Thursday, January 14, 2010

Eupatorium

A genus of stately autumn blooming perennials that are easy to grow and excellent for attracting butterflies and hummingbirds. The taller species can even be used as a perennial hedge. They are NOT usually eaten by deer.
Most species prefer full sun to partial shade on moist to wet, fertile soil.
They can be cut back during late spring to encourage a lower bushier habit.
Division can be done during spring though dividing older clumps may be difficult.
Propagation can also be achieved from seed sown indoors during late winter with a soil temperature between 60 and 65 F.

* photo taken on July 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on July 11 2014 in Washington, DC

* photos taken on Aug 17 2014 in Columbia, MD


Eupatorium album ( White Thoroughwort )
A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet, that is native to sandy, open pine woods in the eastern U.S. ( from central Arkansas to southern Indiana to Connecticut; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). It is very rare and highly localized outside the Atlantic Coastal Plain.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size, are mid-green.
The white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne on flat corymbs during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist soil.

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Eupatorium aromaticum ( Lesser Snakeroot )
Also called Ageratina aromatica. A perennial, reaching up to 3.3 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet, that is native to sandy, pine-oak-hickory savanna on to the U.S. east coast from Louisiana to Florida and north along the coastal plain to Massachusetts. It is also found inland to southern Ohio as well as much of West Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. It is now endangered in Ohio.
The ovate leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.6 inches in size.
The tiny white flowers are borne in clusters during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on acidic, well drained soil.

* photo taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD


Eupatorium cannabinum ( Hemp Agrimony )
A clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 5 feet, that is native from Scotland to central Asia; south to the Mediterranean Sea and Turkey.
The coarse, aromatic, palmate leaves are bright green. The toothed, lance to ovate leaves are up to 4 x 1.6 inches in size.
The reddish-purple flowers are borne in heads, up to 5 inches across, during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 9 in full sun on light, fertile, moist, well drained soil.

'Plenum'
Double purplish-pink flowers.

Eupatorium capillifolium ( Dog Fennel )
A perennial, reaching up to 8 x 5 foot, that is native to the eastern U.S. ( from Oklahoma to southern Missouri to Philly, PA; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is not very ornamental and can become invasive on some sites.
The greenish-white flowers are borne on panicles during autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade. Propagation is by division or seed.

* historic archive photo


Eupatorium coelestinum ( Blue Boneset )
Also called Hardy Ageratum. A fast growing to invasive, rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.5 x 6 feet, that is native to moist sites in the eastern North Amerca ( from southeast Nebraska to Chicago, Illinois to southern Michigan to southern Ontario to southern New York State; south to central Texas to southern Florida ). It is endangered in Nebraska and New Jersey. It was abundant on the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s.
The toothed, ovate to triangular leaves, up to 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 ) inches in size, are downy, mid-green. The leaves are oppositely-arranged.
The fuzzy, blue, violet or white flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne in dense clusters during mid-summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist, well drained soil. Flood tolerant

* photos taken on Nov 11 2010 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Aug 30 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 29 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 15 2013 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 13 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


'Album'
White flowers, otherwise identical to species.

Eupatorium dubium ( Joe Pye Weed )
A perennial, reaching up to 5 x 4.5 feet, that is native to acidic swamps in eastern North America ( from Nova Scotia & southwest Maine; south to South Carolina.
The toothed, ovate leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches in size, are deep green.
The leaves are borne in whorls of 3 or 4.
The pink flowers are borne in heads of up to 12, during mid-summer to mid-autumn. The flower heads are up to 12 inches across.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil. Tolerant of wet sites and also more tolerant of shade than most other species.

* photo taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


'Baby Joe'
A dwarf Joe Pye Week reaching a maximum size of 5 x 4.5 ( rarely over 3 x 3 ) feet, with fragrant, magenta-pink flowers borne in domed clusters over a long season during early to mid autumn.
This cultivar is more for use for edging than 'Little Joe'. It also looks great in containers.
The flowers are great for attracting butterflies and hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, slightly acidic, sandy soil.
Plant was discovered by Steve Lighty at Conard Pyle Nursery in
Pennsylvania.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2012 in London, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD


'Corey'
Only reaching up to 2 x 3 feet, it bears fuzzy blue flowers late summer into mid autumn. Cut back in summer for compact habit.
Invasive on wet soils.
Hardy zones 3 to 7

'Little Joe'
An upright, compact, dwarf Joe Pye Week reaching a maximum size of 5 x 6 feet, with fragrant, pale pink flowers borne in clusters over a long season during early to mid autumn.
Looks great in borders and mass plantings with ornamental grasses, Aster, Boltonia, Nippon Daisy and Goldenrod. It also looks great in containers.
The flowers are great for attracting butterflies and hummingbirds.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on moist, slightly acidic, sandy soil.
Plant was discovered by Steve Lighty at Conard Pyle Nursery in
Pennsylvania.

* photo taken on Sep 26 2013 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photo taken on on Aug 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Apr 2016 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on Sep 4 2016 in Columbia, MD


Eupatorium fistulosum ( Hollow Joe Pye Weed )
A huge perennial, reaching a maximum size of 14 x 10 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to wet meadows and floodplains of eastern North America ( from Iowa to southwest Maine; south to eastern Texas to Florida ).
The toothed, narrow-elliptical leaves, up to 14 x 4 inches, are deep green.
The leaves are whorled along the purplish stems.
The pinkish-purple flowers are borne in heads up to 20 inches across, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on moist to wet soil. Cut back to 3 feet in height during early summer if bushier, more compact habit is desired.

* photos taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD






* photos taken on July 25 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Album'
Rarely reaches over 5 feet, with white flowers.

'Ivory Towers'
Showy white flowers, otherwise similar to species.

* photo taken on Aug 8 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 18 2017 in Columbia, MD


Eupatorium fortunei
A moderate growing, bushy, rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 3 feet in size, that is a widespread native of China. It is also found in Korea and Japan.
The toothed, oblanceolate to narrowly-elliptical leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches in size, are deep green.
The white to deep pink flowers are borne on clusters up to 4 inches wide, during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist soil.

'Capri'
Vigorous but compact and upright, reaching only 2.5 x 2 feet in size. It originated as a mutation of 'Pink Frost'.
The gray-green leaves, up to 3.3 x 2 inches, are gray-green and boldly margined creamy-white.
the pale rosy-pink flowers are borne late summer to mid-autumn.

* photo taken on Aug 29 2013 in Clarksville, MD


'Pink Frost'
Also called 'Pink Elegance'. A perennial, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in height.
The leaves, up to 5.5 x 3 inches, are boldly bordered in creamy-white.
The flowers are deep pink.

* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Eupatorium hyssopifolium ( Hyssopleaf Thoroughwort )
A vase-shaped perennial, reaching a maximum height of 4.5 feet, that is native to grasslands and open woods in eastern North America ( from central Missouri to southern Indiana & southern Ohio to Cape Cod; south to southeast Texas to far northern Florida ). It is endangered in Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, West Virginia, Maryland, New York and Alabama.
The sharply-toothed, linear leaves are up to 4 x 0.3 inches in size. The fine-textured foliage is gray-green.
The white flowers are borne on dense, flat heads from late summer to early autumn ( rarely into mid-autumn ).
Hardy zones 4 to 8 in full sun to partial shade preferring dry sandy, well drained soil.

* photos taken on Oct 17 2014 in Baltimore Co., MD

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Eupatorium ligustinum ( Privet-Leaved Thoroughwort )
A bushy, domed large shrub ( rarely small tree ) that is native from Mexico to Costa Rica. Some records include: largest on record - 26 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches.
The toothed, lance-shaped to elliptical leaves, up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size, are bronze at first, turning to glossy mid-green.
The white to pale pink flowers are borne on dense, terminal clusters, up to 8 inches wide, from late summer to late autumn. Deadheading extends the flowering season.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 ( 8b on protected site ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil.

Eupatorium maculatum ( Spotted Joe Pye Weed )
Also called Eupatorium maculatum subsp maculatum and Eutrochium maculatum. A very large, clumping perennial, reaching a maximum size of 10 x 6.5 ( rarely over 7 ) feet, that is native to rich open swamps and moist meadows in North America ( from Vancouver, British Columbia to Revelstoke, B.C. to southern Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to Red Lake, Ontario to Fort Albany, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to Arizona to Missouri to the Carolinas ). It is great as an architectural plant. Some record include: 1st year - 4.5 feet.
The toothed, narrow-elliptical leaves, up to 12 x 3.5 inches in size, are deep green.
The bold leaves are borne in whorls of 5 along the purple spotted stems.
The rosy-purple flowers are borne in massive flat heads, up to 7 inches across, during late summer to mid-autumn.
The flowers attract butterflies.
The stems are purple.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, moist to wet soil.
Make sure this plant does not dry out during dry spells or its foliage may scorch.







* photos taken on Aug 25 2011 @ Scott Arboretum, Swarthmore, PA

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 in Columbia, MD


'Atropurpureum'
Forms a massive clump, up to 10 x 6 feet, with deep green foliage having purple leaf veins. The flowers are deep lavender-purple.
The stems are purple.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Bartered Bride'
Reaches up to 8 feet with white flowers borne on very large, dense heads.

'Carin'
Forms a fast growing, massive clump, up to 10 x 6 feet, with mid green leaves, up to 9 inches in length.
The light pink flowers are borne in massive flowerheads, up to 18 inches across, during late summer into early autumn.
The stems are deep purple.

'Gateway'
Forms a more compact but still massive clump, up to 9 x 6 feet, with leaves, up to 9 inches in length. The handsome foliage is mid-green.
The lavender flowers are borne in massive flowerheads, up to 18 inches across, during late summer into early autumn.
This plant makes a truly spectacular focal point and looks great with tall ornamental grasses.
An introduction from Kurt Bluemel.

* photo taken on August 3 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Purple Bush'
Compact and dense, reaching up to 5.3 feet.
The leaf veins and stems are purple.
The lavender-pink flowers are borne during late summer.

* photos taken on Aug 8 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken by Milan Havlis ( havlis.cz )


Eupatorium perfoliatum ( Boneset )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to low woods and swamps in central and eastern North America ( from western Nebraska to southeast Manitoba to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Wawa, Ontario to Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to eastern Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant at Point Pelee, at Detroit, Michigan as well as on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The aromatic, deeply-toothed, ovate to triangular leaves, up to 8 x 1.8 inches, are deep green and wrinkled. The foliage often turns to red during autumn. The stalkless leaves are borne in pairs and are united around the stem.
The white, tubular flowers are borne in large, flat-topped heads, up to 6 inches across, from mid-summer to mid-autumn. The flower heads contain up to 40 flowers each.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade ( tolerates deeper shade ) on moist to wet soil. Plants do not flower until the second year.

* photo taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 13 2016 in Reisterstown, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 25 2016 near Reisterstown, MD

* historic archive photo


Eupatorium pilosum ( Rough Boneset )
A rhizomatous perennial, reaching up to 3.3 feet, that is native to sandy savannas and lakeshores in the eastern U.S. ( from central Kentucky to central West Virginia to most of Massachusetts; south to southwest Louisiana to central Florida.
The lance-shaped to narrowly-elliptic leaves are up to 3.5 x 1.8 inches in size.
The white flowers are borne on flattened clusters during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on moist, sandy, well drained soil. It is heat and drought tolerant.

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Eupatorium purpureum ( Sweet Joe Pye Weed )
A huge, clumping perennial reaching a maximum size of 15 x 10 ( rarely over 9 ) feet, that is native to dry open woodlands in eastern North America ( from centreal Nebraska to northeast Minnesota to Saginaw, Michigan to Upper New York State to New Hampshire; south to Oklahoma to central Tennessee to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in Lasalle, along the Canard River Valley as well as at nearby Detroit, Michigan and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It was also abundant on the Ohio shore during that time. Striking when used at the back of a landscape border.
The vanilla-scented, finely-toothed, narrow-elliptical leaves, up to 12 x 6 inches in size, are deep green.
The rose-red flowers are borne in clusters up to 18 inches across, during mid to late summer ( rarely lasting into mid-autumn ).
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( reports of 2 & 3 ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, loam or clay. It is very tolerant of alkaline soil.

* photos taken on July 20 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo taken on July 17 2010 @ Tyler Arboretum, Philly, PA

* photos taken on August 1 2011 in Luzerne Co., PA









* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Album'
White flowers

'Atropurpureum'
Purple foliage.

'Big Umbrellas'
Reaches up to 6 feet in height, bearing massive, lavender-purple, rounded flowerheads over 15 inches across.
The purple stems give added ornamental effect.

Eupatorium rugosum ( White Snakeroot )
Also called Ageratina altissima. A fast growing to invasive, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to rich woodlands in eastern North America ( from Saskatchewan to Michigan's Upper Peninsula to Dyer's Bay, Ontario to Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to central Texas to Georgia ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was sporadic around Amherstburg and abundant on the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The coarsely-toothed, triangular leaves, up to 7 x 5 inches in size, are poisonous to livestock. The leaves are paired along the stems. The foiage is mid-green.
The white flowers are borne on domed clusters up to 6 ( rarely over 4 ) inches across, during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on light, moist, well drained soil.
Easy to grow, it even tolerates dry shade.

* photos taken on Aug 1 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC

* photo taken on Sep 23 2016 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photo


'Chocolate'
Reaches a maximum size of 7 x 7 ( rarely over 4.5 ) feet with attractive, coarse, glossy, deep purple-brown leaves, up to 7 inches in length.
The white flowerheads borne early to mid autumn contrast well with the foliage.
The stems are also purple.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Sep 23 2013 in Burtonsville, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Ellicott City

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Eupatorium serotinum ( Late Boneset )
A perennial, reaching up to 7 x 4 feet, that is native to moist meadows and woodland edges in eastern North America ( from central Nebraska to central Iowa to southern Wisconsin to Detroit, Michigan to far southern Ontario to Delaware; south to central Texas to southern Florida ). It has naturalized further north along the east coast to Massachusetts.
The sharply-toothed, ovate to triangular leaves, up to 8 x 4 ( rarely over 6 x 1.6 ) inches in size, are downy bright green. The leaves are paired along the stems but are long stalked unlike similar Eupatorium sessilifolium.
The white flowers are borne in dense, broad cymes during early to mid autumn.

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Aug 20 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on on Aug 1 2014 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken Aug 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on Sep 16 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photo taken on Sep 23 2016 in Columbia, MD


Eupatorium sessilifolium ( Upland Boneset )
A fast growing bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 feet, that is native to upland woods in the eastern North America ( from southeast Minnesota to Detroit, Michigan to central Pennsylvania to Massachussets and southern New Hampshire; south to northern Arkansas to northern Alabama to central North Carolina ). It is endangered in Minnesota, New Hampshire, and Vermont and also threatened in Michigan. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s.
The finely-toothed, triangular leaves, up to 7 x 2 inches in size, are deep green.
The sessile leaves are paired ( or rarely borne in whorls of 3 )
The leaves are paired along the stems.
The white flowers are borne in dense corymbs, during late summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on light, moist, well drained soil.
Easy to grow, it tolerates alkaline soils and even dry shade.

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

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