Saturday, January 16, 2010

Aruncus & Family

A small genus of perennals, that are closely related to the Astilbe but typically much larger.
They can be propagated from seed but both male and female plants are requires to produce seed. The seed is then sown fresh on moist soil, preferring warm humid conditions between 70 and 75 F. The Goat's Beards can also be reproduced by means of division during autumn or early spring. Older plants often have very dense roots that may even need an axe to cut them apart. Division is not required unless for propagation, since these plants remain vigorous for a very long time without it.
Pests and diseases are not often problems on these.

* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, Washington, DC


Aruncus aethusifolius ( Dwarf Korean Goat's Beard )
A low growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 feet x 26 ( rarely over 12 ) inches, that is native to Korea and Japan. It makes an excellent rock garden plant.
The fine textured leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are composed of many small crispy, deeply incised leaflets. The mid-green foliage turns to bright yellow to rich red in autumn.
The creamy-white flower spikes, up to 6 inches in length, are borne in early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, in partial to full shade on cool, moist, fertile, acidic soil. Rarely bothered by pests or disease. It can be grown in full sun only in climates with cool, moist summers.
Thrives as far south as Georgia, where Aruncus dioicus does poorly.

* photo taken on May 8 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD

* photo taken on May 16 2010 @ Cylburn Arboretum, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore College, PA


'Hillside Gem'
Much more finely textured ferny foliage topped by creamy-white flower spikes up to 1 foot in height, borne in early summer.

Aruncus dioicus ( Giant Goat's Beard )
A fast growing, long-lived, handsome specimen perennial, reaching up to 8 x 6.5 feet ( rarely up to 10 feet in width ), that is native from Europe to Mongolia and eastern Siberia; and the eastern U.S. In the eastern U.S., it is native to rich woods from Iowa to Pennsylvania; south to eastern Oklahoma to northern Georgia. It is also native to western North America ( from Kodiac and Anchorage, Alaska to Mackenzie, British Columbia; south into the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. ). Some records include: 2 years - width of 4 feet.
The compound leaves, up to 3.3 feet in length, form a very dense foliage clump up to 5 ( usually under 4 ) feet high. The leaves are composed of many deeply-toothed, ovate leaflets, up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is mid-green, turning to yellow during autumn.
The foliage clump is topped by huge Astilbe-like plumes ( up to 40 inches in length ) of tiny, creamy-white flowers borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( to 7 & 8 where summers are cool ) in partial to full shade on fertile, humus-rich soil. Requires permanently moist to wet soil in areas with hot summers. Clay tolerant and deer resistant. Cut back plants during mid summer after blooms fade to tidy up plants.
Propagation is from seed sown during autumn or division during autumn or early spring. The seed can also be stored in a refrigerator over the winter then sown during spring.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on May 15 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society, Ellicott City

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on July 11 2016 in Ellicott City, MD

* historical archive photo


'Kneifii'
A perennial reaching up to 6 x 6+ feet, with finely cut, feathery foliage.
It may spread invasively with ideal conditions.
The foliage is more ferny than Aruncus dioicus.
The creamy-white flower plumes are borne during early to late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 6. Rarely bothered by pests or disease.
Propagation from division only.

Aruncus kamtschaticus ( Kamchatka Goat's Beard )
A massive perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 feet, that is native to the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Asia.
The large compound leaves, are composed of leaflets, up to 5 x 3 inches in size.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial to full shade on moist, fertile loam soil.

Aruncus 'Southern White'
The hybrid between Aruncus aethusifolius & A. dioicus, forming a dense, vigorous clump topped by abundant spikes of white flowers.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, it tolerates hot humid summers in the southeast and Mid Atlantic much better than Aruncus dioicus.

RELATED PLANTS

Filipendula

* photo taken on Jul 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, ON


Filipendula 'Kakome' ( Dwarf Pink Meadowsweet )
A dwarf cultivar reaching a maximum size of 2 x 4 feet.
It is great used in edging or next to water.
The foliage is lobed and deep green.
The rosy-pink flowers are borne on fluffy heads during mid to late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun ( cool climates ) or partial shade on fertile, moist to wet soil. They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

Filipendula kamtschatica ( Kamchatka Meadowsweet )
A fast spreading, rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 4 feet, that is native to eastern Siberia, Sakhalin, Kamchatka and Japan.
The double compound leaves, up to 16 ( rarely over 12 ) inches across, are composed of toothed to lobed leaflets. The attractive tropical-looking foliage is rich deep green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters, up to 10 inches across, all summer long.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial shade on cool, moist, fertile soil. Flood tolerant.
They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

'Rosea'
Reddish-pink flowers.

Filipendula palmata ( Siberian Meadowsweet )
A fast spreading, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 10 ( rarely over 6 ) x 4 feet, that is native to eastern Russia; south to Mongolia and northeastern China.
The double compound leaves, up to 18 x 10 inches, are composed of toothed leaflets, up to 8 inches in length. The terminal leaflets are 7 to 9 lobed. The foliage is deep green above, white woolly beneath.
The pale pink flowers are borne in clusters, up to 12 ( usually half ) inches across, all summer long.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial shade on cool, moist, fertile soil. Flood tolerant.
They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


Filipendula purpurea ( Japanese Meadowsweet )
A fast spreading, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 6.5 x 6 feet, that is native to Sibiria. This plant is great at the back of the border, next to water or as a specimen.
The double compound leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are composed of toothed leaflets, up to 12 inches in length. The terminal leaflets are 5 to 7 lobed. The foliage is deep green.
The fragrant, deep rose-pink ( fading to lighter pink ) flowers are borne in feathery plumes, up to 12 inches across, during early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in partial shade on cool, deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist to wet soil. Flood tolerant. They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Elegans'
Similar except for white ( with showy red stamens ) borne on fluffy flower plumes during early to mid summer over lacy foliage.

* photo taken on May 14 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on on Aug 23 2014 in Howard Co., MD


Filipendula rubra ( Queen of the Prairie )
A fast spreading, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum height of 10 x 6 ( rarely over 6 x 4 ) feet, that is native to wet prairies of the eastern U.S. from Minnesota to Newfoundland; south to Missouri to Kentucky to Virginia. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common on the Ohio shore ( Castalia Prairie ) during the 1800s. A spectacular plant where it thrives.
The double compound leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are composed of toothed leaflets, up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is deep green.
The deep pink flowers are borne in clusters, up to 12 inches across, all summer long.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial shade ( also full sun in cool summer climates ) on cool, deep, fertile, humus-rich, moist to wet soil. Flood tolerant. It is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease other than occasional powdery mildew or Japanese Beetle. They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Venusta'
Deep pink flowers borne on large panicles.

Filipendula ulmaria ( European Meadowsweet )
A clump-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 8 x 4.7 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native throughout most of Europe and western Asia.
The large compound leaves, up to 18 inches in length, are deep green above, hairy beneath.
The fragrant, tiny, creamy-white flowers are borne in large, flat-topped, feathery plumes, up to 10 inches across, from early summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist fertile soil ( though much more drought tolerant than other species ).
They can be propagated by division during spring or fall though separating the tough, thick roots may be difficult.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario


'Aurea'
Dwarf in habit, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, with golden-green foliage.
Requires partial to full shade or else it is prone to spider mites and scorch.
This plant is usually grown for its attractive foliage and the flower spikes are often removed.

'Plena'
Similar except for having double creamy-white flowers on plumy spikes. Prone to Powdery-Mildew in some areas. More tolerant of average moisture conditions than regular Filipendula ulmaria.

'Variegata'
Attractive foliage is deep green with a creamy-yellow blotch in the center.
Requires partial to full shade or else it is prone to spider mites and scorch.
This plant is usually grown for its attractive foliage and the flower spikes are often removed.

Filipendula vulgaris ( Dropwort )
Also called F. hexapetala. A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3 feet, that is native to temperate Eurasia.
The ferny pinnate foliage is mid-green.
The very small, white flowers are borne on loose panicles during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in partial shade on moderately dry, well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed or division.

'Flore-Plena'
Reaches up to 1.5 feet, with double, white flowers.

Sanguisorba azovtsevii ( Altai Burnet )
A long-lived perennial, reaching up to 4 feet in height, that is native to the Altay region of Siberia.
The pinnate leaves, up to 16 x 5 inches in size, are composed of oblong leaflets.
The reddish-purple flowers are borne on clusters up to 3 x 0.5 inches in size, borne during mid-summer and lasting for up to a month.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in partial to full shade on just about any well drained soil. It is resistant to insect pests and disease.

Sanguisorba canadensis ( Canadian Burnet )
A vigorous to invasive, rhizomatous, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to acidic bogs in northeastern North America ( from Michigan to Labrador; south to central Illinois to the Smoky Mountains in far northern Georgia to northern Virginia ). It can be invasive on wet soil.
The pinnate leaves, up to 1.5 feet in length, are composed of 10 to 21 coarsely-toothed, narrow-oblong leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is bright green ( sometimes gray-green by late summer ).
The tiny white flowers are borne on dense bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 8 inches in length, from early summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial shade on cool, moist to wet, fertile soil. Propagation is from division during autumn / early spring or seed.
It is edible but the leaves must be cooked to be eaten, in order to remove the bitterness.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Sanguisorba menziesii ( Alaskan Burnet )
A moderate growing perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 2 feet, that is native to northwestern North America ( from Bethel, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to Skagway, Alaska; south thru western British Columbia and northwestern Washington State ).
The pinnate leaves are composed of tooothed obovate leaflets. The lacy foliage is gray-green.
The deep red flowers are borne on short cylindrical spikes during late spring into early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on consistently moist soil. Easy to grow. Cut back foliage to renew if it gets rough looking after summer heat.

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Sanguisorba minor ( Small Burnet )
Dwarf in habit, reaching only 2 ( rarely over 1 ) foot in height, making it great for edging and the front of borders. It is evergreen unless winters are exceptionally harsh. It is naturalized locally in eastern North America to as far north as Tobermory, Ontario.
The pinnate leaves are composed of up to 17 deeply-toothed, ovate to rounded leaflets up to 0.8 inches in length. The finely-textured, blue-green foliage can be used for salads when young.
The deep red, rounded flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8. It is recommended to cut back after flowering.

* photo taken by H.H. Biswell @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Joe F. Duft @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora


Sanguisorba obtusa ( Japanese Burnet )
A very attractive, vigorous, rhizomatous, bushy, evergreen ( except in coldest winters ) perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to mountain meadows in Japan. This tough, long -lived, clumping perennial can become invasive on wet sites.
The pinnate leaves, up to 1.5 feet in length, are composed of 7 to 17 leaflets, up to 3.5 inches in length. The elegant, lacy foliage is grayish-blue.
The tiny, reddish-pink flowers are borne in bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 4 inches in length, all summer long.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on cool, moist, fertile, well drained soil. Propagation is from seed or division during autumn.

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON


'Albiflora'
White flowers

Sanguisorba officinalis ( Great Burnet )
A moderate growing, rhizomatous, herbaceous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 3 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that in native to cold northerly regions of Eurasia and North America ( from Kotzebue, Alaska to northern Yukon to Nelson, British Columbia; south to northern California to central Oregon ). It is found in mountain meadows in much of its range.
The pinnate leaves, are composed of 7 to 15 toothed, narrow-ovate or elliptic leaflets, up to 2.8 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green. The young leaves can be cooked as a potherb or added to salads to give a cucumber like flavor.
The tiny deep red flowers are borne on dense bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 8 inches in length, from early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial shade on cool, moist to wet, fertile soil. Propagation is from division during autumn or seed.
The foliage is edible and can be eaten - even raw. The foliage taste somewhat resembling that of Cucumber.

* photo taken on May 5 2010 @ McCrillis Gardens, Bethesda, MD


Sanguisorba sitchensis ( Sitka Burnet )
A vigorous, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4 feet, that is native to salt marshes and swamps in northwestern North America ( from Kodiak, Alaska to central Yukon to Mackenzie, British Columbia; south to southwest Oregon to central Idaho ). It can be invasive on wet soil.
The pinnate leaves, up to 1.5 feet in length, are composed of up to 21 toothed, narrow ovate leaflets, up to 4 inches in length. The foliage is bright green.
The tiny white flowers are borne in bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 8 inches in length, from early summer to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial shade on cool moist soil. Propagation is from seed or division during autumn.

Sanguisorba tenuifolia
A vigorous, rhizomatous, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 3.2 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to northeast Asia ( from Mongolia to eastern Siberia; south to Manchuria to Korea & Japan ).
The pinnate leaves, up to 1 foot in length, are composed of 11 to 21 narrowly-oblong leaflets, up to 4 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy mid-green.
The tiny, white to purplish-red flowers are borne abundantly on bottlebrush-like inflorescences, up to 2.8 inches in length, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in partial shade on cool, moist to wet, fertile soil. Propagation is from seed or division during autumn.

'Alba'
White flowers, otherwise identical.

'Atropurpurea'
Deep red flowers, otherwise identical.

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Pink Elephant'
Pinkish-red flowers, otherwise identical.

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