers.
The fruits are showy coral pink with orange red arils and seeds. The bark is smooth and gray.
It is hardy zones 4 to 7, is easy to grow and is not bothered by pests and diseases, not even Euonymus Scale. It is also heat and drought tolerant. It thrives in both the Pacific Northwest as well as the eastern U.S.
Unfortunately rare and very hard to find.


* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington DC





* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.




Euonymus chibae ( Chibae Euonymus )
A slow growing, small, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 16 feet, that is native to coastal Japan. It is endangered with extinction however has great potential as a landscape tree in the southeastern U.S.
The oval leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

* photos taken @ U.S. Arboretum, D.C. on Feb 2009


* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on Sep 3 2017 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.





Euonymus cornutus
A deciduous shrub reaching a maximum size of 13 x 10 feet that is a widspread native from India to southern China; south to Burma.
The toothed, pointed, narrow lance-shaped leaves are up to 6 x 0.5 inches in size. The attractive thinly-leathery foliage is mid-green.
The flowers are borne in small cymes in summer.
They are followed by winged, small pink fruits.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 ( seed source from Shaanxi Province is likely hardy to zone 6 ).

'quinquecornatus'
Evergreen with 5 winged pink fruits. The long lance shape leaves are up to 4 inches in length. Habit of plant is bamboo-like.

Euonymus europaeus ( European Spindle Tree )
A deciduous small tree native to much of Europe and western Asia that reaches around 20 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 3 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 40 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet ( one almost that large grows in Denver, CO ).
The scalloped, pointed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.7 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green turning to red during autumn.
The yellow flowers are produced in 1.5 inch cymes of 5 to 7 in late spring.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by 4-lobed red fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, with orange arils and white seeds.
The branches are green with stripes. The ridged bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 and very shade and alkaline tolerant. It is also tolerant of seashore environments. Thrives even in North Dakota and at least as far north as the Ottawa Valley in Ontario.

* historic archive photo


'Albus'
White fruit.

'Aldenhamensis'
Larger fruit. The deep green foliage turns to scarlet-red during autumn.

'Atropurpureus'
Lance shaped purple leaves that turn scarlet red in autumn.

'Aucubifolius'
White variegated foliage.

'Intermedius'
Large foliage and larger scarlet red fruit.

'Red Cascade'
A small tree with excellent scarlet red autumn foliage color and masses of persistant orange-red fruit also in autumn.

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON



Euonymus fortunei ( Wintercreeper Euonymus )
An extremely variable shrub or aerial root self clinging vine that is native to most of China, Korea, Japan and northern Burma. As a vine it can reach great highs up to 70 feet and as a groundcover can have an indefinate spread.
The toothed, pointed-oval leaves are up to 2.8 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The greenish-yellow flowers, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne during early summer.
They are followed by white fruits that have orange arils. They ripen during early autumn and often persist into early winter.
The stems are green and warty.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in sun or shade. Scale can sometimes be severe enough to stop growth and kill the plant. Spray from May 15 to 30th ( when hatching ) in most areas. This plant is best used individually rather than in mass plantings to avoid infestations. It may become invasive in parts of eastern North America.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2012 @ University of Western Ontario, London, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2015 in Columbia, MD













* photo taken on May 18 2015 in Olney/Sandy Spring, MD


'Blondy'
A handsome, vigorous, low mounded, spreading shrub reaching up to 2 x 2 feet in 2 years, 2 x 3 feet in 5 years and eventually more. This cultivar can also climb.
The foliage is bright yellow with a narrow deep green margin.

* photo taken on Oct 23 2012 in Harford Co., MD

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Canadale Gold'
Leaves are edged with a narrow band of yellow.

* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Mar 22 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on April 3 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Apr 22 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 23 2016 in Columbia, MD



'Coloratus'
Green foliage turns purple -red in winter.

* photo taken on Mar 21 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Emerald Gaity'
Reaches up to 4 x 5 feet in 5 years, with an eventual maximum size of 5 x 6 feet as a shrub. It is usually dense and upright, rounded in habit.
The foliage is deep green with a white margin that may turn pinkish in winter.



* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario
* photos taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 9 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on July 23 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Mar 22 2017 in Columbia, MD




* photos taken on Apr 9 2017 in Columbia, MD








* photo taken on Oct 3 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Emerald N Gold'
The small leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are deep green with golden-yellow margins that may tinge pink in winter. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 3 x 5 feet; largest on record - 6 feet.

* photo taken on annual Horticultural Society of Maryland Garden Tour



* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario


* photos taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 5 2015 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on May 9 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 17 2016 in Blyth, ON


'Gracilis'
Foliage variegated white, yellow and pink or often all of the above.

'Greenlane'
A new cultivar of Wintercreeper that is great for groundcover and climbing.
The glossy deep green foliage is highly resistant to burning during winter.
Hardy zones 5 +.

'Harlequin'
Reaches up to 4 x 6 feet, with deep green foliage that is heavily splashed white. The foliage often turns pinkish during winter.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on may 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photos taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD


* photo taken on June 3 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on June 18 2015 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on Apr 22 2016 in Columbia, MD




'Ivory Jade'
Low and spreading in habit, reaching up to 3 x 6 feet in 5 years, eventually broader.
The rich deep green foliage is bordered in white. The variegation often turns to pink during winter.

'Kewensis'
A prostrate form with very small, glossy green leaves to 0.7 x 0.3 inches. It may reach up to 15 feet as a vine.
* photos taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD



'Longwood'

* photo taken on may 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD




'Moonshadow'
Fast growing, compact and low in habit; reaching up to 2 x 4 or rarely 3 x 5 feet. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 5 years - 2 x 4 feet. It originated as a sport of 'Sunspot'.
The foliage is creamy-yellow with a thin deep green margin. The foliage variegation turns pinkish during winter while the stems turn red.

* photos taken on Mar 15 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 18 2013 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Feb 21 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on June 23 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 12 2017 in Columbia, MD



'Niagara Green'
Reaches up to 4 x 4 feet with lime green leaves that later turn deep green.

'Radicans'
Juvenile foliaged vine form which can grow up to 5 feet per year and reach heights of 70 feet as a vine. Foliage is deep green and smaller than non climbing forms.

* photo taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

'Sarcoxie'
Like 'Vegetus' but with orange berries.

'Sheridan Gold'
Reaches up to 4 x 6 feet with yellow-green new foliage.

'Silver Queen'
Reaches up to 8 x 7 feet as a shrub or 20 feet as a spreading vine. The oval leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length are deep green with a bold, broad, white margin that turns pinkish in winter.

* photos taken on June 18 2013 in Columbia, MD




'Sunspot'
Reaches up to 3 x 5 or rarely 6 x 6 feet with weak arching branches.
The leaves are deep green with a large yellow blotch in the lower yellow center.

* photos taken on April 13 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photos taken on May 27 2012 in Columbia, MD
* photo taken on Mar 24 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 15 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 4 2017 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on April 18 2017 in Columbia, MD



'Vegetus'
A stiff branched spreading shrub reaching a maximum size of 5.5 x 8 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 5.5 feet.
The thick, dull green leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size.
The hardiest of Euonymus fortunei cultivars and the only one known to survive in the extremely harsh northern prairie climate of Winnipeg, Manitoba.

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historic archive photo


'Wolong Ghost'
Handsome narrow foliage up to 3.2 inches in length that is glossy deep green heavily-veined bright white.
It is great as a climber or groundcover.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Mar 24 2015 in Columbia, MD



Euonymus grandiflorus
A semi-evergreen small tree native from northern India to western China.
Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches.
it is among the most beautiful of all Euonymus.
The finely toothed, pointed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 1.3 inches.
The glossy deep green foliage resembles that of the Camellia.
The foliage turns intense wine red in late autumn before finally dropping in early December.
The yellow flowers borne in cymes are later replaced by light pink fruits with scarlet red arils and black seeds.
Hardy zones 6 to 10. Hardy in much of England and the Netherlands in Europe.

'Macrophylla'
The thicker glossier leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches and turn to purple in autumn.

Euonymus hamiltonianus ( Yeddo Euonymus )
A fast growing, small deciduous tree reaching around 25 feet that is native from Pakistan through China to Sakhalin and northern Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3.3 feet; 20 years - 20 x 20 feet; largest on record - 66 x 26 ( very rarely over 40 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. A very large tree grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly, PA. Moderately long-lived, exceeding 75 years. It is closely related to Euonymus europaeus but its range does not overlap.
The oblong leaves are up to 7 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is lush glossy deep green above, pale green beneath; turning to red and purple during autumn.
The white ( with a red tinge ) flowers are borne during late spring into early summer.
The fruits, up to 0.4 inches long, are pink with orange or red arils.
The fissured bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, in Ontario, Canada; it is hardy as far north as the Ottawa Valley.

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Indian Summer'
Glossy deep green leaves turn intense wine red over a long period of autumn lasting into early December.

'Maacki'
Hardy north to zone 3, thrives even in much of Alberta, Canada where it reaches around 6.5 x 7.5 feet in 5 years, eventually more.

'October Fire'
Reaches up to 10 x 8 feet in 8 years and eventually to 15 x 12 feet.
Foliage turns intense red-purple in autumn. Resistant to scale.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

'Red Elf'
Profuse fruits that are deep pink with red arils and dark pink seeds.
Autumn color is inferior.

'Rising Sun'
Reddish green foliage turns intense red in autumn. The fruits are also red.

subsp 'sieboldianus'
Also called Euonymus yedoensis is similar except for larger leaves reaching up to 7.5 x 4 inches and round, 4-lobed fruit with orange arils and dark red seeds.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington DC



* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




'Winter Glory'
Bright pink fruits last into December

Euonymus japonica ( Evergreen Euonymus )
A fast growing, bushy upright, evergreen large shrub or small tree reaching around 15 feet or more, that is native to China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 27 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The tough, very thick, leathery, oval leaves are up to 3 x 1.7 inches in size. The foliage is lush glossy deep green above, bright green below.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne in flat cymes during early summer.
The round pink fruits have orange arils and hold white seeds.
The shallowly-fissured bark is dark grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 in sun or shade and is very salt, heat and urban tolerant. It is also very wind tolerant where the soil doesn't freeze for long periods of time. The roots are hardy to zone 5 so this plant may resprout if killed back by temperatures below -10 F. Old overgrown plants can be cut back to almost ground level during early spring for renovation. Prone to mildew and scale.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photos taken on Apr 11 2015 in Columbia, MD



'Aureopictus'
Tall growing with deep green foliage with bold golden-yellow centers. Prone to reverting to all green form unless all green shoots are pruned out.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


* photo taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Aug 8 2014 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Apr 16 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Dec 20 2016 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Mar 22 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Aureovariegata'
Also called 'Ovatus Aureus'. Fast growing, upright, oval to rounded in habit, reaching up to 10 x 6 feet ( record 26 feet )
The leaves are deep green with a wide and bold golden-yellow margin.

* photo taken in Columbia, MD on Feb 2010



* photos taken on April 7 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on April 15 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on November 7 2010 in Columbia, MD

* Photos taken on April 12 2012 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on July 23 2014 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on May 20 2015 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on July 9 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 15 2015 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on June 2 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 4 2017 in Columbia, MD



'Butterscotch'
A dense miniature shrub, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet.
The small leaves are golden-yellow in full sun ( light green in the shade ).

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 15 2011 in Columbia, MD


'Chollipo'
Fast growing, dense and upright in habit, growing at a rate up to 3 feet per year, it can reach a maximum size of 17 x 6 feet if not sheared.
The deep green leaves have a creamy yellow edge.
Hardier than most other Euonymus japonica cultivars ( it is hardy to -18 F ).

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD
* photos taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 7 2013 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 29 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Golden Maiden'
Reaches up to 8 x 3 feet with leaves that are deep green with bold golden-yellow centers. Hardy to -10 F

'Greenspire'
The Greenspire Euonymus grows dense and upright at a rate up to 2 feet per year to a maximum size of 15 x 9 ( rarely over 12 ) feet.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 3 x 1.7 inches, are glossy very deep green.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 in full sun to partial shade, thriving on just about any moist soil. Very salt tolerant.

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD


* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Microphylla'
A small moderate growing shrub reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4 ( rarely over 3 ) feet with small medium green leaves up to an inch.

* photos taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photos taken on Mar 25 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 24 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Microphylla variegata'
Foliage edged in white; otherwise identical to 'Microphylla'.

* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on October 14 2010 in Crownsville, MD


'Silver King'
Fast growing and upright, rounded in habit; averaging 8 x 5 feet in 10 years, eventually to 12 x 6 feet. Some records include: growth rate - 2 feet.
The deep green foliage is boldly margined white.

* photo taken in Clarksville, MD on April 9 2010

* photos taken on April 15 2010 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 20 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 25 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Tricolor'
Yellow foliage with green and pink tinges

Euonymus kiautschovicus ( Kiautschov Euonymus )
A rapid growing evergreen shrub reaching around 10 feet that is native to China. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 40 x 15 feet. This shrub is often though NEVER should be used as a low hedge - you'll be shearing for the rest of your life! In fact you'll be shearing like every 2 weeks. This shrub however does make an excellent tall screen where deer are not present ( deer will turn it to sticks! ). It has proven surprisingly hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada; reaching up to 8 feet there.
The scalloped oval leaves up to 4 or rarely 6 x 1.7 inches are glossy deep green all year.
The pale green flowers are borne in loose cymes in spring.
They are followed by round pink fruits up to 0.5 inches with orange arils, that enclose brown seeds.
Hardy zones 5 to 10. Prone to scale but less so than many other Euonymus such as E. japonica & fortunei.

* photo taken @ Columbia, MD on Feb 2009

* photo taken on April 6 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on April 2 2011 in Bel Air, MD

* photos taken on May 19 2011 in Bel Air, MD



* photo taken on April 27 2012 in Columbia, MD

'Dupont'
Vigorous with large leaves. It may be trained as a vine.

'Manhattan'
Exceptionally hardy form, developed in Manhattan, Kansas; otherwise similar to species.

* photos taken on July 25 2013 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on July 18 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 23 2014 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Mar 21 2015 in Columbia, MD



Euonymus koreana 'Benkomasaki' ( Korean Euonymus )
An upright, columnar evergreen shrub, reaching up to 8 x 2 feet in 10 years, eventually slightly larger.
The foliage is rich-green.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Euonymus lanceifolia
A vigorous small tree reaching a maximum size of 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. The broad leaves, up to 6 inches in length have deeply impressed veins.
This tree is typically laden with pink fruit in autumn.
The bark is corrugated.
Hardy north to zone 5

Euonymus lanceolatus

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



Euonymus latifolius ( Broadleaf Euonymus )
A loose, spreading small deciduous tree native to Asia Minor and southern Europe that reaches up to 20 x 17 feet in 10 years and a maximum size of 27 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches. It unfortunately does have invasive potential outside its native range.
The scallop-margined, pointed elliptical leaves are up to 7 x 2.3 inches in size. The foliage is deep green turning to intense wine red during autumn.
The yellow-green flowers are borne in cymes up to 3 inches across.
They are followed by abundant 4 or 5 winged, pendulous, deep-red fruit with orange arils and white seeds lasting from August into November.
The branches are brown with large red buds.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Euonymus lucidus
An evergreen small tree native to the Himalayas. Some records include: largest on record - 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 22 inches.
The leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is bronze-red at first turning to deep green.
Hardy north to zone 9 in maritime climates.

Euonymus macropterus
A medium-sized, deciduous shrub or rarely small tree, reaching up to 10 feet, that is native to far southeast Russia, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Korea & northern Japan. In Japan it is mostly found in subalpine forests.
The obovate leaves, up to 5.5 x 2.5 inches in size, are verdant bright green.
The yellowish-green flowers are borne during early summer.
They are followed by reddish-purple fruits during early to mid autumn.
The smooth bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( possibly hardier for seed source from Heilongjiang )

Euonymus myrianthus
A bushy evergreen shrub native to western China that reaches a maximum size of 20 x 14 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot though usually slowly reaching about half that.
The lance-shaped, sparsely toothed, thick, leathery, evergreen leaves are up to 6 x 1.7 inches in size.
The flower clusters are up to 3 inches across.
The 4 ribbed orange-yellow fruits have orange arils and seeds. This shrub is very attractive in early winter as the fruits ripen.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 and wet tolerant.

Euonymus nanus ( Turkestan Burningbush )
A dwarf prostrate to medium size deciduous shrub native from eastern Europe to Mongolia and northwestern China. Some records include: largest on record - 6.6 x 15 feet. This atttractive fine-textured shrub makes an excellent groundcover for slopes.
The alternately-arranged, sparsely-toothed, linear leaves are up to 2 x 0.8 inches in size. The rosemary-like deep blue-green foliage turns bright scarlet-red during autumn.
The pinkish-purple flowers, up to 0.25 inches wide, are borne in cymes during late spring.
They are followed by 4 lobed, pink-red fruits with red arils and brown seeds. They ripen early autumn and persist until late fall.
Fruit production is better in climates with hot summers.
The stems are 4-angled.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, it thrives even in south-central and southeastern Alaska.

subsp 'Turkestanicus'
Also called Euonymus koopmannii. It has longer leaves ( up to 2.8 inches long ) and pink seeds. It is known to reach a maximum size up to 15 feet though rare.

* excellent photo link below
http://www.growsonyou.com/photo/slideshow/51237-euonymus-koopmannii

Euonymus obovatus ( Running Euonymus )
Also called Running Strawberry Bush. An underused dense groundcover Euonymus native to rich woods and floodplains in eastern North America ( central Missouri to Chicago, ILL to central Michigan to Bayfield, Ontario to Elora, Ontario to Toronto, Ontario to western New York State; south to central Arkansas to western North Carolina...it has also been found near Barrie, Ontario ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along Lake St Clair, along the Canard River Valley, at Point Pelee, the Lake Erie Islands as well as along the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit during that time. It is more vigorous than Euonymus fortunei, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 10 + feet, rooting as it spreads but never climbing. It is rare within most of its natural range. It thrives far north of it's natural range at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada; forming patches as much as 8 feet across.
The deciduous, toothed, oblong or obovate leaves are up to 3.2 x 1.5 inches in size. The mid-green foliage turns intense pink, scarlet-red and purple during late autumn. The leaves are oppositely arranged.
The yellowish-green flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne during late spring into early summer, lasting up to 6 weeks.
The warty fruits, up to 0.6 inches, are crimson-red with scarlet-red arils. They ripen late summer, persisting into mid-autumn.
The stems are bright green.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it is easy to grow in moist shade. It is generally resistant to euonymus scale.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken on Sep 23 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* historic archive photo


Euonymus occidentalis ( Western Wahoo )
A fast growing large shrub native to mountains from southwest British Columbia to the mountains of southern California, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 10 feet. It is endangered in Washington State and British Columbia where it's only remaining site is on a floodplain near Courtenay.
The elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches.
Not known to be planted in the east.
Hardy zone 7 to 9

Euonymus oxyphyllus
A small deciduous tree native to eastern China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: 3 years - 8 feet; 8 years - 20 feet; largest on record - 40 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The toothed, pointed oval leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches. The foliage is glossy bright green above, paler beneath; turning to scarlet-red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by large, 4 to 5 ribbed, rounded deep red fruits that fold scarlet seeds.
The smooth bark is gray. The stems have large winter buds up to 0.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Euonymus phellomanus ( Chinese Winged Euonymus )
A vigorous, large shrub reaching around 10 feet with corky stems that are far more winged than similar Euonymus alata. It is native to high mountains in central China. Some records include: 3 years - 5 feet; largest on record - 17 x 15 feet.
The elliptical leaves are up to 4.5 x 2 inches in size. The mid-green foliage turns to brilliant scarlet-red during autumn.
The greenish-yellow flowers appear during late spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 in Ottawa, ON


'Silver Surprise'
White-margined foliage and very showy deep pink fruits in late summer. I have not seen this cultivar yet however it is a must try!

Euonymus planipes ( Chinese Spindle Tree )
Also called Euonymus sachalinensis. A handsome, upright, deciduous, small tree reaching around 20 feet that is native to eastern Russia, northeast China, Korea & northern Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, elliptic or oblong leaves are up to 6 x 3.5 ( rarely over 5 ) inches in size. The foliage is deep green in summer turning to intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The red fruits, up to 0.7 inches are round, 4 or 5 lobed with orange arils and hold red seeds. They ripen during early autumn.
The smooth bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( possibly 3 for seed source from Heilongjiang ) on moist, fertile soil.

Euonymus sanguineus
A large shrub native to central and western China that is very similar to Euonymus latifolius and reaches up to 20 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The elliptical leaves are up to 4.5 inches in length. The leathery foliage is reddish beneath and turns entirely brown-red late in autumn.
The very abundant yellow flowers smell like fish in spring ( not a shrub for under a window ).
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( based on native range...it might be much hardier )

Euonymus tingens
A small tree that reaches a maximum size of 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 28 inches. It is native to India, Nepal, Tibet, southwest China & northern Burma.
The finely-toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 2.4 x 1 inches in size. The thick leathery foliage is glossy deep green.
The flowers are white and large. They are followed by dark pink fruits.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 i full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, well drained soil. .

Euonymus verrucosus
A compact, bushy, rounded, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet, that is native to Eurasia ( from the Russian part of Europe to Siberia; south to Tajikistan, northern China, Korea and Japan.
The scalloped, taper-pointed oval leaves are up to 2.8 x 1 inches in size. The bright green foliage turns scarlet-red in autumn.
The 4 lobed red fruits a red aril and may have yellow markings.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Euonymus wilsonii
A vigorous evergreen shrub that may also be a vine reaching as high as 20 feet.
The shallow toothed, pointed, lance shaped leaves up to 6 x 1.7 inches are prominently veined beneath.
The yellow flowers are borne in loose cymes up to 3.2 inches wide in summer.
The 4 lobed fruits are covered in spines.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

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