Thursday, January 21, 2010

Hornbeams

A genus ( tribe ) of 35 species of high quality, dense foliage trees related to the Birch that are suitable for many landscape settings in temperate regions around the world. Most Hornbeams look great every month of the year. Many have especially attractive fluted smooth gray bark.
Most Hornbeams have male flower catkins up to 4 inches in length and Hop like fruits up to 3 inches in length.
Propagation is from seed sown in autumn after being soaked for 24 hours in warm water. Cultivars can be grafted or grown from cuttings taken during mid summer. Unlike the Birches; Hornbeams are NOT bothered by the Bronze Birch Borers. In fact Coral Spot which can infect dead wood is about the only pest on Hornbeams, other than scale which is rare and usually attacks trees that are already weakened. December is the best time to prune and young trees should be pruned to a central leader, thinned and feathered.
The Hornbeams grow in sun or shade on most soils but tend to be most vigorous on soil that is fertile, light, deep, acidic and moist. Tolerant of poor soil and smog, the Hornbeams make excellent urban trees. In the Pacific Northwest, most Hornbeams do need occasional deep watering during the summer to make up for the typical lack of summer rainfall.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


Carpinus betulus ( European Hornbeam )
A moderate growing, medium size, pyramidal later turning rounded tree to 60 feet that is native to forests from England and Sweden through Europe to Turkey. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 10 years - 27 feet; 20 years - 57 x 50 feet; 240 years - 5 foot diameter; largest on record - 130 x 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. A very large tree grows in Philadelphia's Fernhill Park. Though an excellent shade tree; the European Hornbeam can be sheared in summer and is often used for hedging, especially in Europe. Long lived; this tree can reach up to 414 years of age.
The toothed, pointed, oval leaves with prominent veins are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size. The smooth leaves are verdant bright green in spring, deep green in summer and turn yellow to orange and red late in autumn. The European Hornbeam is late to leaf out in spring.
Many leaves are retained in dried form over the winter, especially on clipped plants.
The yellow flowers are borne in catkins up to 3 inches in length in spring.
The pendulous "Hop-like" fruit bracts are up to 5 inches in length and are green in summer turning to yellow in autumn.
The trunk is fluted and pale gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in sun or shade and are also tolerant of flooding, clay and highly alkaline soils.
New selections from the Ukraine are more tolerant of cold and drought than typical for Carpinus betulus and in fact have even been reported to tolerate -38 F.
The European Hornbeam is very urban tolerant and can even be used as a street tree if limbed up. Very easy to grow; it is virtually immune to pests or disease. Pruning and shaping is very important on young trees, to encourage a strong main leader and to remove low branches. Generally strong wooded, however trees with multiple leaders can be prone to splitting.

* photos taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD




* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on July 7 2013 in Columbia, MD






* photo taken on Feb 8 2015 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD




* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photos




'Columnaris'
Dense and columnar, reaching a maximum width of 13 feet at maturity.

'Emerald Avenue'
Vigorous with a strong leader and excellent branching.
The healthy deep green foliage typically keeps its color through the summer.
It has superior heat tolerance.

'Fastigiata'
A columnar tree good for height in restricted areas. An excellent tree for avenue plantings. Some records include: 6 years - 18 x 6 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 inches; 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 85 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 41 inches

* photo taken on March 14 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* photo of unknown internet source


'Franz Fontaine'
Similar to 'Fastigiata' but is even more columnar.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 8 years - 23 feet; maximum potential height - 85 x 20 feet

'Incisa'
A handsome tree with deeply cut leaves. It grows at about the same rate as the species and the largest on records is 72 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.

'Nord'
Hardy north to zone 3.

'Pendula'
A small weeping tree of moderate growth rate. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 4 years - 7 feet; 10 years - 15 x 12 feet; largest on record - 66 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.

* historic archive photo


'Purpurea'
Foliage is purplish-red in spring turning to green in summer then to orange and yellow in autumn. Largest on record - 63 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches, this rare tree has potential to grow even larger.

'Variegata'
Foliage has creamy white variegation. Doesn't grow quite as large with the largest on record only being 47 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.

'Viennas Weeping'
Reaching up to 50 feet with a strongly pendulous habit.

Carpinus caroliniana ( American Hornbeam )
A dense, moderate growing small or medium size tree to 35 feet that is native to moist forests, swamps and riverbanks of central and eastern North America ( from northwest Minnesota to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Manitoulin Island to Parry Sound and Petawawa, Ontario to southeast Quebec and Maine, south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common in most of Essex County except for Point Pelee and the Lake Erie islands where it was uncommon during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit as well as around Sandusky, Ohio during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 30 x 16 feet; 20 years - 40 x 17 feet; largest on record - 86 x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.7 feet; largest in New York State - 70 x 56 x 2.5 feet. Even larger trees may occur with a subspecies that grows in the mounstains of southern Mexico. The American Hornbeam is long lived and can last up to 150 years. This tree is often confused with younger American Beech, especially during the winter.
The double-toothed, taper-pointed, oval leaves are up to 5.5 x 2.5 inches in size. They are green in summer and turn to deep orange and scarlet during autumn. The American Hornbeam leafs out early in spring and many leaves often persist dried over the winter.
The tiny yellowish flowers are borne in catkins up to 4 inches in length in early spring.
The pendulous "Hop-like" fruit bracts are up to 6 inches in length.
The twigs are slender and the bark is gray, smooth and fluted.
The very heavy wood is up to 50 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 2 to 9. Generally not bothered by pests or disease, is flood tolerant and this tough wooded tree is very resistant to storms. The American Hornbeam likes deep moist soil and hates compaction and salt thus often limiting its use for street and parking lot plantings. Pruning is important when young since multi stemmed trees collect debris causing rot.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.

* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario



* photos taken on May 18 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 1 2013 in Howard Co., MD


* photos taken on Oct 6 2013 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD









* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken on Nov 3 2014 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on Apr 21 2015 in Columbia, MD




* photo taken on Apr 24 2015 in Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC



* photos taken on Aug 20 2016 in Olney, MD

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Aug 24 2017 @ U.S. Botanic Garden, Wash. DC.

* historical archive photos



Carpinus cordata ( Cordate Hornbeam )
A very attractive, broadly-columnar, medium-size, tree to 50 feet that is native to mountain woods of far southeastern Russia and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 4 years - 5.5 feet; 20 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 72 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The prominently-veined, toothed, oval leaves, up to 7 x 4 inches in size, are cordate at the base and have a finely pointed tip. The foliage is bright green in spring turning deep green during summer then rich yellow or red color during autumn.
The yellowish flowers are borne in catkins, up to 3 inches in length, during spring.
A hanging, closely overlapping bracts up to 4 inches in length surround the fruit.
The bark is gray-brown and smooth on young trees, later becoming scaly and furrowed.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 ( tolerating -30 F ). Very drought tolerant.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* historic archive photo

* historic archive photo

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos




Carpinus coreana ( Korean Hornbeam )
Also called Carpinus eximia. A small tree similar in appearance to Carpinus turczanovii; that is native to Korea and reaches around 20 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 40 x 30 feet. It is a tough little tree that is highly recommended for commercial plantings in urban areas.
The toothed, oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inch, are bright green, turning to reddish-orange in fall.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in sun or shade.

* historic archive photo


Carpinus fangiana ( Monkeytail Hornbeam )
A very beautiful, medium size tree reaching around 50 feet that is native to southwest China.
Some records include: 20 years - 33 feet; largest on record - 70 feet.
The leaves, up to 12 x 4 inches, are purple-bronze in spring turning to olive green in summer. The hanging leaves are heavily and closely pinnate veined.
The spectacular long drooping flower catkins are up to 20 inches in length.
They are straw white later aging to tan brown.
The young branches are black-brown with prominent white lenticals. The bark on older trees becomes dark brown and lightly scaly.
Hardy north to zone 6 ( less hardy in Englad due to cool summers and late spring frosts ). Grows most vigorously where summers are hot.

Carpinus fargesiana ( Farge's Hornbeam )
A small tree, reaching a maximum height of 65 feet, that is native to central China.
The deeply-veined, ovate leaves are up to 3.2 x 1 inch in size. The very attractive foliage is deep red at first, turning to bright green.
The bark is gray. The branches are dark brown.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

* historic archive photo


Carpinus henryana ( Henry's Hornbeam )
A handsome, very vigorous, dense, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 50 feet. It is native to central and western China where it is rare. Some records include: 7 years - 18 feet; 15 years - 30 x 23 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.8 feet; largest on record - 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. A respectable sized tree grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly.
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size.
Hardy zones 5 to 8.

Carpinus hupeana ( Hubei Hornbeam )
Also called Carpinus simplicidentata, C. stupulata and C. hupehensis. A small tree, reaching a maximum height of 60 feet, that is native to temperate forests in central China. It is moderate growing, reaching up to 10 feet in 5 years.
The deeply-veined, toothed, ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 4.3 x 1.8 inches in size.
The bark is gray and the branchlets are dark purple.
Hardy zones 6 to 8.

Carpinus japonica ( Japanese Hornbeam )
A rare, fast growing, broadly-spreading, medium-size tree to 40 feet that is native to forests of Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 10 years - 20 x 15 feet; 20 years - 40 x 17 feet; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The largest Japanese Hornbeam in Pennsylvania grows at Temple University behind the administration building.
The pointed, ovate leaves up to 5.7 x 2.3 inches in size have prominent closely set veins, are irregularily toothed and are hairy below. The smooth, glossy, deep green foliage turns to an excellent red fall color.
The flowers are borne in yellowish catkins up to 2.5 inches in length in early spring.
The fruit bracts, up to 2.5 inches in length are unlobed and untoothed.
The bark is gray and smooth when young, later becoming dark brown, fissured and scaly.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 tolerating -30 F; preferring moist, well drained soil in sun or partial shade. It is tolerant of flooding. Typically not bothered by pests or disease.

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Carpinus laxiflora ( Fargesii Hornbeam )
A rare, fast growing medium-size tree native to far eastern China, Korea and Japan that can reach around 50 feet. Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 80 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.5 feet. Very long-lived, it can persist as long as 700 years.
The toothed, elliptical leaves up to 4 x 2.3 ( rarely over 3 x 1.3 ) inches in size, are taper pointed and are borne on crimson red stalks. The leaves are slightly downy on the veins, they are reddish at first turning to lush green and turning late around mid November to orange-yellow.
The young shoots are silky and the branches are drooping.
The fruit are loosely clustered.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 4b to 9, it is among the hardier Hornbeams thriving in protected locations in the Ottawa Valley of Canada. Grows more vigorously where summers are hot.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* historic archive photo


subsp. 'Macrostachya'
larger leaves to 10 inches in length

Carpinus macrocarpa
Also called Carpinus orientalis subsp. macrocarpa. A medium size tree reaching up to 50 feet that is native to Iran. Some records include: largest on record - 70 x 60 feet.
The toothed, elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size.
Hardy north to zone 5

Carpinus monbeigiana ( Yunnan Hornbeam )
An attractive weeping deciduous small tree, reaching a maximum height of 53 feet, that is native to Tibet and Yunnan Province in China. Very rare and not well known. Some records include: 17 years - 20 feet.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 4.3 x 1.6 inches in size, are bright green.
The bark is gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 ( may prove hardier with testing ).

Carpinus omeinsis ( Mount Omei Hornbeam ) A very graceful, semi-weeping, rounded, small, deciduous tree, reaching up to 23 x 23 feet. It is native to Guizhou and Sichuan Provinces in China.
Some records include: 3 years - 7 feet. The ovate to elliptical leaves, up to 3.2 x 1.5 inches in size, are deep red at first, turning to glossy mid-green.
Foliage is burgundy at first in spring. The bark is gray and the branchlets are dark brown.
Hardy zones 7 to 8 ( estimate, it may prove much hardier with testing ).

Carpinus orientalis ( Turkish Hornbeam )
A small tree reaching around 30 feet that is native to most of southeast Europe & also Turkey. Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 63 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 21 inches. In fact the largest trees grow outside its native range in England. The Turkish Hornbeam is long lived and can exceed 100 years.
The double-toothed, ovate to elliptical leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inches in size. They are glossy green and color late in autumn, sometimes red but often not coloring much at all.
The bark is purplish-brown with light brown markings.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating -20 F ).

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id3430/

Carpinus polyneura ( Chinese Hornbeam )
A very attractive, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 5o x 30 feet, that is native to hardwood forests of eastern China.
The foliage is purplish at first, turning to deep green. The ovate leaves are up to 3.2 x 1 inch in size.
The stems are deep purple. The bark is gray.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( tolerating -30 F ). It is very heat tolerant.

Carpinus pubescens ( Pubescent Hornbeam )
A weeping, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 55 feet, that is native to southwest China and northern Vietnam.
The elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is coppery-red at first.
Hardy zones 8 ( est ), likely thriving in milder parts of the British Isles.

Carpinus rankanensis ( Taiwanese Hornbeam )
A medium-size tree native to mountains of Taiwan reaching a maximum size of 70 feet.
The deeply-veined, toothed, oblong leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The very attractive foliage is deep orange at first, turning to mid-green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

Carpinus shensiensis ( Shaanxi Hornbeam )
An extremely rare, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to temperate forests in southern Gansu and southern Shanxi Provinces in southeastern China. Some records include: 25 years - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The deeply-veined, double-toothed, oblong leaves, up to 3.5 x 1.7 inches in size, are deep red at first, turning to luxuriant bright green.
The bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( est )

Carpinus tsaiana ( Wide-Bud Hornbeam )
A large tree, reaching up to 100 feet in height with a trunk diameter of 28 inches, that is native to subtropical forests in southeast Yunnan and southwest Guizhou Provinces in China.
The finely-toothed, thick, oblong leaves are up to 5.5 x 2.3 inches in size.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zone 9 to 10 ( est ), it has not been tested in North America but would likely thrive in southern Louisiana and northern Florida.

Carpinus tschonoskii ( Silky Hornbeam )
A dense, rounded, fast growing, large tree native to northeast Asia ( southern and eastern China, Korea & Japan ) reaching around 50 feet. Some records include: 20 years - 30 feet; largest on record - 82 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. Large trees already grow in England. It makes a very attractive landscape tree.
The Henry Hornbeam is long lived and can exceed 100 years. It is closely related to Carpinus betulus.
The deeply-veined, toothed, pointed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 3 inches in size. The margins are finely serrated.
The shoots are downy.
The smooth, grayish-brown bark is similar to that of Carpinus caroliniana.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( reported at zone 4b in Ottawa, Ontario ) on moist well drained soil; this tree loves hot summers though will likely need additional irrigation during drought.

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://easai.web.fc2.com/biology/Plants/Carpinus/

Carpinus turczaninowii ( Yedo Hornbeam )
Native from northeast China to Korea and Japan; this is a graceful small shrubby tree typically around 40 feet. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2.5 feet; 20 years - 26 x 17 feet; largest on record - 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet ( trees almost that large already grow in England ).
The Yedo Hornbeam is long lived and can exceed 100 years.
The prominently veined leaves, up to 3.6 x 1 inch in size emerge bright red before turning to deep green in summer then to rich orange in autumn.
The dark reddish-brown branches are slender.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( tolerating -30 F ).

* historic archive photo


Carpinus viminea ( Himalayan Hornbeam )
An attractive, rounded medium-size tree to 33 feet native to the Himalayas ( from Kashmir to Tibet to southern China; south to Burma, Thailand & Vietnam ). It can reach a maximum size of 66 feet with often pendulous branches.
The very attractive foliage is coppery red during spring before turning to green. The oval leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches in size, have very prominent veining and are double toothed. The foliage is purplish-red at first, turning to glossy deep green.
The light gray bark is very attractive.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

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