Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Hawthorns

Crataegus
A genus of close to 200 species of trees and shrubs that are part of the larger Rosaceae family.
They prefer full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.
Most Hawthorns are tolerant of wind, coastal conditions as well as urban pollution.
Pruning is important when young to develop a well formed attractive tree.
Young trees should be pruned to a single leader and feathered. Thin the canopy and remove suckers whether at the base of higher up on the tree. Remove thorns that grow from the trunk however for many species thornless cultivars are available and should be used instead.
The wood is hard, heavy, tough, close-grained and useful for making tool handles.
As for propagation; harvest ripe fruits, extract the seeds, soak seed in water for 24 hours or scarify in acid, germinate immediately in a spot protected from winter freeze but be patient because germination may take as long as 18 months. They can be planted on their permanent site once they reach 6 or more inches in height.
Cultivars can be reproduced from budding in autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


* historical archive photos


Crataegus aestivalis ( May Hawthorn )
A small to medium sized rounded tree to 30 x 35 feet or more, that is native to the southern U.S. from Mississippi to Virginia Beach; sotuh to the Gulf Coast and northern Florida. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 50 x 43 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. Very long lived.
The typically unlobed oval leaves, up to 2 x 0.8 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in size, are glossy deep green above, red-brown beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The very early ripening red fruit, up to an inch across, is of excellent quality and is worth about $12 per gallon. A 6 year old tree can produce up to 20 pounds of fruit per year and a 9 year old tree 40 pounds. The fruits are among the best of all Hawthorn fruits and are great for use in making preserves.
Hardy zones 4 to 9, it is moderately drought tolerant, flood tolerant and not typically prone to disease.

* photos taken on 4th of July 2010 in Washington, D.C.


* photo taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Crataegus ambigua ( Russian Hawthorn )
A moderate growing, twisted, rounded, spreading tree reaching up to 25 x 25 feet that is native from eastern Europe to Russia; south to Turkey, Iran, Armenia and Kazakhstan. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; 5 years - 10 x 9 feet; largest on record - 40 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches. This tree is very long lived.
The deeply lobed, "White-Oak like", leaves are medium green, turning golden-yellow to red during autumn.
The abundant, white flowers are borne during late spring.
The attractive, abundant, showy, deep red berries persist well into winter.
The bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( it thrives in Calgary, Alberta! ); it is a tough tree that is drought and alkaline tolerant.
It is not prone to insects or disease and is an excellent landscape or shelterbelt tree for the high dry prairies of the U.S.

* photo of unknown internet source


Crataegus arnoldiana ( Arnold Hawthorn )
An attractive, dense small tree native to Montana, Wyoming to North Dakota; south to Kansas to Ohio. Some records include: 20 years - 16 feet ( avg ); largest on record - 33 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The toothed, lobed, oval leaves are up to 3 x 3 inches.
The foliage is deep green above, light green beneath.
The fragrant white flowers are borne in spring.
They are followed by 3 to 4 seeded, scarlet red fruit.
The bark is brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 6, tolerating as low as -40 F
It is very drought tolerant, growing in climates with 10 to 40 inches of annual rainfall on soil anywhere from PH 5.5 to 8 Mostly disease free; this is among the best Hawthorns to use on the Great Plains and Canadian Prairies.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. North Dakota tree handbook


'Homestead'
Vigorous with edible fruit.
Hardy zone 3a to 6b and very rust resistant, making it an excellent tree for the northern Plains.

Crataegus azarolus ( Azarole )
An attractive, broad-spreading, small to medium-sized tree native southern Europe to western Asia; south into northern Africa. Some records include: 20 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 28 inches.
It is moderately long-lived, persisting up to 80 years or more.
The diamond shaped leaves, up to 3 x 3 inches, have 3 to 5 paires of lobes. The foliage is bright green, later turning to glossy deep green above, hairy beneath.
The white to pale pink flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in corymbs of up to 18 during during mid-spring.
The abundant, yellow to orange, edible, rounded fruits, up to an inch wide taste like Apples.
The attractive, flaking bark is grayish-brown. The stems are armed with spines up to 0.3 inches in length.
Hardy zone 6 to 10

* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id127830/

Crataegus baroussana ( Tejocote )
A spreading, deciduous shrub reaching a maximum size of 10 x 10 feet that is native to the pine-oak forests in the mountains of northern Mexico. Some records include: 7 years - 4 feet; 25 years - 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 inches.
From an early age, it bears heavy crops of edible red fruits up to an inch across.
Hard zone 8 to 10. It grows surprisingly well in the British Isles.

Crataegus berberidifolia ( Barberry Hawthorn )
A small tree native to the southern Mississippi Valley in the U.S. as far north as central Oklahoma to southern Illinois. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The spatulate-shaped leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches in size, are lush green above, hairy beneath.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 4 to 5 in early spring with the emerging foliage.
They are followed by orange fruits up to 0.5 inches wide.
The stems bear thorns up to 1.5 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 4

Crataegus brachycantha ( Blueberry Hawthorn )
a medium size to large tree native to the southern U.S. ( from central Oklahoma to southeastern Arkansas; south to eastern Texas to southern Mississippi ). Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.7 feet. The spines are up to 0.7 inches in length.
The round-toothed, rounded-tipped, spathulate leaves are up to 4 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is shiny green above.
The flowers borne in cymes after the foliage emerges, are white later fading to orange.
The berries, up to 0.6 inches wide, are bright blue.
Hardy north to zone 4

Crataegus brainerdii ( Brainerds Hawthorn )
A deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 ( rarely over 17 ) feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches, that is native to northeastern North America ( from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Quebec & Nova Scotia; south to southern Michigan to northern Pennsylvania ). It often colonizes floodplains in the wild.
The toothed, triangular leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is hairy at first, turning to deep blue-green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by juicy, scarlet-red berries up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil. It tolerates both drought and temporary flooding making it a great tree for screening on floodplains sites as well as upland sites.

Crataegus calpodendron ( Pear Hawthorn )
Also called Tomentosum Hawthorn. A small, graceful tree to 13 feet that is native to North America ( from northern Minnesota to central Ontario to western New York; south to northern Texas to northern Georgia to Maryland ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Detroit, Michigan and sporadic on the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. Some records include: largest on record - 28 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. The Pear Hawthorn is very long lived. It is a great small landscpe tree but is rarely actually seen in cultivation.
The toothed to slightly lobed, oval to rounded leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The dull green foliage turns intense scarlet-red in autumn.
The white flowers, 0.6 inches wide, are borne in clusters up to 5 inches across. Flowers later than most other Hawthorns.
The very ornamental, bright red fruits are in clusters of 10 to 15
The stems have few to no thorns.
Hardy zones 2 to 7.

* historic archive photos


Crataegus chlorosarca
A very attractive, small pyramidal tree native to northern China, Kamchatka, Sakhalin and northern Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 15 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 inches.
The finely-toothed, shallowly-lobed, triangular leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, hairy beneath; turning to intense orange-red during autumn.
The abundant, showy, white to pinkish-white flowers are borne on clusters, up to 1.4 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by very ornamental persistent black fruit.
It is thornless to moderately armed with thorns up to 1 inch in length.
Hardy zone 2 to 6, it is recommended for the northern Great Plains.

Crataegus chrysocarpa ( Fireberry Hawthorn )
A thorny, small spreading tree native to North America ( from southern British Columbia to the Peace River in northern Alberta to Dryden, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to Matagami, Quebec to Newfoundland; south to Oregon, New Mexico to Missouri to Kentucky to far northern Virginia...it also occurs locally around Temiskaming, Ontario ). Some records include: largest on record - 29 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The toothed, shallowly-lobed, triangular leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 ( rarely over 3 x 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to mid-green.
The white flowers, up to an inch wide, are borne in clusters, during late spring.
They are followed by round red fruits, up to 0.8 inches wide.
The spines are long.
Hardy zone 3 to 8, it is one of the best Hawthorns for the northern Great Plains. Seed source from Abitibi Canyon region of Ontario is likely hardy to zone 2.

* photo of unknown internet source

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id200510/

Crataegus coccinea ( Scarlet Hawthorn )
A small tree native to North America ( from Minnesota to to Sault Ste Marie, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to Kansas to Ohio to New York State ). It is endangered in Ontario with most remaining sites within the Niagara Peninsula. It was abundant in Detroit and on the Ohio shore during the presettlement era but has declined considerably since. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2.5 feet; largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 26 inches. It is moderately long-lived, persisting up to 100 years or possibly more.
The shallowly-lobed, triangular leaves are up to 4.8 x 4 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green turning brilliant orange and red in autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.9 inches wide, are borne in dense clusters in late spring.
They are followed by large bunches of tasty, bright scarlet-red fruits with dark dots. The berries are up to 0.7 inches wide.
The twigs bear glossy brown thorns up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zone 3 to 7, it is recommended for the northern Great Plains having thrived in trials at both Indian Head, Sask. and Brandon, Manitoba.

* historical archive photos


Crataegus coccinoides ( Kansas Hawthorn )
A moderate growing, broad-crowned, small tree native to North America ( from Kansas to Iowa to southern Ontario to southeast Quebec & New England; south to eastern Oklahoma to Arkansas to New York ). It is endangered in Ontario where most known occurences are from the Niagara Peninsula. Some records include: largest on record - 47 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches. It is often found on limestone and dry hillsides in the wild.
The toothed, shallowly-lobed, triangular leaves can be up to 6 inches in length on vigorous shoots. They are typically around 3 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to mid-green then to orange and scarlet in autumn.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by dark red berries, up to 1 inch wide, persisting into mid-autumn. The fruit often appear pink due to the whitish bloom covering.
The scaly bark is dark brown. The gray stems are armed with red-brown spines up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun on alkaline to neutral, well drained soil. The foliage can be prone to rust.

Crataegus columbiana ( Columbia Hawthorn )
A spreading, flat-topped small tree native to western North America ( from British Columbia east to Idaho; south to California. Some records include: 4 years - 9 feet ( North Carolina ); largest on record - 25 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The toothed leaves, up to 3 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in length, are mid-green and turn to scarlet-red during autumn.
The white, late spring flowers are followed by scarlet red fruits up to 0.5 inches wide.
The stems are armed with thorns up to 2.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Crataegus crus-gallii ( Corkspur Hawthorn )
A very dense, small, spreading, flat crowned tree native to the central and eastern U.S. ( from central Iowa to southern Wisconsin to Sault-Ste Marie, Ontario to southern Quebec to northern Maine and Nova Scotia; south to central Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Canard River Valley, moderately common in the remainder of the region during the 1800s. It was common at Detroit and on the Ohio shore during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 50 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The oval to spathulate leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 or rarely 6 x 3 inches on vigorous shoots. The leaves are widest above the middle, rounded at the tip and tapered at the base. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath; turning to scarlet-red late in autumn.
The white flowers ( with pink anthers ), up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in large rounded corymbs, up to 3 inches across, during late spring.
They are followed by fleshy, dark red fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide that ripen in September and persist through the winter.
The shoots bear long, curved thorns up to 4 inches in length, sometimes branched thorns originating from the trunk can reach as long as 8 inches.
The bark is scaly and red-brown.
Hardy zone 2 to 8. Resistant to rust fungus and fire blight. Flood tolerant but hates salt. It is also very tolerant of heat, drought and alkaline soil.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source



* historic archive photos


'Crusader'
Thornless with thick glossy leaves. Very disease resistant.

'Inermis'
Thornless

Crataegus cuneata
A throny deciduous shrub native to southern and eastern China and Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 17 x 5 feet.
The sharply-lobed, oval leaves are up to 2.5 x 1.3 inches in size.
The foliage is smooth and mid-green above, slightly hairy and light green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by pear-shaped, red fruits, up to 0.8 inches wide, that ripen during early autumn and persist into late autumn.
The twigs are hairy and red.
Hardy zones 4b to 9, it proved to be hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

Crataegus dahurica ( Dahurian Hawthorn )
A deciduous small tree, reaching up to 20 feet in height, that is native to river valleys from eastern Siberia; south to northern Mongolia and northeast China.
The ovate to nearly rounded leaves, up to 2 x 1.6 inches in size, are sharply-toothed and with 3 to 5 pairs of lobes.
The white flowers, up to 0.3 inches wide, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by orangish-yellow to orangish-red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The stems are armed with thorns up to 1 inch in length. The twigs are purplish-brown while the older branches are brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

Crataegus douglasii ( Black Hawthorn )
A small to medium size, rounded tree native to western and central North America ( from southeast Alaska to Mackenzie, British Columbia to near Calgary, Alberta to southern Saskatchewan; south to northern California to Utah & Colorado ). It is also found further east in northern Minnesota and around Lake Superior, on Manitoulin Island and the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario where it is common. It is endangered in Minnesota and Michigan. Some records include: 20 years - 27 feet; 26 years - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches; largest on record - 50 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.2 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, obovate leaves are up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, lighter green beneath and has excellent orange to red fall color.
The white flowers are borne in wide clusters in late spring.
They are followed by shiny black fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide.
The twigs are reddish.
Hardy zone 3 to 8, thriving even in interior Alaska. Very drought tolerant and also tolerant of flooding.

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id200531/

Crataegus x durobrivensis
A spiny shrub that is the garden raised hybrid between Crataegus pruinosa & C. suborbiculata. Some records include: 20 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 23 feet.
The sharply-toothed, oval leaves are up to 3 x 3 inches.
The foliage is deep yellow-green.
The white flowers are borne in small clusters.
They are followed by large, deep red fruits that persist through the winter.
The twigs bear spines up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Crataegus ellwangeriana
A spreading, small tree reaching up to 20 x 20 feet that is native to the northeast U.S.
Some records include: largest on record - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches. It is considered by many to be a variety of C. pedicellata.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are mid-green, turning to orange and red during autumn.
The fruit is great for use in jellies.
Hardy zone 4 to 7.

* historic archive photo


Crataegus flabellata ( Fanleaf Hawthorn )
A small tree native to North America ( from far northern Minnesota to near Tobermory, Ontario to Renfrew, Ontario to southern Quebec to New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; south to central Arkansas to northern Georgia ). It has also been reported in Newfoundland. Some records include: largest on record - 39 x 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 foot. It is found on upland savanna and open woods and often suckers to form thickets.
The coarsely-toothed, often slightly lobed, elliptical leaves are up to 3 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, often turning to yellow during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, appear during late spring.
The fruits, up to 0.5 inches, are bright red and juicy.
The stems are armed with long thorns up to 4 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.
Tolerant of both flooding and drought.

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Crataegus flava ( Yellow-Fruited Hawthorn )
A spiny small, round to spreading tree native to dry rocky or sandy woodlands in the eastern U.S. from northern Mississippi to northern Virginia ( also in southeast PA ); south to Mobile AB to central Florida. It is endangered to extinct in the wild. Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches.
The smooth shoots bear slightly hooked spines.
The toothed to 3 lobed, broadly leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size.
The foliage is deep green.
The white flowers ( with pink anthers ) are borne in rounded clusters in late spring.
They are followed by rounded, very tasty, edible fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide that are yellow-green.
Hardy zone 4 to 9, very drought tolerant.

Crataegus x grigonensis
A small tree reaching up to 20 x 30 feet that is the garden raised hybrid between Crataegus crus-galli & C. pubescens. Some records include: largest on record - 52 x 52 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet.
The finely-toothed, scallop-lobed, oval leaves are up to 3.7 x 3 inches. The foliage is glossy deep green.
The abundant white flowers are borne in small clusters.
The persistant fruits are round, scarlet-red, up to an inch.
Thorns are scarce.
Hardy zones 4b to 9, it has proven to be fully hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

* photos of unknown internet source




Crataegus harbisonii ( Harbison's Hawthorn )
A vigorous, deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot, that is native to the southeastern U.S.
It was originally native from southwestern Kentucky to central Tennessee; south to eastern Mississippi to central Georgia. It is now extinct in the wild, most recently found on limestone outcrops around Nashville, Tennessee. It requires full sun, therefore fire is important for the survival of this colonizer species. It currently survives in cultivation at the state arboretum in North Carolina.
The toothed, elliptic to obovate leaves, up to 3 x 2 inches in size, are hairy beneath.
The orange-red, rounded berries are up to 0.9 inches wide.
The straight, dark brown thorns are up to 2 inches long.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( estimate...should be tested in colder climates ) in full sun on dry, very well drained soils.

Crataegus heldreichii ( Bosnian Hawthorn )
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches, that is native to Greece. It is closely related to Crataegus laciniata.
The deeply-lobed, broadly-ovate leaves are bright green.
The white flowers are borne on dense clusters during late spring.
They are followed by red berries.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( est ).

Crataegus henryi ( Henry's Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus scabrifolia. A very attractive, small tree, reaches a maximum height of 33 feet with a trunk diameter up to 15 inches, that is native to southwest China. This Hawthorn is very long lived. It is sparsely thorned. It is surprisingly not found in cultivation outside China.
The leaves, up to 3.3 x 2.5 inches, are finely-toothed, narrow-elliptical on flowering shoots; more coarsely toothed and sometimes 3-lobed on flowering shoots.
The creamy-white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne on clusters up to 2 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by large, edible, dull red berries, up to 1 inch wide, ripening during late summer. The fruits are sold in food markets in China.
Hardy zones 6 to 9 ( est ).

Crataegus heterophylla ( Variable-Leaved Hawthorn )
A very attractive, upright, rounded, semi-evergreen, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 20 feet, that is native to the Caucasus in western Asia.
The ovate or oblong leaves, up to 3.3 x 2.5 inches in size, are highly variable either being deeply-lobed or not lobed at all. The foliage is glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath.
The white flowers are borne on clusters, up to 3 inches wide, during late spring.
They are followed by abundant, scarlet-red berries up to 0.7 inches long.
Hardy zones 6 to 9.

Crataegus hillii ( Hills Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus corusca. A small tree native to southeast Wisconsin, southeast Michigan, southern Ontario and northern Ohio. It is endangered in the wild. Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.

Crataegus intricata ( Biltmore Hawthorn )
A medium-size tree native to dry woods of eastern North America ( from southern Illinois to southern Michigan to the north shore of Lake Erie to Massachusetts; south to Tennessee to Maryland ). It is extinct in the wild in Ontario where the last known occurence was near Niagara Falls. Some records include: largest on record - 43 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. It makes a great barrier screen or hedge.
The toothed, broadly-ovate leaves, up to 3 x 3 inches in size, are bright green.
The white flowers are borne in clusters of 4 to 10.
The fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, are yellowish-red.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly hardier as it is listed as 3b by Dominion Arboretum at Ottawa, Canada ).

Crataegus laciniata ( Oriental Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus orientalis. A moderate growing, broadly-spreading tree native to dry upland sites from southeast Europe ( esp the Balkans ) into western Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet;largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The toothed and deeply 6 or 8 lobed, diamond-shaped leaves are up to 2 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is silvery-white hairy at first, turning to glossy deep green above, gray downy beneath.
The white flowers ( with pink anthers ), up to an inch across are borne in dense clusters of up to 16 during late spring.
They are followed by large, orange to red fruits up to an inch. The edible fruit is used to make sweet bread. They often persist on the trees until mid-winter.
The gray bark flakes into thin plates. The thorns, up to 0.3 inches long, are scarce.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id782639/

Crataegus lacrimata ( Pensacola Hawthorn )
Also called Weeping Hawthorn. Typically a single-stemmed, deciduous, small tree, reaching up to 20 feet in height, with upright main stems and strongly weeping laterals. Some records include: largest on record - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches. It is native to the southeastern U.S ( from central Alabama to central South Carolina; south to northern Florida. It is possibly endangered in the wild.
The oblong to obovate leaves, up to 0.8 x 0.3 inches in size, are bright green, turning to gray-green.
The white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by rusty-red fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide.
The deeply-furrowed bark is dark gray. The purplish-gray twigs are armed with purplish-gray thorns up to 1.2 inches long.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

Crataegus laevigata ( English Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus oxycantha and Midland Hawthorn. A rapid growing, thorny, dense, broadly-spreading small tree native throughout most of Europe as well as northwest Africa. Some records include: 20 years - 27 feet; largest on record - 50 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 34 inches; largest in Colorado - 35 x 40 x 1.5 feet in Denver; longest lived - 400 years. An excellent lawn tree but also an excellent choice for an inpenetrable hedge.
The toothed, shallowly-lobed, oval to rounded leaves are up to 2.3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath; persisting very late in autumn.
The pink or white flowers, up to an inch across are borne in corymbs of 6 to 10 during late spring.
They are followed by rounded, red fruits, up to an inch in length, during late summer into mid-autumn.
A tea made from the berries and flowers improves circulation and has few negative side effects. It is a great natural remedy for people with heart problems.
The bark is gray and smooth on young trees, cracking on older trees.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade ( more shade tolerant than most Hawthorns ). Very drought tolerant. It is tolerant of both heavy clay sites as well as dry alkaline. Unfortunately very disease prone ( use cultivar 'Crimson Cloud' instead )

* historical archive photos


'Crimson Cloud'
A highly attractive landscape tree with leathery glossy deep green foliage.
Double, intense deep pink-red flowers. The fruits persist into winter.
Very similar in shape and form but is not prone to disease.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39590/

'Gireeoudii'
The variegated foliage is deep green with pinkish and creamy-white mottling.

'Paul's Scarlet'
The abundant, double flowers are deep pink.
Very prone to rust disease.

* photos taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery

* historical archive photo


'Plena'
The double flowers are white with a pink tinge.

Crataegus x lavallei ( Lavalle Hawthorn )
A vigorous, sparsely thorned, attractive, broadly spreading, medium sized tree that is the garden raised hybrid between Crataegus crus-gallii & C. pubescens. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 27 inches. It is not as twiggy as many of the Hawthorns and is among the most attractive of all.
The toothed, oval leaves are up to 5 x 2.5 inches in size and are tapered at the base. The foliage is smooth glossy deep green above, hairy light green beneath; turning to red late in autumn. The leaves may be semi-evergreen in mild climates, persisting into winter.
The white flowers, up to an inch across, with red stamens are borne in large flattened heads up to 3 inches across in late spring.
They are followed by persistent, round red fruits, up to an inch across, that last until March.
The gray bark flakes into plates. This Hawthorn is only sparsely armed with thorns.
Hardy zone 4 to 8. Urban tolerant, not typically prone to pests or disease.

* photos of unknown internet source





Crataegus macrosperma ( Bigfruit Hawthorn )
A spreading dome-crowned, small tree reaching a maximum size of 27 x 30 feet. It is native to North America from Rainy River, Ontario to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Haliburton, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Maine and Nova Scotia; south to far northern Louisiana to North Carolina. Some records include: largest on record - trunk diameter of 6 inches.
The very sharp-toothed, broad, oval leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The white flowers ( with red anthers ) are borne in clusters in late spring.
They are followed by small, round, scarlet-red fruits.
Hardy zone 3 to 8

* photos taken by Mark A. Garland @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Crataegus marshallii ( Parsley-Leafed Hawthorn )
A spiny, small tree to 35 x 25 feet that is native to floodplain forests of the southern U.S. from Missouri to Virginia; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ( excluding the Appalations )
Some records include: largest on record - 37 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. The spines are up to an inch in length.
The rounded leaves, up to 2 x 2 inches in size, have 5 or 7 deep toothed lobes. The foliage is downy at first, turns mid-green during summer then to red during autumn.
The flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are white with pink anthers, borne in clusters up to 12 during spring with the emerging foliage.
The berries, up to 0.3 inches long are oval and scarlet-red, lasting from September into December.
The stems bear spines up to an inch in length.
The bark is attractive and exfoliating.
Hardy zone 4 to 9. It is both flood and drought tolerant and not prone to diseases.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario



* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock. Southern wetland flora


Crataegus maximowiczii ( Japanese Hawthorn )
Closely related to Crataegus sanguinea, it is a, dense, small tree to around 25 x 25 feet that is native to river plains from eastern Siberia; south to far eastern Mongolia to northeast China, Korea & Japan.
The toothed and shallowly 6 to 10 lobed, broadly-ovate leaves, up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, downy white beneath; often turning intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The abundant flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are white with a pink tinge. They are borne during late spring.
They are followed by a spectacular show of translucent bright to deep red berries, up to 0.3 inches wide, that are long persistent.
The stems are glossy purplish-brown. The spines may be up to 1.3 inches in length, however some trees are spineless.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, it is tolerant of flooding, drought, chalky soil and clay.

Crataegus meyeri
A small tree native to western Asia. Some records include: largest on record - 20 x 30 feet. This Hawthorn is very long lived.
The lobed leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are deep green above, gray and densely hairy beneath.
The white flowers are borne in somewhat sparse clusters up to 2 inches long in late spring.
They are followed by small red fruit.
The young stems are covered in gray hairs.
Hardy zone 6 to 9

Crataegus mollis ( Downy Hawthorn )
A thorny, very dense, broadly columnar to spreading medium size tree native to North America ( from eastern North Dakota to far northern Minnesota to the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to Lions Head, Ontario to Ottawa, Ontario to Nova Scotia; south to central Texas to northern Alabama ). It is not native to the Piedmont or coastal plain in the southeast or Mid Atlantic. It is endangered in North Dakota. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant along the Detroit River, southern Essex County, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit at that time. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 feet; longest lived - 100 years. Some of the largest trees have been found at Grosse Ile, Mighigan as well as nearby in the Canard River Valley near Amherstburg, Ontario.
The toothed, shallowly 5 lobed, broadly oval leaves reach up to 5 inches or rarely 6.7 x 6 inches on vigorous shoots.
The foliage is hairy deep green above, hairy beneath; turning bronze-red in autumn.
The white flowers ( up to 1 inch wide ) with yellow anthers, up to an inch across are borne in broad clusters during late spring.
They are followed by hairy, red, pear shaped fruits, up to 1 inch wide, ripening in September and lasting only into October.
The young twigs are white hairy and bear long glossy spines up to 2 inches in length.
The red-brown bark cracks into vertical scaly plates.
The wood is very heavy at 50 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zone 2 to 8. Unfortunately this tree is prone to scab as well as Gypsy Moth and in some areas may be defoliated by the middle of August.

* photo taken @ Toledo, Ohio on July 1992

* photo taken on April 8 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Apr 8 2016 in Columbia, MD

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39594/

Crataegus monogyna ( May )
A thorny, dense, broadly-spreading, medium-sized tree native to much of Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 20 years - 40 feet; 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 65 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet; largest in U.S. - 40 x 60 x 3 feet @ Mt. Vernon, Washington; tallest in U.S. - 64 feet in Seattle; longest lived - 700 + years.
The deeply-cut, pointy-lobed, broadly-oval leaves are up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, downy light green beneath.
The white flowers, up to 0.8 inches across are borne in small clusters during late spring.
They are followed by single seeded, dark red, oval fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide, during late summer into mid-autumn.
The bark is orange-brown and cracking. The stems are armed with spines up to 0.4 inches long.
Hardy zone 4 to 9 ( reports of zone 2 & 3 ). Not usually bothered by pests or disease and

* photos of unknown internet source





* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historical archive photo

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39595/

'Biflora' ( Glastonbury Thorn )
Flowers mid winter then repeats in spring. An excellent ornamental tree that is unusual for Hawthorns in having very prolific double flowers.

var calycina
Considered a separate species by some; it is almost identical in appearance but usually replaces Crataegus monogyna in the more continental climate regions of eastern Europe.

'Flexuosa'
Stems are twisted, giving it a very interesting form during the winter.
It is otherwise similar to the species.

'Princeton Sentry'
Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 20 feet

'Stricta'
Columnar in habit. Some records include: largest on record - 65 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 21 inches.

* historical archive photo


Crataegus x mordenensis ( Morden Hawthorn )
An upright, rounded small tree reaching a maximum size of 22 x 20 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 9 x 5 feet; 7 years - 15 x 8 feet; largest on record - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. This garden raised hybrid of Crataegus laevigata 'Paul's Scarlet' x C. succulenta originated at Morden, Manitoba in 1935.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are very glossy, deep green.
The flowers are white, turning to pink before falling.
The fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide, are scarlet-red.
Hardy zones 3 to 6, thriving even in Alberta and Manitoba where it originated.

'Snowbird'
Double white flowers

* photo of unknown internet source


Toba'
Double white flowers fade to pink

* photos of unknown internet source




Crataegus nigra ( Hungarian Hawthorn )
A rounded, deciduous, small tree native to southeastern Europe. Some records include: 20 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 30 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 19 inches. It is critically endangered in the wild. It previously occurred from Slovakia & Hungary to Romania; south to Croatia & Serbia. It is now extinct from much of its original range, with remnant populations only found on the Danube River floodplain in Hungary & Croatia. There may be some remaining populations that have not been documented, Crataegus nigra is sometimes confused with Crataegus pentagyna; however the Hungarian Hawthorn differs in preferring floodplain & swamp forests where the other frequents upland sites.
The toothed & 5 to 11 lobed, triangular leaves are up to 4 x 4 inches in size. The downy foliage is deep green.
The white ( sometimes later deepening to pink ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne during late spring after the foliage has emerged.
They are followed by edible, glossy black fruits, up to 0.4 inches wide, during early summer.
Hardy zones 4b to 7, it is hardier than its natural range suggests, thriving at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Canada.

* historical archive photo

* excellent photo link
https://www.naturemobile.org/en/species/10747/crataegus-nigra

Crataegus nitida ( Glossy Hawthorn )
A thornless, dense, broadly-rounded to domed, small tree native to the Midwestern U.S. ( Missouri to Wisconsin to Ohio; south to Arkansas to Tennessee ). Some records include: largest on record - 37 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet. It is similar in appearance to Crataegus viridis and is considered by some to be a hybrid of Crataegus viridis & C. crus-galli.
The coarsely-toothed, elliptical to oblong leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are very glossy, deep green; turning to fiery orange and red during autumn.
The white flowers are borne on clusters, up to 2 inches across, during late spring.
They are followed by dull deep red fruits up to 0.5 inches across. The fruits ripen during early autumn and persist until spring.
The attractive bark is rich orange-brown. The Glossy Hawthorn is armed with thorns, up to 2 inches in length, alot the stems and trunk.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it is rarely bothered by insect pests or disease.

Crataegus opaca ( Riverflat Hawthorn )
A very attractive, small, rounded tree native to swamps and floodplains in the deep south in the U.S. ( from Texas to southwest Georgia ). Some records include: largest on record - 43 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The minutely-toothed, oval to oblong leaves, up to 3 x 1 inches in size, are deep green above, rusty beneath. Fall color is rarely significant. The showy white flowers are borne on clusters during mid spring before the foliage appears. They are followed by large, red fruits during early summer. The edible fruits are great for use in making jelly. Hardy zones 5 to 9. Very tolerant of both heat and flooding.

Crataegus pedicellata
See Crataegus coccinea
( Scarlet Hawthorn )

Crataegus pentagyna ( Small Flowered Black Hawthorn )
A gracefully, arching, rounded, small tree reaching a maximum height of 20 feet. It is native to dry upland sites in southeast Europe ( north to Hungary & Romania ) and western Asia. Some records include - 20 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. This Hawthorn is very long lived.
The deeply 3 to 7 lobed, broadly-ovate leaves are up to 2 x 2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is olive-green above, pale green beneath. The white flowers are borne on clusters, up to 3 inches across, during very late spring after the foliage has emerged.
The ornamental fruits, up to 0.5 inches across, are black.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( possibly hardier ). Very tolerant of clay.

* photo of unknown internet source

* excellent photo link found on internet
http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id39596/

Crataegus phaenopyrum ( Washington Hawthorn )
A rapid growing, dense, small tree, that is native to the southeastern U.S. ( from Missouri to Chicago to Detroit to Philly; south to Missouri to Mississippi to South Carolina ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 45 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; longest lived - 1000 years.
The leaves are broad, triangular and rather maple like, up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep green above, light green beneath; turning scarlet during late autumn.
The abundant, white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide are borne in dense clusters in late spring. The Washington Hawthorn blooms the latest of all native Hawthorns.
They are followed by very persistent shiny scarlet-red fruit, up to 0.25 inches wide which last until spring.
The stems bear long spines and the reddish-orange bark is scaly and thin.
It grows in most soils in full sun or part shade. Very tolerant of drought but not salt. Resistant to rust disease. Hardy zones 3 to 8, it has proven fully hardy in Ottawa, Canada despite its natural range.


* photo taken on April 11 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum


* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photos taken on April 21 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos

* photo taken on May 5 2015 in Ellicott City, MD


'Clark'
Especially heavy fruiting

'Crimson Sentry'
Nearly thornless.

'Fastigiata'
Upright in habit, reaching a maximum size of 45 x 20 feet.

Crataegus pinnatifida ( Chinese Hawthorn )
A very attractive, thornless, dense, vigorous small tree to 20 feet that is native to Mongolia, northern China and Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 37 x 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The oval, "oak-like" leaves with up to 9 toothed lobes, are up to 6 x 6 inches in size.
The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath, turning crimson-red in autumn.
The white flowers are borne in lax corymbs up to 3 inches across.
They are followed by abundant, showy deep red fruits up to 1.5 inches across.
The fruits are good for jams, jelly and wine. The fruit has anti-tumor activities on skin giving potential for use for skin cancer patients
The thorns are scarce.
Hardy zone 2b to 8 ( seed source from Inner Mongolia likely hardy to zone 2a ). Drought tolerant. Pest & disease free.

* photo of unknown internet source



'Red Sun'
Up to 20 + pounds per year of large, 1.5 inch, sweet, tasty fruit.

Crataegus pontica
A very attractive, broad-crowned, xerophytic tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 33 feet, that is native from the Caucasus to central Asia though rare.
The deeply-lobed leaves, up to 2.8 x 2.4 inches in size, are glossy bright green at first, turning to blue-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The white flowers are borne during late spring.
They are followed by fleshy, orange fruits, up to 1.3 inches across, that are great for using in making preserves. It has great potential as a fruit tree in dry climates. It is possible for a single tree to produce up to 80 kg of fruits per year.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( est ) in full sun on very well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant. It is very drought tolerant due to its deep root system. A 5 inch seedling may already have a taproot as much as 3 feet deep.

Crataegus pruinosa ( Frosted Hawthorn )
A moderate growing, viciously thorned, small tree native to eastern North America ( from eastern Kansas to central Ohio to central Wisconsin to Grand Bend, Ontario to southeast Quebec to Newfoundland; south to Oklahoma to North Carolina ). It is endangered in Kansas and Virginia; extinct in the wild in Iowa. Some records include: largest on record - 32 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The sharply-toothed, ovate leaves, up to 3.7 x 2.4 inches in size, are sometimes shallow lobed towards the leaf tip. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to glossy deep blue-green above, glaucous blue-white beneath
The flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are white with red anthers and are borne in clusters.
They are followed by edible fruit, up to 0.8 inches wide, that is purple-red with yellow flesh.
Hardy zone 3 to 9.

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD


Crataegus prunifolia ( Plumleaf Hawthorn )
A thorny, dense, broadly-spreading, medium-size deciduous tree native to the eastern U.S. Some records include: largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It may be a hybrid of Crataegus crus-galli and C. succulenta var. macracantha. It is among the most beautiful of all Hawthorns.
The sharply toothed, broadly oval leaves are up to 3 x 3 inches in size.
The foliage is smooth glossy deep green above, hairy beneath; turning intense scarlet-red during autumn.
The large flowers, up to an inch across are white with pink anthers, are borne in rounded corymbs of up to 15 in late spring.
They are followed by rounded, bright red fruits up to 0.75 inches wide.
The bark is cracking and purple-brown in color.
Hardy zone 3 to 7

'Prunifolia Splendens'
More vigorous. Leaves and flower clusters are also larger.

Crataegus pseudoheterophylla ( Armenian Hawthorn )
A small tree native to central Asia that reaches a maximum size of 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches.
The finely toothed, deeply lobed leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
They are grayish, hairy beneath.
The white flowers with purple stamens are borne in clusters in late spring.
They are followed by red fruits.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Crataegus pubescens ( Mexican Hawthorn )
An often thornless, fast growing, semi-evergreen tree native to mountains of Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 30 feet.
The toothed, oblong leaves are up to 4 inches in length. The leathery foliage is deep green above, downy beneath; turning to orange-red late in autumn.
The white flowers are borne on clusters up to 3 inches wide, during spring.
They are followed by edible, yellow-orange fruits.
Hardy zones 7 to 10

* historical archive photo


Crataegus pulcherrima ( Beautiful Hawthorn )
A small tree reaching up to 25 feet that is native to swamp forest and floodplains of the Deep South U.S. ( from northern Mississippi to central Tennessee to southern South Carolina; south to the Gulf Coast and southwest Georgia & northern Florida ). Some records include: 10 years - 15 feet; largest on record - 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches. It may be endangered in the wild. .
The leaves, up to 2.4 x 2 inches in size, may be oval but are often elliptical and 4 or 6 lobed. The foliage is dull green.
The flowers, up to an inch wide, are borne in small dense clusters in early summer.
They are followed by small, red fruits, up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zone 7 to 9

Crataegus punctata ( Dotted Hawthorn )
A small tree to 30 feet that is native to North America ( from northern Minnesota to Wawa, Ontario to Sault Ste Marie to Tobermory, Ontario to Renfrew, Ontario to southeastern Quebec to New Brunswick; south to northeast Oklahoma to central Alabama to South Carolina ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in southern Essex County including Point Pelee as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit during that time. Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. It is a very beautiful small tree for the landscape.
The toothed, broadly-oval leaves are up to 4.5 x 3 inches in size.
They are deep green above, downy beneath. The foliage is bright green at first, later turning to glossy deep green.
The flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are white with pink anthers. They are borne in hairy corymbs up to 4 inches across.
They are followed by red fruits, up to 0.8 inches wide, with pale speckles.
The young shoots are smooth.
Hardy zone 4 to 8. Very drought tolerant.

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario




* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* historical archive photos


'Aurea'
Yellow fruits

'Ohio Pioneer'
An excellent thornless landscape tree with very profuse white flowers and vivid deep red fruits. The lush green foliage turns intense orange in autumn. Disease resistant.

Crataegus pseudoazarolus ( False Azarole Hawthorn )
A very attractive, thornless small tree native to central Asia that reaches a maximum height of 27 feet. It can survive for up to 300 years.
The oblong leaves, up to 2 x 2 inches in size, are leathery.
The large, rounded fruits, up to 0.6 inches across, are dark red.
Hardy north to zone 4. Drought tolerant.

Crataegus reverchonii ( Reverchon Hawthorn )
A dense, rounded to domed, deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 23 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches. It is native to the floodplains in the south-central U.S. ( from southeast Kansas to southern Tennessee; south to central Texas to northern Alabama ). It is often a shrub on harsh sites.
The toothed, obovate to rounded leaves, up to 1.6 x 1.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The fragrant white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in clusters during late spring.
They are followed by orange-red to red berries, up to 0.9 inches wide.
The tan-brown bark is flaky. The gray stems are armed with spines up to 3 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. It is heat, drought and flood tolerant.

* historic archive photo

* excellent photo link
http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Crataegus+reverchonii

Crataegus rivularis ( River Hawthorn )
A deciduous, moderate growing, dense, domed, small tree, reaching up to 16 x 20 feet. It is native to the intermountain region of the northwest U.S. between the Coastal Range and the Rockies. It's entire natural range covers southern Idaho to central Montana to eastern Wyoming; south to northeast Nevada to northern Arizona to northern New Mexico ).
The toothed, elliptical or obovate leaves are glossy mid-green above, silvery-white beneath. The foliage turns to glowing red during autumn.
The white flowers are followed by bluish or purplish-black berries.
The stems have few spines.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, it has potential for cultivation on the northern Great Plains and even southeast Alaska.

* photo of unknown internet source


Crataegus saligna ( Willow Hawthorn )
A rare, somewhat pendulous, small tree native to wet areas in western Colorado as well as northeast Utah that reaches a maximum size of 23 feet. Some records include: largest on record - 25 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 inches, are glossy deep green turning to red in autumn.
The fruits, up to 0.8 inches wide are rounded and red turning to glossy blue-black.
The reddish bark is very attractive.
Hardy north to zone 4

* photo of unknown internet source


Crataegus sanguinea ( Siberian Hawthorn )
A thornless to moderately thorny, small tree to around 25 feet that is native to river valleys in southern Siberia, Mongolia and far northern China. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.7 feet.
The 7 to 9 lobed, broadly-ovate to rounded leaves are up to 3.5 x 2.5 inches in size.
The edible, orange to scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, are eaten raw or cooked, used in jam and jellies. This Hawthorn is one of the species used in the herbal industry.
The purplish-brown stems are armed with spines up to 1.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 5, this extremely hardy tree is great for the Canadian Prairies. Based on its native range; I suspect some seed source may survive into zone 2 and 3 tolerating as low as -50 or colder.
Very hardy, it is tolerant of flooding, drought, chalky soil and clay.

* photo of unknown internet source


Crataegus schraderiana
A small, rounded, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 20 feet, that is native to Greece and the Crimean Peninsula.
The leaves with 5 to 9 deeply toothed lobes are up to 2 inches in length.
The foliage has a fine gray down over deep green and remains green late in autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne in corymbs of up to 12.
They are followed by 0.7 inch, plum-purple fruits.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Crataegus songarica
A very ornamental small tree reaching a maximum size of 17 feet that is native to central Asia, Iran, Afghanistan and northern China. Some records include: 22 years - 23 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches; largest on record - 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches ( larger may be possible ). It is sometimes used to stabilize sand dunes within its native range.
The deeply 5 to 7 lobed leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length.
The white ( with purple anthers ) flowers, up to 0.7 inches across, are borne during late spring.
The fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, are purple-black.
The reddish branches are armed with thorns up to 0.6 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( 4 on protected sites ). Very drought tolerant.

Crataegus spathulata ( Littlehip Hawthorn )
A small tree native to the Deep South U.S. ( from Oklahoma to Missouri to Illinois to Virginia, south to central Texas and northern Florida ). Some records include: largest on record - 37 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. A large tree grows far outside its native range at the Henry Foundation in Gladwyne, PA ( near Philly ).
The very attractive, delicate, 3-lobed, spatula-shaped leaves are up to 2 x 1.2 inches in size. The foliage is very glossy mid-green to blue-green.
The white flowers are borne in large dense clusters in mid to late spring.
They are followed by small, scarlet-red fruits up to 0.3 inches wide.
The twigs bear thorns up to 1.5 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 6.

Crataegus submollis ( Quebec Hawthorn )
A small tree native to the North America from northern Ontario to New Brunswick & Nova Scotia; south to Minnesota to Wisconsin to Ohio & New York.
Some records include: largest on record - 33 x 46 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot.
The serrated, pinnately loved leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
The foliage is downy at first later becoming smooth above and felted beneath.
The showy, abundant, white flowers backed by red bristly calyces are borne in loose clusters.
They are followed by abundant downy, small, light red fruits.
Hardy zones 2b to 6, it is reported to grow in the harsh climate of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan on the northern Great Plains.

* photos of unknown internet source



Crataegus succulenta ( Fleshy Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus macrantha. A moderate growing, small tree with ferocious thorns up to 5 inches in length, is native to North America ( from British Columbia to southern Manitoba to Sioux Lookout, Ontario to Abitibi Canyon, Ontario to Matagami, Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to far northern Arizona to Kansas to North Carolina ). This is the most widespread Hawthorn in North America. Some records include: largest on record - 36 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet.
The toothed and lobed, oval leaves are up to 4 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green, turning to orange-red during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.7 inches wide, are borne in corymbs during late spring.
They are followed by intense scarlet-red, rounded fruits up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 7, thriving even in interior Alaska. Seed source from the Abitibi Canyon region of Ontario is hardy to zone 2.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* historic archive photos


Crataegus tanacetifolia ( Tansy-Leafed Hawthorn )
An attractive, thornless, small to medium size tree native to western Asia esp. Turkey. Some records include: 20 years - 23 feet; largest on record - 55 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 32 inches. It is a beautiful tree for small gardens.
The finely toothed and lobed, oval leaves are up to 2 x 1.5 inches.
The fragrant white flowers are borne in corymbs in early summer.
They are followed orange-yellow berries, up to an inch wide that taste like Apples.
The young stems are downy. The stems have few spines.
Hardy zone 4b to 8, it has proven full hardy at Dominion Arboretum in Ottawa, Ontario.

Crataegus texana ( Texas Hawthorn )
A deciduous small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.8 feet. It is native to bottomlands in central and southeast Texas.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 1.5 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The white flowers, up to 0.75 inches wide, are borne on flat-topped clusters during mid-spring.
They are followed by large, fleshy, scarlet-red berries, up to 1 inch wide. They are used to make jellies.
The stems are armed with fierce thorns up to 3 inches in length.
Hardy zones 4 to 9. It is extremely heat tolerant.

Crataegus tracyi ( Tracy Hawthorn )
A small tree native to central Texas and nearby parts of Mexico.
Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 34 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.4 feet. It is a valuable ornamental tree where it is native.
The foliage is oval and glossy green, turning intense red-scarlet in autumn.
The white flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne on clusters during late spring.
The fruits that follow are red.
The bark is gray and scaly on young trees, gray-black and fissured on old trees.
Hardy north to zone 4 and extremely heat tolerant. Among the most drought tolerant of all Hawthorns and is a receommended landscape plant in western Texas.

* photo of unknown internet origin


Crataegus triflora ( Three Flowered Hawthorn )
A very attractive multi-stemmed large shrub reaching around 17 feet that is native to the southern U.S. ( from Tennessee, south to northern Louisiana and northern Georgia ). It can grow larger if trained as a small tree reaching a maximum size of 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches. It is endangered in the wild. It is found in prairies and open shortleaf pine forest in the wild. Mass agriculture, conversion of land to loblolly pine orchard and prevention of natural burn cycle in the wild contributes to its decline. Rarely seen in cultivation, it can make a very attractive landscape plant.
The double-toothed, unlobed, ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is bright to mid green above, soft hairy beneath.
The white flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are often borne in clusters of 3 ( rarely 2,3 or 4 ) during late spring. The scarlet-red fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide, are large for a Hawthorn and are borne in small clusters.
Hardy zones 7 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. It is not tolerant of flooding.

Crataegus turcomanica ( Turkman Hawthorn )
Also called Crataegus pseudoheterophylla var turcomanica. A mostly thornless, small, deciduous tree, that is native to mountains of Turkmenistan in central Asia and Iran that reaches a maximum size of 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches.
The finely-toothed, deeply-lobed leaves are up to 3 inches in length.
They are gray-green above, grayish-white, hairy beneath.
The white flowers with purple stamens are borne in clusters in late spring.
>They are followed by single seeded, dark red, oval fruits, up to 0.6 inches wide.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 ( possibly 4 )

Crataegus turkestanica ( Turkestan Hawthorn )
A thornless small tree reaching a maximum height of 27 feet that is native to central Asia; south to Iran and Afghanistan.
The deeply-cut leaves, up to 2 x 2 ( less on fruiting shoots ) inches, are reddish-green at first, turning to glossy bright green.
The abundant, white flowers are borne during early summer. They are followed by dark red fruits, up to 0.7 x 0.5 inches in size, during early autumn. The bark is grayish-brown. Hardy zones 4 to 8, it is very heat tolerant.

Crataegus uniflora ( Oneflower Hawthorn )
A shrub or small tree reaching up to 15 feet that is native to dry and sandy woods in the southeast U.S. ( from eastern Oklahoma to central Missouri to western PA & Long Island, NY; south to central Texas to the Gulf Coast to central Florida ). It is now extinct from New York State. Some records include: largest on record - 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches.
The spatulate to fan shaped leaves are up to 2.3 x 1.2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is very glossy deep green above.
The white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne during late spring.
They are followed by reddish to brownish berries up to 0.4 inches wide.
Hardy north to zone 5. Very drought tolerant.

Crataegus viridis ( Green Hawthorn )
A fast growing, very dense, strongly vase shaped, medium size tree native to the eastern U.S. ( from Kansas to far southeast Iowa to southern Indiana to Maryland & southeast Pennsylvania; south to central Texas to northern Florida ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet ( forced - even 4 feet is rare ); largest on record - 57 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet.
The toothed, slightly lobed, oval leaves are up to 4 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath, turning to red during autumn.
The white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne in corymbs during late spring.
They are followed by 0.3 inch wide, round red fruit ripening during September, persisting into January.
The attractive flaking bark is silvery.
Hardy zone 4 to 9, tolerant of flooding, drought, salt, wind and urban conditions.
Not typically bothered by insects or disease.

* photos taken on Oct 19 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Winter King'
Nearly thornless form with foliage that turns intense red in autumn.
The very large, scarlet red fruit persist well into winter.
Resistant to disease including Cedar Apple Rust.

* photo taken on April 18 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photo taken on Dec 4 2011 in Clarksville, MD

* photos taken on May 10 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 15 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ National Zoo, Washington, DC

* photos taken on Dec 7 2015 in Ellicott City, MD

* photos taken on Dec 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 27 2017 in Ellicott City, MD


Crataegus wilsonii ( Wilson Hawthorn )
An thorny attractive small tree native to mountains of western China that reaches a maximum height of 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches. This Hawthorn is very long lived.
The lobed, obovate leaves, up to 4 x 2.5 inches are glossy deep green.
The white, early summer flowers are followed by small, shiny red fruits, up to 0.3 inches across.
Likely hardy north to zone 5 though it has not been fully tested, it does not enjoy summer droughts.

3 comments:

  1. Crataegus opaca grows here. USDA shows it from Texas to Alabama, but it does grow in parts of southwest Georgia. Mayhaw trees grow wild in such a small geographical area that the berries are highly prized and the tart sweet jelly hoarded for special occasions.

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  2. Is there any chance you could help me identify a hawthorn? There are photos here: https://plus.google.com/101317560005459817420/posts/2rPU5UcCCb7

    Thanks!

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  3. Margaret...if you have not already identified it..feel free to send me a link...preferrably multiple photos with blooms, leaves, tree form and bark. Hopefully I can identify it...hawthorns sometimes get complicated as many species hybridize with others growing nearby and the offspring can be variable.

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