Saturday, January 16, 2010

Pittosporum

A massive genus of close to 200 species of evergreen trees and shrubs that are native to Australia, New Zealand, temperate to tropical Asia and South Africa as well as Hawaii. Many species have much landscape value and many can also be clipped and used for hedging.
The majority of Pittosporum species prefer full sun to partial shade on just about any light, well drained soil. In cooler regions such as England or the Pacific Northwest, they grow best on a warm sheltered site such as against a south facing wall.
Propagation is from seed soaked 24 hours before sowing.
Cultivars can also be propagated from half-hardened cuttings taken summer to fall.
Most species are fire resilient.

Pittosporum bicolor
A slow growing, dense, erect, narrow, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 44 x 15 feet, that is native to southeastern Australia and Tasmania.
Some records include: largest trunk diameter - 15 inches.
The leathery, rolled-edged, narrow leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are finely pale-brown hairy at first, turning to deep green above, white to brown felted beneath.
The fragrant, small yellow flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by gray capsules that contain orangish-red seeds.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in partial to full shade on consistently moist soil. It thrives in placed such as Ireland and the Pacific Northwest. Very wind tolerant and makes a good screen. May resprout from roots if killed back by an occasional severe winter.

Pittosporum brevicalyx
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 18 feet, that is native to Yunnan China.
The leaves, up to 8 x 2.5 inches, are green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

'Golden Temple'
A tough, sturdy, compact evergreen shrub with fragrant yellow flowers.
A fine landscape plant originating with the Saratoga Horticultural Research Foundation in San Martin California.

Pittosporum buchanii
An evergreen large shrub to small tree that is native to New Zealand. Some records include: 30 years - 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches.
The leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, are green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Pittosporum colensoi ( Black Mapou )
Also called Pittosporum tenuifolium colensoi. A very attractive, dense, moderate growing, evergreen small tree that is native to New Zealand. Some records include: largest on record - 48 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It is very similar in appearance to Pittosporum tenuifolium.
The leathery, oblong leaves, up to 4.5 x 2 inches, are very glossy bright green turning to deep green.
The small, deep red flowers are borne during early summer.
They are followed by
The stems are stout and black.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating 10 F ) in full sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained soil. Very drought tolerant as well as tolerant of heat, humidity, flooding and seaside conditions.

Pittosporum crassifolium ( Karo )
A fast growing, dense, evergreen small tree that is native to New Zealand.
Some records include: 8 years - 27 feet; largest on record - 43 x 17 feet with a trunk diameter of 9 inches. The expansive roots are great for binding sand.
The thick, leathery, elliptic or oval leaves, up to 5 x 1 inches, are glossy deep green, hairy white to light brown beneath.
The highly fragrant, very small, red flowers are borne in clusters during spring. They are followed by downy red fruits that enclose glossy black seeds.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun to partial shade however can not survive extended freezes. Thrives near the sea where it tolerates wind and salt spray. It is also very drought tolerant. It enjoys maritime climates and thrives in Ireland. In cooler parts of it range it thrives best planted on a protected site against a south facing wall.
Can be sheared and cut back hard.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Variegata'
The gray-green foliage is edged creamy-white.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Propagated from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

Pittosporum dallii
A slow growing, dense, rounded, spreading, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 20 x 20 feet, with a tiny natural range in mountain forests on northwest South Island in New Zealand where it is endangered.
Some records include: largest on record - 27 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The sharply-toothed, elliptic to oblong leaves, up to 5 x 1.5 inches, are crowded at the stem tips. The foliage is very deep green.
The sweetly fragrant, small, white flowers are borne sporadically during summer.
They are followed by
Very hardy, thriving zones 8 to 11 ( tolerating 5 F ) in full sun, preferring a site protected from excessive wind. The tallest on record was actually measured in England where it thrives.

Pittosporum daphniphylloides
A graceful, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 24 ( averaging closer to 12 ) feet, that is native to elevations around 7000 feet in the mountains of Taiwan.
Some records include:
The lance-shaped to oblong leaves, up to 10 x 4 ( rarely over 6 ) inches, are glossy blue-green to deep green.
The foliage resembles that of Daphniphyllum.
The very fragrant, small, greenish-white flowers are borne at the stem tips from mid to late spring.
They are followed by yellow fruit.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating 0 F ) in full sun or partial shade on well drained soil that is moist during summer. It thrives in the southeastern U.S.

Pittosporum eugenioides ( Tarata )
Also called Lemonwood. A fast growing, dense ( columnar when young ), medium-sized, evergreen tree, that is native to New Zealand. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 60 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet. It makes a great shade tree but can also be sheared as a hedge.
The wavy-edged, oval leaves, up to 6 x 1.5 inches, are glossy bright green with a pale midrib. The leaves are lemon-scented aromatic when crushed.
The fragrant, small, creamy-yellow flowers are borne on dense terminal clusters during spring into summer.
The bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11, it thrives in maritime climates reaching large sizes in Ireland and Scotland. It is hardy in Portland, Oregon though may defoliate during severe winters. In colder parts of its range it thrives best against a warm southern exposure protected from cold winter winds. Drought tolerant and easy to grow.

'Variegatum'
Foliage irregularly margined creamy-white. It is among the most beautiful of all variegated shrubs. Can be propagated only from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

Pittosporum ferrugineum
An evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 60 x 45 feet, that is native to Australia.
The leaves, up to 8 x 2 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are green.
Hardy zones 8+

Pittosporum 'Garnettii'
The hybrid between Pittosporum ralphii & P. tenuifolium, forming an attractive, dense
columnar to conical, evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 x 13 feet.
Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 7 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are gray-green and variegated with creamy-white ( often flushed pink during winter ).
The deep flowers are borne along the stems during spring.
Hardy zones 8 to 11. Protect from cold winter winds in zone 8.
Tolerant of seaside conditions and is at least moderately deer resistant.

Pittosporum heterophyllum ( Chinese Pittosporum )
Also called Pittosporum glabrum. A fast growing, large evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching up to 15 x 10 feet, that is native to Tibet as well as Yunnan and Sichuan Provinces in western China. It makes a great screening plant.
The wavy-edged, narrow ovate, leathery leaves, up to 3 x 1 inches, are luxuriant glossy mid-green.
The profuse, highly fragrant, small, creamy-yellow flowers are borne on dense panicles during late spring into summer.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun to partial shade on moderately moist, well drained soil. Among the hardiest Pittosporums, it thrives in much of the Carolinas. Very tough, surviving even in parking lot strips. Also tolerant of seashore conditions.

'Winter Frost'
Dwarf in habit, reaching up to 4 x 4 feet. The foliage is attractively streaked and margined creamy-white.

Pittosporum ilicioides ( Aniseleaf Pittosporum )
A large evergreen shrub, reaching up to 15 feet in height, that is native to central China & Japan. Some records include; 5 years - 7 feet.
The narrow leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size.
The fragrant, white flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by bright orange capsules with blue-black fruit inside.
It is hardy at least as far north as North Carolina ( zones 7b to 10 ).
Prefers full sun to partial shade with regular summer water.

Pittosporum kauaiensis
An evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 40 feet, that is native to Hawaii.
Hardy zones 10 to 11

Pittosporum melanospermum
An attractive, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum height of 35 feet, that is native to northern Australia.
Some records include:
The prominent-veined, lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are bright green.
The sweetly-fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne on dense, rounded clusters during summer into fall.
They are followed by small, pear-shaped, yellow-orange capsules. The capsules contain black seeds within.
Hardy zones 10 to 11 requriring either subtropical or tropical climates.

Pittosporum nepaulense
A vigorous, evergreen small tree that is native from northern India, Bhutan and Nepal. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet; largest on record - 37 x 15 ( rarely over 25 ) feet.
The pointed, oval, leathery leaves, up to 13 x 3 ( rarely over 8 ) inches, are borne clustered at the stem tips. The leathery foliage is green.
The fragrant, small, bright yellow flowers are borne on panicles during late spring into summer.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

Pittosporum oreillyanum ( Thorny Pittosporum )
A rounded, medium-size evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 feet, that is native to a tiny natural range in montane rainforest in southeast Queensland and neighboring New South Wales.
Some records include:
The round or oval, small leaves are deep green.
The white to pink flowers are borne solitarily along the stems during spring.
They are followed by yellow-brown capsules with red seeds within.
The stems are spiny.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in partial to full shade on moist soil.
Prefers subtropical climates.

Pittosporum parvilimbum ( Narrowleaf Pittosporum )
Also called Pittosporum subilsepalum. A rare, dense, medium-size, evergreen shrub reaching up to 12 x 12 ( rarely over 9 ) feet, that is native to Guangxi Province in southern China.
The small, fragrant, white flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by orange capsules with tiny black fruits within.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Pittosporum patulum
An evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum height of 29 feet, that is native to
Some records include: largest trunk diameter - 9 inches.
The willow-like leaves, up to 2 x 0.2 inches, are green.
Hardy zones 8a+. Thrives in England.

Pittosporum phillyraeoides ( Willow Pittosporum )
A very handsome, gracefully pendulous, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 47 x 25 ( rarely over 40 ) feet, that is native to
Some records include: fastest growth rate - 2 feet.
The narrow leaves, up to 5 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are green.
The fragrant, yellow flowers are borne during spring.
They are followed by
The bark is smooth and light gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 10 in full sun to partial shade. Hardy in the warmest parts of England and thrives especially well in Cornwall. Very drought tolerant but also tolerant of flooding.

Pittosporum ralphii
A rare, deeply taprooted, fast growing, rounded, evergreen, small tree, averaging around 20 x 20 feet, that is native to New Zealand.
Some records include: largest on record - 37 feet with a trunk diameter of 16 inches.
It is very similar to Pittosporum crassifolium in appearance.
The oblong or rounded leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches, are luxuriant green and tropical in appearance. The thinner leaves are smooth beneath than Pittosporum crassifolium.
The small, deep red flowers are borne late spring into early summer.
They are followed by small capsules.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on fertile, sandy, well drained soil. Thrives in maritime climates such as England.

'Variegatum'
Gray-green foliage is irregularly, boldly and broadly margined creamy-white.

Pittosporum revolutum ( Yellow Pittosporum )
A fast growing, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 27 x 10 feet, that is native to eastern and southeast Australia. Some records include:
The pointed oval leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are rusty hairy at first, turning to glossy deep green above, brown hairy beneath.
The fragrant, yellow flowers are borne during spring on terminal clusters
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Pittosporum rhombifolium ( Diamond-Leaf Laurel )
A very attractive, fast growing, dense, evergreen, large tree, reaching around 70 feet, that is native to eastern Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 80 feet.
It is a popular street tree in Santa Barbara, California.
The diamond-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 2 ( rarely over 4 ) inches, are rusty hairy at first, turning to glossy bright green.
The sweetly-fragrant, small, white flowers are borne on dense terminal clusters during summer.
They are followed by attractive, orange capsules that persist over most of the year.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Clay tolerant.

Pittosporum rigidum
A dense, divaricating, small to medium-sized, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 10+ x 10 feet, that is native to New Zealand.
Some records include: largest on record - 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 inches.
The small leaves, up to 1 ( rarely over 0.3 ) inch in length, are bright green.
The red flower are followed by red fruits.
Hardy zones 9 ( possibly 8 ) in maritime climates.

Pittosporum tenuifolium ( Kohuhu )
A fast growing, dense ( columnar when young ), evergreen tree that is a widespread native to New Zealand. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet; 20 years - 30 x 10 feet; largest on record - 100 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; longest lived - 85 + years.
It is very commonly used as a hedge in England, however also known to grow well over 45 feet there as a free standing tree.
The smooth, leathery, wavy-edged, oval or oblong leaves, up to 4.5 x 1 ( rarely over 3 ) inches, are green.
The strongly fragrant, small, blackish-red ( with yellow anthers ) flowers are borne during late spring.
The flowers are borne singly or clustered from the leaf axils.
They are followed by rounded, woody capsules, up to 0.5 inches across, that mature to black.
The stems are deep purple.
The bark is smooth and light gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( no leaf damage at 12 F once mature, surviving to 5 F ) in sun or shade. Thrives in the British Isles and is fully hardy in Portland, Oregon though with defoliation possible during severe winters. When grown as a tree, it should be pruned to a single leader, feathered and thinned when young. Pruning is usually done during mid spring before the new growth begins.
Cultivars are grown from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Deborah'
Foliage is gray-green with creamy-white margins that are flushed pink.

'Elizabeth'
A vigorous small tree, reaching up to 25 feet. The glossy bright blue-green foliage is edged in white. The foliage is flushed pink during winter.

'Gold Sheen'
Reaches up to 10 x 4 feet with foliage that is golden-green and edged in white.
The foliage contrasts nicely with the stems that are black.

'Irene Patterson'
Slow growing and dense in habit, reaching up to 8 x 3 feet.
The foliage is nearly white and flecked with deep green.
The leaves may become pink tinged during winter.
The foliage contrasts nicely with the black stems.
Among the hardiest of all cultivars, even known to tolerate 0 F.

'James Stirling'
A small tree, reaching a maximum height of 27 feet, with silvery-green foliage that is borne on deep purple stems.

'June'
Fast growing and upright in habit with large bright green leaves contrasting with black stems.

'Limelight'
Bicolored deep and bright green foliage.

'Purpureum'
A small tree, reaching a maximum height of 30 feet. The foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep purple.

Silver Sheen'
A fast growing small tree, reaching around 20 x 6 feet. Some records include: 2 years - 9 feet; largest on record - 53 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The small, rounded leaves are silvery beneath.
The stems are black.

'Sunburst'
Rounded foliage that is variegated yellow in the center.

'Tom Thumb'
A dwarf shrub form of 'Purpureum', reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet.
It is dense and rounded in habit.
The foliage is bright green at first, turning to deep blackish-purple.
Hardy even in protected sites in Seattle, during severe cold it can be helped by throwing a blanket over it.

'Variegatum'
The green foliage is edged in creamy-white.

'Victoria'
Dense and upright, reaching up to 8 feet, with foliage that is splashed silver and pink. The leaves are tiny, up to 0.25 inches in length.
Among the hardiest of cultivars, possibly even into zone 7b.

'Warnham Gold'
A small tree with foliage that is bright green at first, later aging to bright golden-yellow. Some records include: largest on record - 27 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches.

Pittosporum tobira ( Japanese Pittosporum )

Native to China and Japan, the Tobira Pittosporum is an excellent evergreen foliage large shrub or hedge. On ideal sites it can sometimes grow into a substantial tree growing to 4 feet in a year, to 30 x 23 feet in 20 years. Record size is 50 x 60 feet with diameter of 4 feet with extreme age.
The very attractive foliage is very deep green, glossy, leathery and oblong with rolled edges and up to 5 x 1.5 inches.
The orange-scented, creamy-white ( later deepening to lemon yellow ) flowers, up to an inch, are borne in terminal clusters, up to 3 inches across, from late spring into early summer.
It is hardy zones 8 to 11 ( some Korean source and 'Tall and Tough' are hardier into zone 6b ). It grows well on light loamy well drained soil in sun or part shade and tolerates salt spray. Tolerant of heat, drought, salt spray and wind.
Seed should be soaked for 24 hours before sowing. Hardwood cuttings is also an option for propagating this plant, they easily root.

'Tall & Tough'
Fast growing to about the same size as regular Pittosporum tobira, but much hardier, north to zone 7 ( tolerating at least as low as 0 F with no damage ).
It is otherwise very similar.

* photo taken on Feb 2009 @ U.S. National Arboretum



* photo taken on 4th of July @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on October 17 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum




* photos taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Variegata'
Reaches a maximum size of 12 x 15 feet with very attractive gray-green foliage having an irregular white margin.
Tolerates as low as 5 F.

'Wheelers Dwarf'
A dwarf, dense mounded form reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet. the foliage is luxuriant glossy mid green.



Pittosporum truncatum
An evergreen large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 17 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to forest understories in western and central China. Some records include: 10 years - 8 feet.
The hard, leathery, obovate leaves, up to 3.2 x 1.5 inches, are whorled at the stem tips. The foliage is glossy green all year.
The lightly fragrant, creamy-white flowers are borne singly or in umbels from the leaf axils during mid spring.
They are followed by a 2-valved capsule, about the size of a pea, that splits open to reveal orange seeds.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in partial to full shade on moderately acidic, humus-rich, well drained soil. It thrives in both the Pacific Northwest as well as the humid southeast. It is tolerant of deep shade and even dense roots under tall conifers.
Propagation is from cuttings taken during mid July or fresh seed that easily germinates with no pretreatment.





* photo taken on June 23 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


Pittosporum umbellatum
A moderate growing, bushy, evergreen small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 feet, that is native to eastern parts of New Zealand's North Island.
Some records include:
The oval, leathery leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches, are glossy deep green.
The fragrant, showy, pinkish-red flowers are borne on dense terminal clusters during spring.
The twigs are black.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

Pittosporum undulatum ( Victorian Box )
Also called Sweet Pittosporum. A fast growing, dense, evergreen large tree, reaching a maximum size of 90 x 60 feet, that is native to eastern Australia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 4 feet; 20 years - 50 x 27 feet. It may be invasive when planted in moist climates outside it's native range. It is considered a noxious weed in South Africa and should not be planted there as it can invade native woodlands replacing Cape Pittosporum. It is considered invasive in Cuba and Hawaii but not California where it is commonly planted, especially in Berkley, San Fransisco and Santa Barbara.
The very wavy-edged, pointed oval leaves, up to 6 x 2 inches, are glossy deep green.
The profuse, very fragrant, creamy-white flowers, up to 0.5 inches, are borne on terminal clusters during mid to late spring.
They are followed by orangish-brown capsules that contain orange seeds within.
The sticky seeds will stain sidewalks.
The bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 ( however there are also reports of trees being killed at 20 F - zone 9 ) in sun or shade on just about any acidic, well drained soil.
Drought tolerant.

'Variegatum'
Foliage is edged in creamy-white.

Pittosporum virgatum
A rare evergreen shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum size of 25 feet, that is native to New Zealand.
Some records include:
The leaves, up to 2.5 inches in length, are green.
The flowers
They are followed by
Hardy zones

Pittosporum viridiflorum ( Cape Pittosporum )
An evergreen large tree, reaching a maximum height of 100 ( averaging 50 ) feet, that is native to South Africa. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 3 feet.
It is highly recommended as a shade and street tree in South Africa.
The roots are non aggressive. It can be clipped and makes an excellent tall hedge or screen.
The oblong leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 ( rarely over 4 x 1.5 ) inches, are glossy deep green.
The sweetly-fragrant, small, yellow-green flowers are borne on terminal clusters during late spring.
The bark is pale brown and smooth.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade. Moderately drought tolerant.
Easy to transplant and quick to establish.

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