Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Hazels

Corylus

A genus of 15 species of deciduous large shrubs and trees that are related to Alders and Birches and are known worldwide for their edible nuts.
Upon ripening the nuts must be harvested very rapidly as there is also heavy competition from squirrels ( eat up to 80 in a day ), mice and birds. The nuts are very nutritious, containing 60% fats, 10% protein and lots of calcium iron and magnesium. To prepare for eating, the nuts can be dried in the sun. More on the healthy qualities of Hazelnuts can be found on this site ( http://www.arborday.org/programs/hazelnuts/consortium/nutrition.cfm ).
Hazel wood is also valuable for firewood and trees can be coppiced for that use as well as tool handles. Trees should be harvested during late fall or winter, to encourage resprouting when spring comes. The trees should be cut on an angle so that water drains off the stump and doesn't cause rot. Coppice plantations of European Hazelnut are usually planted at about 5 feet apart, however trees used for landscaping should be planted with their mature width in mind so that they can develop an attractive natural form. Coppice plantations usually take about 4 years to develop healthy vigorous root systems, at which time they are cut to near the base to develop vigorous long stright multiple trunks which are later harvested.
They are easy to grow in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile soil. Most are very alkaline and chalk tolerant.
Propagation can be from seed that is 3 month cold stratified at 40 F ( refridgerator will do ). Use wire mesh or anything else that will block rodents or squirrels from digging up seed. Hazels can also be reproduced by summer softwood cuttings treated with hormone powder, detached root suckers are also an option.
Eastern Filbert Blight poses a problem for Hazels in parts of North America
( external link - http://oregonstate.edu/dept/botany/epp/EFB/management/plant.htm ).
The blight fungus is native to the eastern U.S. and only causes minor damage to native Hazelnuts but causes severe damage and even death of European Hazelnut ( Corylus avellana ). Formerly only a problem in eastern North America...Eastern Filbert Blight was accidently introduced to Washington State during the 1960s and has killed alot of orchards there.

* photo of unknown internet source


Corylus americana ( American hazelnut )
A fast growing, heavily suckering, large deciduous shrub native to sandy and rocky woods of central and eastern North America ( from southeast Saskatchewan to Kenora to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to southern Quebec & Maine; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Georgia ). It is endangered in Quebec. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it is only listed as occurring sporadically in the Point Pelee area as well as Pelee Island during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan and around Sandusky, Ohio at that time. Some records include: 1st years - 20 inches; fastest recorded growth rate - 3 + feet; 10 years - 10 x 15 feet; largest on record - 35 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is almost always multi-trunked and is very similar in form to Corylus americana.
The toothed, oval leaves are up to 7 x 5 inches in size. The foliage turns orange to purple-red in autumn. The autumn foliage is often very attractive and rivals even the Burningbush Euonymus.
The flower catkins are up to 3 inches in length before the foliage emerges in early spring.
The light brown, sweet, edible nuts ripening in August are completely enclosed in the husks. The fruits are up to an inch in length. The nuts are loved by squirrels. They can be eaten fresh after the husk and shell has been removed.
The twigs are brown.
Hardy zone 2 to 8. Requires well drained soils and is very drought tolerant. It is highly rated for landscape use in both the northern Great Plains and the northeastern portion of the North American continent.

* photos taken on Oct 19 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 31 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken by Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Corylus avellana ( European Hazelnut )
A multi-stemmed, bushy, rounded, suckering tree native from most of Europe to western Asia, and northern Africa. Some records include: 10 years - 23 feet; 20 years - 40 x 27 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 63 inches; longest lived - unknown but can easily exceed 100 years.
The double-toothed, rounded leaves are up to 5 x 5 inches in size. The new growth in spring is covered in sticky hairs. The coarse, mid-green foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The showy light yellow male flower catkins are long ( up to 3 inches long ) and are borne during late winter before the foliage emerges. The female flower catkins are red.
The ragged husks cover about half the nut. The nuts are abundantly produced, up to 500 pounds yearly per acre of trees. They make great windbreaks for farms or as a cover crop for slower growing trees as they too can be harvested for food.
The light brown bark peels in strips.
Hardy zone 1 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on fertile soil.

* photo taken on June 10 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Nov 8 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 31 2013 @ Hampton Ntl. Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC


'Aurea'
Has foliage that is yellow later turning to greenish-yellow; otherwise similar to species. Some records include: largest on record - 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches with a huge crown.

'Contorta' ( Corkscrew Hazel )
Forms a dense shrub up to 7 feet or more, with twisted twigs and branches. Some records include: 20 years - 13 x 13 feet; largest on record - 20 x 17 feet.
The almost rounded but pointed, sharply toothed foliage is medium green.
The bright yellow flowers are borne in hanging catkins in late winter before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zone 4 to 8. It is best grown from cuttings or layering, grafted plants sucker heavily and often revert back to wild form and should not be used.
This cultivar originated in 1863

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Dec 14 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Apr 6 2013 in Columbia, MD
* photos taken on Dec 13 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 1 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken on Apr 6 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Mar 5 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Heterophylla'
Smaller growing, reaching 15 feet ( largest on record - 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches ) with deeply triangular-toothed lobed and toothed foliage.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id86742/?taxonid=640056

'Pendula'
Forms a very attractive, gracefully-weeping tree, up to 15 feet in height, when grafted atop Corylus colurna.
The foliage is the same as regular Corylus avellana.

* historical archive photo


'Red Dragon'
Fast growing and identical in habit to 'Contorta', reaching around 12 x 8 feet, however it has rich deep purplish-red foliage and is the only "Corkscrew Hazel" that is resistant to Eastern Filbert Blight.
The flower catkins are also rich deep purplish-red but this Hazel bears no fruit.

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Clarksville


'Red Majestic'
Vigorous growing, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 12 feet with twisted branches and wrinkled, deep red-plum foliage, that turns orange to deep red during autumn. In regions with hot summers, the foliage often turns to reddish-green.
In late autumn, it also bears purple catkins.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, may be prone to foliage damage from Japanese Beetles in some regions.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC
* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Rode Zellernoot' ( Purple English Hazel )
Reaches up to 15 feet in 10 years, eventually slightly more. The foliage is deep reddish-purple.

* photo from unknown internet source

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Ruby'
Same size with very dark bronze leaves.

Corylus chinensis ( Chinese Hazel )
A very beautiful, long lived large tree that reaches around 80 feet and is similar to Corylus colurna except for having maroon-red new foliage. It is native to mountains of Tibet and central China and is critically endangered in the wild. Some records include: largest on record - 140 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
The doubly-toothed, ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 8 x 5 inches in size.
The fissured bark is grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and is extremely drought and clay tolerant.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 in Washington, DC

* historic archive photo


Corylus colurna ( Turkish Hazel )
A dense, conical, large tree native from southeast Europe into western Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 5 years - 13 x 7 feet; 20 years - 60 x 50 feet; largest on record - 120 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.2 feet.
The coarsely double-toothed, blunt-pointed, lightly-lobed, broadly-oval, leaves are up to 7 x 6 inches in size. The heavily-veined, thick foliage is smooth deep green above, downy on the veins beneath and turns to yellow or purple during autumn.
The flowers are borne in very profuse catkins during late winter before the foliage emerges.
The male catkins up to 5 inches in length are yellow and dropping. The female catkins are very small and red. Both are borne separately on the same tree.
The edible nuts are held in very deeply lobed husks.
The attractive gray to tan color bark is corky and corrugated.
Hardy zone 3 to 7, it prefers full sun on well drained soil and climates with cold winters and hot summers. The Turkish Hazel is heat and very drought, pollution, salt and seashore tolerant as well as being practically immune to pests and diseases making it an excellent urban street shade tree. Young trees should be pruned to a single main leader, thinned and feathered. Older trees need little to no pruning except to limb up for clearance and to remove any suckers that occur.
Turkish Hazel does not enjoy being transplanted and is best moved while small.

* taken @ Walter Reid, D.C. on June 2008

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods, Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario



* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id22366/?taxonid=3427

Corylus cornuta ( Beaked Filbert )
A moderate growing, large, erect shrub reaching around 20 feet that is native to North America ( from northern Alberta to central Saskatchewan to central Manitoba to Minaki, Ontario to Armstrong, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, ON to Chicoutimi Quebec to Newfoundland; south to central California to Idaho to Montana to Iowa to central Michigan to Chatham, Ontario to central North Carolina...south into northern Alabama and Georgia in the Appalachian Mountains ). A separate population native to central Alabama may hold promise for Hazelnut production in the southeast. It is found in woods, riverbanks and lake shores in the wild.
The toothed and lobed, oval leaves are up to 6 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green and turns to orange during autumn.
The flower catkins reach up to 2 inches in length.
The male flowers are borne in showy, pendulous catkins very early in spring before the foliage emerges.
Long tubular husks enclose the nuts. The whole fruits is up to 1.5 inches in length and the nut is up to 0.5 inches. The nuts are edible but it is recommended to wear gloves to collect the nuts. The husks are covered in sharp hairs that irritate the skin. The nuts can be eaten fresh once the husk has been removed.
The twigs are brown with rounded brown buds.
Hardy zone 2 to 8

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON

* historic archive photo


subsp 'Californica'
Larger growing and native from Kitsault, British Columbia to Prince George, B.C.; south to central California. Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 42 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The flower catkins are longer ( up to 2.4 inches ) and the nut husks are shorter.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Requires well drained soil. It is very tolerant of urban conditions.

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Corylus fargesii ( Farges Hazel )
A very attractive, fast growing tree, reaching a maximum size of 80 x 40 feet, that is native to central and eastern China. Some records include: 15 years - 35 feet ( avg ); fastest growth rate - 5 feet.
The cordate, oblong leaves, up to 6.5 x 4 inches, are deep green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The attractive, peeling light brown bark rivals that of the River Birch for interest.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, the Farges Hazel is very easy to grow and is highly resistant to insect pests or disease ( including Eastern Filbert Blight ). It is a highly recommended shade tree for much of Midwestern and Eastern North America.

* photo taken @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C. on Feb 2009

* photo taken on March 28 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on July 17 2010 @ Morris Arboretum, Philly, PA






* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photos taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Corylus ferox ( Ferox Hazel )
A medium-sized tree native to mountain forests from northeast India to central China; south to northern Burma ) It can reach a maximum height of 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The finely-toothed, ovate or oblong leaves are up to 6 x 3.5 inches in size. The papery foliage is mid-green above, grayish-white beneath.
The flower catkins are borne during late spring.
They are followed by nuts, up to 0.6 inches wide, that ripen during early autumn.
The fissured bark is gray. The stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 9. Unlike many species, this one is more adapted to maritime climates with mild winters and cool summers including milder parts of the British Isles. It is very tolerant of seaside conditions including strong winds.

var thibetica ( Tibetan Hazel )
A subspecies forming a medium-size tree that is native to western and central China. Some records include: largest on record - 56 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches.
The leaves are up to 6 x 4 inches in size.
It is hardier than regular Corylus ferox; north to zone 5 ( seed source from southeast Gansu & Shaanxi would be the hardiest ).

Corylus heterophylla ( Siberian Hazel )
A rapid growing, multi-trunked small tree native from northern Mongolia to southeast Siberia; south to eastern China, Korea and Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 25 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches. It is very closely related to Corylus avellana however the leaves are more lobed.
The tooth-edged, rounded but point tipped leaves are up to 6 x 5 inches in size. The foliage is finely hairy lush deep green above, downy beneath.
The nuts are single or paired and are enclosed within leafy bracts.
The nuts are of high quality for eating.
The bark is thick and gray.
Hardy zone 2b to 8. Drought tolerant.

* photo taken on Oct 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on Feb 8 2014 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxonimage/id158964/?taxonid=200369

Corylus jacquemontii ( Jacquemont Hazel )
A fine, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet. It is native to mountain forests in the Himalayas ( from Afghanistan to western Nepal ). It is similar in appearance to Corylus colurna.
The double-toothed leaves, up to 8 inches in length, appear very early in spring, even a month before C. colurna. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The flower catkins appear during mid-spring.
They are followed by tasty, edible nuts which they are sometimes cultivated for within its native range.
Hardy zones 4 to 8.

Corylus 'Jefferson'
Similar to Corylus maxima in appearance, this variety bred at Oregon State University is resistant to Eastern Filbert Blight.
This late season bloomer has excellent commercial potential. It yields large tasty nuts that fill nearly the entire shell.
Hardy zones 5 to 9.

Corylus maxima ( Filbert )
A vigorous, bushy, small tree reaching around 25 feet that is native from southern and eastern Europe to western Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 17 feet; 20 years - 27 x 27 feet; largest on record - 40 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The large, heart-shaped leaves are up to 6 x 6 inches in size. The new growth is covered in sticky hairs and the leathery foliage is mid-green.
The large, oval, brown nuts are encased in long lobed husks.
Hardy zone 4 to 8, it is only partially hardy in the Ottawa Valley of Canada where it may survive a few years before perishing unless in a protected location. It is generally disease resistant.

'Purpurea' ( Purple-leaved Filbert )
Same except for foliage that is deep red-purple in spring turning to greenish-purple in summer. The flower catkins in late winter are also dark purple.
It is often pruned hard in March to produce larger foliage.

* photos taken on May 6 2010 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on May 21 2014 @ Hampton Ntl Historic Site, Towson, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Corylus sieboldiana ( Manchurian Hazel )
A small tree reaching around 20 feet that is native to far eastern Russia; south to central & northeast China, Korea and northern Japan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 38 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The toothed, obovate leaves, up to 6 x 4 inches in size, are glossy mid-green.
The flower catkins are borne during late spring.
They are followed by edible nuts.
The fissured bark is pale grayish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( seed source from Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia may be hardier to zone 2 or 3 ), in full sun to partial shade. It hates hot sun. Manchurian Hazel thrives in much of Midwestern and Northeastern North America.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* historic archive photo


Corylus 'Te-Terra Red' ( Trazel )
A hybrid between Corylus avellana & C. colurna, forming a fast growing, upright, pyramidal tree, reaching up to 15 x 10 ( average ) feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum height of 60 feet.
The very attractive, large, glossy purplish-red foliage turns to deep green in summer.
The attractive early spring, long, pendulous flower catkins are pinkish-red.
They are followed by purple nuts.
The attractive corky bark resembles that of Corylus colurna.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( est ).

Corylus x trazel
The hybrid between Corylus avellana & C. colurna. Reaches up to 60 feet with heavy crops of tasty nuts.
Hardy north to zone 4

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