Monday, January 18, 2010

Willows

A large and very diverse genus of close to 400 species of trees and shrubs native to mostly cold and temperate regions around the world. Many willows are grown commercially for their timber which is used in making cricket bats and baskets. They are also very valuable for stablizing stream banks and other flood prone areas though the roots can be invasive and damage drains and pipes if planted too closely. The bark of Willows are also used to make Aspirin though most Aspirin now is synthetically made.
Willow bark contains salicylic acid, a chemical that is very similar to Aspirin. In fact, tea from the bark of 2 to 5 year old twigs was once used medicinally. It increases blood flow to the skin, reducing fevers, reducing joint and muscle inflammation and killing pain.
The wood of Willow does not make good firewood. It releases only around 13 million Btu per cord.
Most Willows prefer full sun on moist well drained soil.
Propagation is from seed, semi-ripe cuttings in summer, hardwood cuttings in winter and layering. The easiest way is with 4 inch softwood cuttings stuck in flats of moist sand after the lower leaves have been removed.
Most shrub Willows benefit from a renovation pruning every 10 years, cutting them to the ground in March.
Willows may clog septic tanks up to 3 x distance from their drip lines so positioning of these trees is important.

* photos of unknown interet source




Salix acmophylla
A fast growing, rounded, deciduous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 28 inches, that is native to the Middle East ( from Turkey to Armenia; south to Isreal ). It is useful for forestry on wet sites including river floodplains.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 0.8 inches in size, are silvery-green.
The yellow flower catkins, up to 2 inches long, are borne during early spring.
The stems are reddish.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 ( tolerating -4 F ). It requires 30 + inches of yearly rainfall unless on a site with a permanently high water table.

* photo of unknown internet source


Salix acutifolia ( Caspian Willow )
A very fast growing, small tree to 30 feet or more that is native from Poland and Russia to northeast Asia. Some records include: 4 years - 17 x 9 feet; 6 years - 20 x 18 feet; largest on record - 60 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is a great shelterbelt tree for harsh climates including the northern Great Plains, esp. Alberta.
The heavily-veined, narrow leaves are up to 6 x 0.5 inches in size.
The foliage is deep green above and bluish below, turning to bright yellow during autumn.
The showy, silky white flower catkins up to 1.5 inches in length are borne during early spring before the foliage.
The young twigs are reddish brown and the bark on the trunk is furrowed and gray-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 and even grows in the harsh climates of Edmonton, Alberta and the Canadian Prairies. It prefers full sun on well drained soil and does not enjoy high PH soils.

'Blue Streak'
the dark branches are covered in powdery blue-white bloom.

'Pendulifolia'
A very attractive, gracefully pendulous tree reaching up to 20 x 20 feet.

Salix aegyptiaca ( Musk Willow )
An extremely ornamental, fast growing, small tree to 33 feet that is native to Iran, Turkey and Armenia. Some records include: 10 years - 20 x 20 feet; largest on record - 47 x 28 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The wide oval leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 inches in size are downy gray beneath.
The large flower catkins are borne in late winter before the foliage emerges.
The male flower carkins up to 1.6 inches in length are bright yellow and showy and borne in late winter before the foliage emerges.
The twigs are downy gray at first, later turning reddish and ridged.
Hardy zones 5 to 9

Salix alba ( White Willow )
A broadly columnar, attractive large tree to 80 feet or more that is native to much of Europe and western Asia. It has naturalized locally in North America to as far north as southern Saskatchewan and Sioux Lookout, Ontario as well as Nova Scotia to the east. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 3 inches; 5 years - 22 x 18 feet ( Alberta ); 5 years - 40 feet; 15 years - 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet; 20 years - 72 x 60 feet; largest on record - 160 x 81 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.6 feet ( 11 feet on pollarded trees ); longest lived - 189 years
While not weeping, its branch tips are somewhat drooping.
The leaves are narrow and lance-shaped, up to 6 x 2 inches in size.
The foliage is silky and white at first, later turning to deep green above and white beneath. The foliage appears very early in spring, sometimes even in February and persists very late in autumn sometimes falling as late as January.
The thin flower catkins appear in early spring around the same time as the foliage.
The bark is dark gray and deeply fissured.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in sun and preferring cool, light moist soil. It thrives even on the northern Great Plains. Young trees should be pruned to a single leader and feathered. Space out main limbs, prevent undue extension and avoid narrow crotches to avoid storm damage. Trees can be cut back hard in March for vigor. Nematodes are known to damage the root system causing trees to topple. Do not plant within 100 feet of buildings.

* photos taken on July 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 3 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 2 2013 in Stratford, Ontario

* historic archive photos


'Britzensis' ( Scarlet Willow )
Very fast growing ( up to 14 feet in 2 years recorded ) with bright orange-red young stems that are especially showy in winter. Eventually reaches about same size as species.
Hardy zones 3+.

'Caerulea' ( Cricket Bat Willow )
A conical ascending tree with intensely blue-green foliage. Some records include: 2 years - 10 feet; 12 years - 40 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.8 feet ( grown from cutting ); 15 years - 70 feet; 20 years - 85 feet; largest known tree on record - 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.6 feet ( larger is possible ).
Hardy zones 2b+.

'Chrysostela'
Stems are golden yellow with orange-red tips. 'Flame'

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



'Sericea'
A striking tree with intense silvery-blue to silvery-white foliage. Some records include: 13 years - 37 feet; largest on record - 70 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet, it is possible that larger trees exist.
Hardy zones 2b+.

* photo taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


'Tristis'
Weeping habit.
Flower catkins are always female.

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


'Vitellina' ( Golden Willow )
Bright yellow young shoots especially showy in winter. Eventually reaches about the same size as species. Thrives in very harsh climates and is known to reach as much as 22 x 18 feet in just 5 years in Alberta, Canada; it has been known to reach as large as 71 x 78 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.4 feet.
Hardy zones 2b+.

* photos taken on Apr 2 2016 in Howard Co., MD

* historical archive photo


Salix alpina
A prostate shrub that mounds up to 2 feet in height in the middle, that is native to mountainous areas of east Europe.
The leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are oval with slightly toothed edges.
The foliage is glossy bright green.
The branches are downy at first turning to shiny dark brown. They are rugged and frequently change directions at each node.
This plant is typically covered in masses of small purple catkins in early spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 9

Salix amygdaloides ( Peach Leaf Willow )
A handsome tree typically reaching around 75 feet that is native to central and western North America ( from south-central British Columbia to central Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to Lake of the Woods, Ontario to Sault Ste Marie to Tobermory, Ontario to Lake Nipissing to southeast Quebec and Vermont; south to central Oregon to central New Mexico to central Missouri to central Ohio to northeast Pennsylvania ). It is extinct from Kentucky and endangered in West Virginia and Maryland. In the Windsor/Essex County region; it was very common around Point Pelee and on Pelee Island during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan and the Ohio shore during that time. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 6 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 2 inches; 20 years - 45 feet ( average ); largest on record - 140 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 feet; longest lived - 75 years. Extremely large trees grow in Keystone, SD and Greenfield Park in West Allis, Wisconsin. It is usually found on riverbanks, shorelines and swamps in the wild. It is rare in Ontario through likely not endangered as it is widespread along coastal Huron County and on the Bruce Peninsula.
The finely-toothed, "peach-like" ;eaves are up to 6 x 2 ( rarely 10 x 2 ) inches in size. The very attractive foliage is reddish and downy when young turning to luxuriant glossy green above and bluish beneath. The leaves typically have a yellow or orange midrib.
The female catkins up to 4 inches in length are borne in early spring.
The tough, flexible young stems are smooth, slender and yellowish-brown in color.
The bark on older trees is red-brown, furrowed and ridged.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( possibly 2 for northern Great Plains seed source )

* photo taken on Aug 3 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historical archive photos


'Red Baron'
A hybrid that is hardy north to zone 2 and is extremely fast growing with 20 + x 15 feet being recorded in just 3 years.

Salix apoda
A small spreading shrub reaching a maximum size of 5 x 12 feet ( usually half that ) that is native from northern Europe to Caucasus.
The oval, smooth to sometimes serrate edged leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size.
Masses of silvery catkins up to 2 inches in length are produced with the emerging foliage in spring.
The young branches are red-brown and the bark on older stems is gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Salix appendiculata ( Appennine Willow )
A decidous, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum height of 20 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native high mountains from the Alps in central Europe to the northern Balkan Peninsula; south to the Appennines of northern Italy.
The crenately-toothed, oblong leaves, up to 5.5 x 2 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, downy pale green to blue-green beneath.
The yellowish-white flower catkins, up to 1.2 x 0.3 inches in size, appear mid-spring with the emerging foliage.
The shoots are downy at first.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 ( may prove hardier with more testing ) in cool summer climates.

Salix arbuscula
A dense, twiggy small shrub native from the British Isles, Scandinavia through northern Russia, reaches a maximum size of 6 x 6 feet.
The oval, tooth edged leaves are up to 1 x 0.5 inches. The foliage is glossy deep green above and glaucous below.
The flower catkins up to 0.5 inches in length have red anthers and appear in spring with the emerging foliage.
Hardy zones 3 to 8; It only thrives in climates that are cold and damp, is shortlived anywhere else. An excellent plant for the rock garden.

Salix arbutifolia ( Arbutus Leaf Willow )
Also called Chosenia arbutifolia & Salix urbaniana. A fast growing, massive, spectacular tree native to far eastern Siberia, Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Manchuria, Korea and Japan. Some records include: 17 years - 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 feet. It and is similar in appearance to Quercus phellos - the Willow Oak
The elliptic leaves are up to 6 x 3.5 ( rarely over 3 x 1.2 ) inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep blue-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins, up to 4 inches in length. appear during late spring.
The twigs are scarlet red and the grayish-brown bark is deeply fissured.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( tolerating as low as - 50 F ). A deep rooter that is best transplanted while small. A 17 foot deep taproot was recorded on a 10 foot tree.

* photo taken by J.G. Jack @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Dr. Nick V. Kurzenko @ CalPhotos


Salix arctica ( Arctic Willow )
A rapid spreading, creeping shrub native to arctic regions of the world ( even including Greenland and Baffin Island ) that reaches a maximum size of 10 inches x 6.5 feet. In Ontario it is native only to the Hudson and James Bay coastal region where it is very common and widespread. It also occurs as far south as Idaho and Montana in the U.S. at high elevations in the Rocky Mountains.
The heavily-veind, oval leaves are up to 3.5 x 2 inches in size. The leathery foliage is mid-green.
The deep purple flower catkins, up to 2.2 inches in length, appear during early summer.
The stems are shiny and thick.
Hardy zones 1 to 5

Salix atrocinerea ( Rusty Sallow )
A small tree to 20 feet that is native to much of western Europe. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 21 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.3 feet. Long-lived for a Willow, it is known to persist up to 102 years. Rusty Sallow is similar in appearance to the Pussy Willow.
The toothed, oblong leaves are reddish-green to deep green above, silvery below.
The yellowish-white flower catkins up to 3 inches in length are borne in March.
The shoots are reddish during winter.
Hardy north to zone 2 and is tolerant of flooding.

Salix aurita ( Eared Willow )
A bushy, multi-stemmed, rounded, medium-sized, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 13 x 10 feet, that is native to wet thickets in much of Europe and northern Asia.
The rugose ( wrinkled ), obovate leaves, up to 3.3 x 1.5 inches in size, are glossy green above; whitish-gray beneath; turning to yellow during autumn.
The catkins, up to 1.6 inches long, appear during mid-spring.
The bark is grayish-green.
Hardy zones 5 to 7 ( some seed source is likely to be much hardier ).

Salix babylonica ( Weeping Willow )
An attractive, very pendulous, spreading large tree to 75 feet or more that is native to China, however is popular as a landscape tree around the world. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 12 feet; 20 years - 72 x 60 feet; largest on record - 160 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.5 feet. This tree seems to reach its largest sizes in the metro Detroit region however one of 110 x 80 x 6 feet has been recorded to grow in Carroll County, MD. Somewhat short-lived, 100 years is considered old for a weeping willow.
The finely-toothed, narrow lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and grayish green below. The Weeping Willow leafs out very early in spring and holds its foliage very late into autumn, often into December.
The smooth branches are heavily pendulous and often sweep the ground.
The slightly curved catkins, up to 2 inches in length appear around the same time as the foliage. The male catkins are yellow and the female is green; they appear on separate plants.
The dark brown bark is rough and fissured into vertical ridges.
Hardy zones 4 to 10 ( 6+ for most seed source ). Pruning when young is needed to develop a strong framework of branches and canopy clearance to develop a tree that can be walked under. Very young trees need to be staked. Resistant to canker disease.

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source


* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on Aug 25 2013 @ University of Maryland, College Park

* photo of unknown internet source

* historical archive photos


'Lace'
Hardiest cultivar with long bright green leaves.
It even thrives in Alberta, Canada but only at Brooks and Red Deer.
Some records include: 5 years - 17 x 16 feet.

Salix bebbiana ( Beaked Willow )
A shrubby small rounded tree native to northern North America ( from central Alaska to the northern Yukon to central Northwest Territories to Churchill, MB to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Utah to New Jersey ). It is among the most common of all trees in northern Ontario and Alberta where it is found nearly throughout. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was considered abundant on the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio lakeshore during the 1800s though probably also occurred sporadically elsewhere. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan during the presettlement era. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 6 feet; largest on record - 57 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.6 feet; longest lived - 50 years.
The oval leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 ( rarely 6 x 2 ) inches in size. The handsome, crinkly, leathery foliage is bright green at first, turning dull green above, downy blue-gray beneath.
The twigs are covered in gray down when young, later turning smooth and reddish- brown. The reddish-brown bark on older trees is ridged into diamond-shaped patterns.
Hardy zones 2 to 9 and is heat, drought and salt tolerant.

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Salix x blanda ( Wisconsin Weeping Willow )
A very large tree that is the garden raised hybrid between Salix babylonica & Salix fragilis. Some records include: largest on record - 86 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 feet.
The narrow lance shape leaves are up to 6 inches in length with a finely serrate edge. The leathery foliage is deep green above and pale beneath.
The flower catkins, up to 1.3 inches in length in spring are not very conspicuous.
The young branches are pendulous and greenish.
The bark is dark and deeply fissured.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 tolerating as low as -30 F

* photo taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Aug 31 2015 in Elkridge, MD


Salix bockii
A small shrub native to high mountains in western China that reaches 4 x 10 feet in 10 years and a maximum size of 15 x 10 feet.
The oval leaves are only up to 0.7 x 0.2 inches in size and are bright green above and downy white beneath.
The attractive gray flower catkins are borne late summer into autumn unlike most Willows.
The twigs are covered in gray down.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Salix bonplandii ( Bonpland Willow )
A large rounded tree to 65 feet that is native to river valleys of eastern Arizona, south into the Baja Peninsula and northwestern Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 100 + x 75 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. A very large tree grows at Gila NWR in Arizona.
The slender upright branches typically droop towards the ends.
The leaves are narrow, lance-shaped, up to 7 x 1 inches in size with toothed margins.
The foliage is glossy yellow-green above with a yellow midrib; silvery-white beneath.
The foliage is semi-evergreen slowly falling over the winter season.
The bark is dark brown, ridged and fissured.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Salix borealis ( Boreal Willow )
Also called Salix myrsinifolia var borealis. A rounded, decidous, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 26 x 13 feet, that is native to swampy sites from northern Scandinavia to Russian. It makes a great informal hedge or screen. The ovate or elliptical leaves are up to 4 x 2 ( rarely over 3 x 0.8 ) inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, blue-white beneath.
The yellowish-white flower catkins, up to 1 inch in length, appear with the foliage during mid spring.
The young shoots are downy white.
Hardy zones 2 to 5. It is tolerant of seashore conditions.

Salix x boydii
A natural hybrid originating in Scotland that is a slow growing dwarf bush reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 ( rarely over 2 ) feet.
The rounded leaves, up to 1 ( rarely over 0.5 ) inches in size are downy, gray-green later turning to deep green.
Flower catkins are rarely produced but are small and dark gray.
The stems are gnarled and the twigs are downy.
Hardy zones 4 to 7

Salix brachycarpa ( Short-Fruited Willow )
A shrubby willow native to western North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to central Quebec; south to southeast Oregon to southwest Utah to western Wyoming to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan to Moosonee, Ontario to Gaspe region of Quebec ).
The elliptical or oblong leaves are up to 1.6 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is downy silvery-white beneath.
The stems are purplish.
Hardy zones 2 to 6. Requires acidic soil.

'Blue Fox'
An attractive shrub for the northern Great Plains with hairy blue-gray leaves.
Some records include; 7 years - 6 x 7 feet.
Thrives in Alberta.

Salix candida ( Sage Willow )
A shrub reaching a maximum height of 10 feet that is native to northern North America ( from Fairbanks, Alaska to far northern Yukon to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to Churchill, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Washington State, Colorado to central Ohio to New Jersey ). It is endangered in Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Connecticut, Vermont and Maine. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County during the 1800s. It was also abundant at Detroit, Michigan as well as locally at the Castalia Prairie on the Ohio shore during that time. Some records include; 4 years - 6 x 4 feet. It is found on river plains, wet meadows and bogs in the wild.
The narrow lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The attractive foliage is downy and white at first, later turning to dull dark green above, white and very downy beneath.
The very downy flower catkins are up to an inch in length.
The twigs are covered in dense white hair when young, later turning glossy red-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ) in full sun on moist, alkaline soil.

Salix capensis ( Cape Willow )
A very fine tree reaching a maximum height of 50 feet that is native to South Africa.
The leaves are up to 5 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 9

Salix caprea ( French Pussy Willow )
Also called Goat Willow. A small bushy tree to 30 feet that is native from most of England to northeast Asia. Some records include: 5 years - 25 x 15 feet; 20 years - 33 feet; 46 years - 42 x 60 x 3.8 feet; largest on record - 85 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. Among the largest in North America grows at Longwood Gardens near Philly. Moderately long-lived, it is known to persist up to 144 years.
The finely-toothed, oval leaves are up to 6 x 3.5 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, downy pale gray beneath.
The flower catkins appear in very early spring before the foliage. The male catkins, up to 1.5 x 0.8 inches in size. are very fluffy and yellow to silky-gray. The catkins on female trees are soft and silver to greenish. They are up to 2.8 inches in length.
The bark is smooth and gray on young trees; orangish-brown and fissured on older trees. The twigs are stout and yellow-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( likely 2 for northern Mongolian seed source )

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on May 30 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photos taken on Apr 2 2017 in Annapolis, MD


'Lanceolata'
Very long leaves, up to 7 inches in length.

'Pendula ( Kilmarnock Weeping Pussy Willow )
A smaller, strongly weeping form. Must be staked when young to form an upright main trunk. Some records include: largest on record - 10 feet with a trunk diameter of 10 inches.
A male clone bearing abundant catkins.

* photos of unknown internet source



* photo taken on Nov 11 2014 in Burtonsville, MD


'Weeping Sally'
Similar to 'Pendula' but a female clone.

Salix caroliniana ( Carolina Willow )
A handsome, fast growing, small tree native to floodplains in the southeast U.S. ( from southwest Oklahoma to eastern Kansas to northern Missouri to central Illinois to central Ohio to southern Pennsylvania; south to eastern Texas to southern Florida ). It is endangered in Louisiana, Mississippi, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware. Some records include: largest on record - 82 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. A very large tree grows in Pettigrew State Forest in Creswell, NC. Carolina Willow is a larval plant for the Eastern Tigertail Swallowtail butterfly.
The finely-toothed, narrow lance-shaped leaves are up to 8 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green above and hairy bright bluish-gray beneath.
The narrow, bright yellow flower catkins, up to 4 inches in length appear during mid-spring with the foliage.
The gray bark is ridged and scaly. It somewhat resembles that of Fraxinus americana.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 ( tplerating -25 F ) and prefers a soil PH from 4.5 to 7

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA SCS. 1991. Southern wetland flora: Field office guide to plant species. South National Technical Center, Fort Worth.

* photo taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photo


Salix chaenomeloides ( Japanese Pussy Willow )
A fast growing, deciduous, large shrub to medium-sized tree native to central China, Korea and central & southwest Japan. Some records include: 2 years - 12 x 12 feet; largest on record - 37 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 7.5 feet. It is known to live for as long as 600 years, which is extremely old for a Willow.
The oblong or elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep blue-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The abundant flower catkins, up to 3 inches in length are borne in early spring before the foliage.
The longitudinally-fissured bark is grayish-brown. The stems are purple.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 and is not prone to dieback.

* photos taken on Mar 23 2011 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD



* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photo taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Salix x chrysocoma ( Golden Weeping Willow )
A very popular large beautiful weeping landscape tree to 80 feet that is the hybrid between Salix alba & Salix bavbylonica. Some records include: 5 years - 29 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 8.3 inches; 20 years - 70 x 60 feet; largest on record - 120 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 12.4 feet; longest lived - 164 years. The Golden Weeping Willow is wide and deep rooted.
The narrow lance shaped leaves is up to 7 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and blue-green beneath.
The foliage turns golden-yellow in autumn and often persists very late, sometimes until Christmas.
The narrow yellow flower catkins, up to 3 inches in length are slender and similar to that of Salix alba.
The twigs are bright yellow in winter.
The bark is light brown with shallow fissures.
Hardy zones 2 to 9. Do not plant within 100 feet of buildings due to invasive roots.
Pruning when young is needed to develop a strong framework of branches and canopy clearance to develop a tree that can be walked under. Very young trees need to be staked. It is not fully resistant to canker disease.

* photo from family photo album May 1 1977 in Amherstburg, ON

* photo from family photo album Jan 1978 in Amherstburg, ON

* photo from family photo album Jan 1979 in Amherstburg, ON

* photos taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario




* photos taken on August 4 2010 in Stratford, Ontario


* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Mar 22 2012 in Howard Co., MD

* photos taken on Aug 7 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario


* photo taken on Aug 1995 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo taken on Mar 1990 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* family photo archive taken on May 1 1983 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 1990 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo taken on Jan 1992 in Amherstburg, Ontario

* photo taken on April 1998 west of Leamington, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* historical archive photo


Salix cinerea ( Gray Willow )
A handsome, shrubby, small domed tree to 20 feet or more, that is widespread native to swampy sites from England to eastern Siberia and Kamchatka; south to northern Iran and central Asia. Some records include: 4 years - 11 x 4 feet; largest on record - 57 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 foot.
The oval leaves are up to 5 x 2 ( rarely 7 x 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is dull to glossy deep green above and grayish-blue below.
The very silky, bright green to bright yellow flower catkins, up to 1.6 inches long, appear during early spring before the foliage.
The bark is smooth and bright gray, turning to brown and fissured on older trees. The twigs are covered in fine gray down.
Hardy zones 2 to 6

* photo of unknown internet source


Salix commutata 'Powder Face' ( Undergreen Willow )
A medium-size shrub reaching a maximum height of 10 feet that is native to western North America ( from Aleutian Islands to Bethel, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to southwest Northwest Territories to Jasper National Park, Alberta to northwest Montana; south to northern California to western Wyoming ).
It is an excellent landscape plant for the northern Prairies.
The leaves are oval and silvery.
Hardy north to zone 2

Salix cordata ( Cordate Willow )
Also called Heartleaf Willow. A large shrub or small tree, reaching up to 12 fet, that is native to sandy beaches and dunes in northeast North America ( from central Ontario to southern Quebec; south to northwest Wisconsin to southern Indiana to northwest Pennsylvania to western New York State ). It is also native to the Hudson and James Bay shorlines in northern Ontario as well as Newfoundland where it is rare. It is likely extinct in Ohio though was common on the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s ( was common on Pelee Island but not recorded on mainland Essex County, Ontario at that time ). It occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan during that time. It is endangered in Illinois where it is only native to the Chicago area. It is also endangered in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and New York State. It is common on Great Duck Island on Lake Huron as well as being found on Cockburn and Manitoulin Islands. Some records include: 4 years - 8 x 3 feet.
The toothed, oblong or elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.3 ( rarely over 3.5 ) inches in size. The attractive foliage is mid-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins appear with the emerging foliage during mid to late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 5 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil.

* photos taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Salix cotteti
A rapid growing, spreading shrub with very flexible stems that is native to Alpine regions of Europe. Some records include; 4 years - 7 x 2.5 feet; 6 years - 7 x 8 feet; largest on record - 8 x 11 feet. It is great for bank stabilization and tolerates high water currents.
The leaves are elliptic, up to 2 inches in length, glossy deep green.
Hardy north to zone 5

* historical archive photo


'Bankers'

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


Salix daphnoides ( Violet Willow )
A vigorous, erect, broadly-conical tree to 50 feet that is native from northern & central Europe through central Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 4 years - 16 x 17 feet; 20 years - 50 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 inches; largest on record - 66 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. Some clones have been known to reach as much as 18 feet in just 2 years after coppicing.
The oblanceolate to oblong leaves are up to 8 x 1.5 ( rarely over 4 x 1.5 ) inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above and bluish-white beneath.
The broad male flower catkins up to 2 inches in length, are very silky. The male flowers have yellow anthers. The flower catkins are borne during early spring.
The bark is gray and smooth. The glossy young shoots are covered in a plum-purple bloom.
Hardy zones 2b to 8, it thrives even on the northern Great Plains. Drought tolerant. It can be cut back hard in March for vigor.

Salix discolor ( Pussy Willow )
A small tree to around 25 feet with an open rounded crown of thick branches that is native to North America ( from Terrace British Columbia to Fort Nelson, B.C. to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to extreme northeast Alberta to northwest Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario to central Quebec to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Montana to far northern Missouri to southern Indiana to Maryland ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it occurred locally and sparsely in the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee and the Lake Erie islands during the 1800s. It was abundant at Detroit, Michigan as well as the Ohio shore during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 2 years - 12 x 12 feet; largest on record - 50 x 35 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; longest lived - 50 years.
The elliptical foliage with widely spaced marginal teeth is up to 6 x 4 inches in size. The dense foliage is light green with a yellow midrib above and silvery hairy beneath.
The very ornamental soft, silky silvery flower catkins appear in late winter before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 ( likely 1 for northeast Alberta seed source )

* photo taken on August 5 2010 @ Woodlands Arboretum, Clinton, ON

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on Nov 11 2010 in Columbia, MD


* photo taken on Apr 16 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Oct 1 2016 in Annapolis, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on May 17 2015 in Sandy Spring/Olney, MD

* photo taken on Aug 11 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Aug 14 2015 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Feb 13 2017 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Mar 14 2017 in Pikesville, MD

* photos taken on May 28 2017 in Howard Co., MD

* historical archive photos


Salix eleagnos ( Rosemary Willow )
An upright, bushy, deciduous, large shrub or small tree, reaching up to 15 x 20 ( 10 x 16 if coppiced ) feet, that is native from central Europe to the Ukraine & southwestern Asia; south to southern Europe. Some records include: largest on record - 53 feet.
The very narrow leaves are up to 8 x 0.3 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy silvery-green to deep green above, downy white beneath; turning to yellow during autumn.
The yellow to yellowish-green flower catkins, up to 2.3 x 0.3 inches in size, appear during early spring just before the foliage emerges.
The stems are purplish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. It is tolerant of moderate drought as well as flooding.

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON
Salix exigua ( Coyote Willow )
A very large, erect shrub ( rarely a tree ) that is a widespread native to North America ( from central Alaska to northern Yukon to southwest Northwest Territories to far northwest Saskatchewan to Churchill, Manitoba to Winisk, Ontario to Moosonee, Ontario; south to southern California to Arkansas to northern Kentucky to western Pennsylvania ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Amherstburg, Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet; largest on record - 70 x 16 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The somewhat curved leaves are very narrow, up to 7 x 1 inches. The foliage is silky at first, turning to light silvery green with a yellow midrib.
This Willow is especially attractive with the leaves fluttering in a summer breeze.
The stems are very slender and flexible.
The flower catkins are oval and yellow, up to 2.5 inches in length and are borne on a long leafy stalk.
The bark is dark reddish-brown and scaly. The wood weights around 31 pounds per square foot. The erect branches are orangish to purple-red.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( tolerating -50 F or even colder...seed source from northeast Alberta may be hardy to zone 1 ). Drought tolerant and very easy to grow. Can be pruned hard during early spring.

* photo taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historic archive photo

* photos taken on Oct 1 2014 in Howard Co., MD

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


'Greenbank'

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


Salix fargesii
A very ornamental open, spreading shrub native to China reaching a size of 13 x 10 feet in 10 years; 6.5 x 6.5 feet in 5 years.
The leaves, up to 7 x 3 inches in size, have a finely serrated edge.
The prominently veined, leathery foliage is glossy very deep green and wrinkled above, silky and dull green below.
The long, slender flower catkins, up to 7 inches in length appear either before or the same time as the foliage emerges in spring.
The young bark is shiny brown and the stems have large, red buds in winter.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil.

Salix floridana ( Florida Willow )
A large tree native to moist woods on limestone soil from southern Alabama to central Georgia; south to Gainesville, Florida. It is endangered with extinction. Some records include: largest on record - 75 x 25 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet.
The large, elliptic leaves are up to 6.3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above and downy white below.
The bark is fissured and brown.
Hardy zones 8 to 9 ( should be tested in 7 ).

Salix fluviatilis ( Columbia River Willow )
A medium size tree native to the Columbia River Valley in southern Washington State and northern Oregon where it is endangered. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The leaves are narrow, up to 5 x 1 inches in size.
The flower catkins are up to 4 inches in length.
Hardy north to zone 3 and is flood tolerant.

Salix fragilis ( Crack Willow )
A large broadly spreading tree to 100 feet that is native from most of Europe to northern Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet; 20 years - 82 x 40 feet; largest on record - 160 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.5 feet; longest lived - 114 years.
The finely-toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 8 x 2 ( rarely over 6 x 1.6 ) inches in size. The foliage is silky at first turning to glossy deep green above and blue-green below.
The slender flower catkins up to 2.5 inches in length appear in spring around the same time as the foliage. The male flowers are yellow and the females are green; they appear on separate trees.
The deeply-fissured bark is dark brown.
Old trees break up easily in storms and rot. The twigs snap easily from the branches.
Hardy zones 3 to 6, it proven fully hardy in trials at Indian Head, Sask. and Brandon, Manitoba.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on Jul 17 2017 in Gatineau, Ontario

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, ON

* historic archive photos


'Basfordi'
Orange-red twigs and yellow flower catkins.

‘Chermesina’
Upright fastigiate to pyramidal in habit and very tall. It makes a great substitute for Lombardy Poplar.
The stems are intense orangish-red during winter.

Salix geyeri ( Silver Willow )
Also called Geyer Willow. A large shrub that is native to western North America ( from Kitsault, British Columbia to Kamloops, B.C. to extreme southwest Alberta to central Montana to southweast Wyoming; south to central California to northern Arizona to northwest Colorado ). Some records include: largest on record - 23 x 14 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.2 inches.
The lance-shaped leaves reach up to 3 inches in length. The foliage is luxuriant mid-green above, silvery-white beneath.
Hardy north to zone 4

Salix glauca ( Arctic Gray Willow )
A small shrub native from northern Eurasia and northwestern North America, reaching a maximum height of 5 feet.
The leaves are small and obovate, up to 3 x 1.5 inches.
The foliage is bright green above and downy blue-green below.
The broad flower catkins emerge the same time as the foliage.
The young stems are deep red and hairy; later becoming gray-brown and knotted.
Hardy zones 2 to 9

Salix goodingii ( Gooding's Black Willow )
A large tree to 60 feet or more that is closely related to Salix nigra - Black Willow but is native from much of California, s. Nevada, c & s Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, western Texas, northern Mexico and the Baja Peninsula.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; largest on record - 110 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 9.5 feet.
The leaves are narrow and luxuriant green, to 6 x 0.6 inches.
The whitish flower catkins are up to 3.2 inches in length and appear with the emerging foliage in spring.
Hardy to as low as -23 F

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Salix gracilistyla ( Rosegold Pussy Willow )
A large, erect vigorous growing, spreading shrub to 17 feet that is native to eastern Asia. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 15 feet; 23 years - 30 x 15 feet; largest on record - 33 x 25 feet.
The conspicuously-veined, oblong leaves are up to 5 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is silky at first, becoming glossy, medium-green above and downy bluish-white below.
The stout shoots are hairy when young, eventually becoming smooth.
The flower catkins up to 2 inches in length, are silver-gray and appear before the foliage early in spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 and is disease resistant.

* photo of unknown internet source



'Melanostachys'
Stunning in appearance as a result of the late winter flower catkins that are nearly black with red anthers. Only male forms are known. Fast growing with foliage that is reddish at first, turning to deep green.
Hardy north to zone 2

* photo taken on July 6 2016 in Elkridge, MD


Salix hastata ( Halberd Willow )
A dense erect shrub that is native to mountainous areas from central Europe to northeast Asia. Some records include: 4 years - 7 x 9 feet; largest on record - 30 x 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.6 feet.
The prominently-veined, oblong ( cordate at the base ) leaves are up to 4 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green at first later turning dull green above and bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins up to 2 inches in length appear around the same time as the foliage.
The twigs often turn to purple in the second year.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( likely 2 for eastern Russia and Mongolian seed source ). Old stems can be cut back periodically to stimulate the production of new vigorous shoots. Propagated from hardwood cuttings taken in winter or semi-ripe cuttings in summer.

'Wehrhahnii'
Reaching up to 7 x 6.6 feet in 10 years and an eventual maximum size of 7 x 12 feet. It makes a beautiful shrub for the rock garden or border.
The very attractive woolly silvery-white flower catkins up to 3 x 0.5 inches in size.
The foliage is intense bright green when young.

Salix helvetica ( Swiss Willow )
A shrub native to the European Alps, that becomes a spreading mound of dense, interlaced branches, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3.3 feet.
The serrate edged leaves are up to 2.5 x 1 inch in size. The attractive foliage is glossy rich green above and downy gray below.
The plants are smothered with silvery-gray catkins up to 2 inches in length in early spring.
The stems are red-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8

Salix herbacea
A creeping shrub, reaching a maximum size of 12 x 10 ( rarely over 4 x 10 ) inches, that is native to northern Eurasia.
The leaves are small and bright green.
Hardy zones 2 to 5 on moist soil.

Salix hookeriana ( Hooker Willow )
A fast growing, very ornamental small tree to 30 feet or more, that is native to northwestern North America ( along the Pacific Coast from Anchorage, Alaska to northern California; inland as far as Penticton in British Columbia ). It is also native to far eastern Siberia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 50 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.2 feet.
The coarsely-toothed, broadly-oblong leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is white down covered when young, turning to deep green above, hairy blue-green beneath. The leaves turn yellow and fall off the trees very late in autumn.
The flower catkins, up to 5 x 2 inches in size are borne on short leafy stalks.
The branches are shiny red-brown and the bark is light red-brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 and tolerates exposed seashore conditions including pure sand, brackish water and salt spray.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Salix humboltiana ( South American Willow )
Also called Salix chilensis and Pencil Willow. It is an upright, columnar, fast growing tree to 60 feet in height that is native to Central and South America.
It closely resembles the Lombardy Poplar in form. Some records include: 11 years - trunk diameter of 11 inches; largest on record - 82 x 60 feet with a trunk diameter of 32 inches.
The attractive, evergreen, slightly pendulous, narrow lance shaped leaves are up to 6 x 0.5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green in color.
The new growth can be prone to injury from frost.
The stems are flexible.
Hardy zones 8 to 10

Salix humilis ( Prairie Willow )
A deciduous shrub, reaching up to 18 x 20 ( rarely over 11 ) feet, that is native to sandy ridges, meadows and bogs in eastern North America ( from central Manitoba to Sachigo Lake, Ontario to Attawapiskat, Ontario to Newfoundland; south to far northeast Texas to northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common in the Ojibway prairie during the 1800s. It occurred sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time. It grows very fast and is used for conservation purposes. Some records include: 4 years - 10 x 12 feet; 6 years - 21 x 13 feet.
The oblanceolate to narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is deep green.
The greenish-yellow flowers are borne during mid-spring. Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( likely 2 for northern Ontario seed source ) in full sun on well drained to wet soils.

* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


Salix incana ( Rosemary Willow )
Also called Hoary Willow or Salix eleagnos; is a very graceful, dense, leafy small tree native from central Europe to southwest Asia, including Turkey. Some records include: largest on record - 55 x 40 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.3 feet.
The leaves are very narrow, up to 8 inches in length.
The "Rosemary-like" foliage is deep green above and white felted beneath; turning to yellow in fall. The foliage looks silvery and Olive-like from a distance.
The yellow flower catkins, up to 2.5 inches in length appear in spring just before the foliage.
The first year twigs are downy and gray, they later become smooth and brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 7, grows well in the Midwest, especially in Michigan.

Salix integra ( Integra Willow )
A large shrub reaching up to 20 x 20 feet that is native from southeast Russia, northeast China into Korea and most of Japan.
The bright green foliage is unusual for a Willow being that it is arranged in opposite pairs or whorls of 3. The leaves are up to 4 x 0.7 inches in size.
The small, reddish flower catkins, up to an inch in length, are borne in early to mid spring.
The stems are red.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario


'Hakura Nishiki' ( Dappled Willow )
Very attractive green and creamy white variegated foliage. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 10 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 20 x 20 feet. It reaches up to 5 feet if grown as a cut back perennial.
Hardy zones 3 to 7. Thrives in much of Alberta.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on May 3 2012 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on June 1 2014 @ Maryland Horticulturalist Society garden tour, Columbia

* photo taken on Apr 11 2015 in Elkridge, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* photo taken on Jul 19 2017 @ Rideau Hall, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Salix interior ( Sandbar Willow )
A large shrub that suckers and spreads to form dense thickets, reaching up to 20 feet in height that is native to North America ( from central Alaska to northwestern Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to Churchill, MB to Winisk, Ontario to New Brunswick; south to British Columbia to eastern Colorado to Oklahoma to northern Mississippi to Maryland ). It was abundant along the Ohio shore, especially close to the water, during the 1800s. Some records include: 6 years - 20 x 12 feet; largest on record - 47 x 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.9 feet.
The narrow leaves are up to 6 inches in length. The foliage is bright yellow-green above and hairy silvery-white beneath; turning to bright golden-yellow during autumn.
The flower catkins, up to 2.3 inches in length appear in spring after the foliage emerges.
The smooth thin bark is reddish brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook.


Salix irrorata ( Arizona Willow )
Also called Bluestem Willow. A vigorous large shrub native to the southwestern U.S . ( from eastern Wyoming; south to southern Arizona, New Mexico and Texas ). Some records include: 4 years - 6 x 3 feet; largest on record - 40 x 17 feet.
The narrow leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is red at first, turning to glossy green above, blue-white beneath.
The silvery-white male flower catkins, up to an inch in length have red anthers that age to yellow.
The long shoots are attractive in winter. They are green at first, later turning purple and smooth with a waxy bluish-white bloom.
Hardy zones 4 to 9

Salix ishidoyana ( Ullung Island Willow )
A large tree that is endemic of Ulleungdo Island in Korea. It is related to Salix maximowiczii.
Hardy north to zone 7 possibly colder.

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Salix jessoensis ( Hondo Willow )
A very impressive large tree to 75 feet that is native to Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest in Illinois - 60 x 40 feet in Chicago. Moderately long-lived, it can persist up to 130 years.
The narrow leaves are up to 5 inches in length. The foliage is deep green above and blue-white beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 2 inches in length.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Sakix koriyanagi ( Korean Willow )
Also called Purple Pussy Willow ). A tall slender stemmed shrub native to Korea and Japan that reaches a maximum size of 20 x 21.5 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.8 inches. It reaches its mature size in about 20 years. It is very similar to Salix purpurea but instead has leathery leaves up to 4 x 0.5 inches that are deep green above and blue-green beneath. Also the leaves are borne in whorls of 2 or 3 rather than always in pairs.
The slender purple flower catkins are borne in rows along the stems during early spring before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( possibly 3 ) and grows especially well in southern Ontario and the northeastern U.S. It thrives well on both sand or clay.

'Rubykins'
Very attractive red flowers.

Salix laevigata ( Polished Willow )
Also called Red Willow. This is a fast growing, broad, medium-size tree to 50 feet or more that is native to riverbanks and floodplains in the southwestern U.S. ( from northern California to southwest Utah; south to the Baja Peninsula to southeast Arizona ). Some records include: largest on record - 70 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet.
The toothed, lance-shaped leaves are up to 8 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is bright green above and bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins, up to 4.5 inches in length, appear during spring with the emerging foliage.
The smooth, slender shoots are red-brown. The bark is black, furrowed and scaly.
Hardy zones 5 to 10

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Salix lanata ( Woolly Willow )
A slow growing, multi-stemmed, bushy, small shrub native to mountains from northern Europe to eastern Siberia with stout branches that become gnarled with age. Some records include: largest on record - 10 x 6.5 ( rarely over half that ) feet; longest lived - 60 + years.
The broad-oval leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size.
The attractive, densely-arranged foliage is silvery and silky at first, later turning dull green above.
The branches are densely woolly when young.
The erect, bright golden-yellow flower catkins up to 2 inches long appear after the foliage emerges in spring.
Hardy zones 1 to 5 in sun to partial shade. Requires cool summers and cool, moist, well drained soil.

'Richardsonii'
Larger growing, reaching a maximum height of 15 feet.

'Stuarti'
Similar but reaching a maximum size of 3 x 8 feet, with less hairy foliage and orange buds during winter.

Salix lapponicum ( Lapland Willow )
A dense, twiggy shrub, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to mountains of northern Europe and western Asia.
The narrow leaves, up to 3.6 inches in length, are gray-green above, downy white.
The catkins are very silky.
Hardy zones 4 to 6

Salix lasiandra ( Pacific Willow )
A very attractive, spectacular, large vigorous tree to 80 feet that is native to western North America ( from central Alaska to Rainbow Lake, Alberta to far northeast Alberta to northwest end of Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba; south to southern California to central New Mexico ). Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 + feet; largest on record - 120 x 90 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. The crown is usually irregular with ascending spreading branches.
The lance shaped leaves are up to 7 inches in length though sometimes as much as 14 x 2.5 inches on very vigorous shoots.
The foliage is shiny deep green with a yellow midrib above and glaucous blue beneath. The foliage turns to bright golden-yellow during autumn.
The flower catkins up to 3 inches in length appear in spring with the emerging foliage.
The bark is brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 tolerating as low as -60 F.

* historic archive photo

* photo taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON


Salix lasiolepis ( Arroyo Willow )
An elegant, strong growing, medium size tree to 40 feet that is native to western North America ( from north-central Washington to northern Idaho to southwest Colorado; south to southern California to western Texas ). It may have possibly been native into extreme south-central British Columbia but became extinct before being documented. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4.5 feet; 3 years - 10 feet; largest on record - 60 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet; largest in New Jersey - 40 x 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.6 feet.
The Arroyo Willow typically has a loose open crown of erect and slender branches.
It is very beautiful in winter with smooth bark and olive green hairy twigs.
The smooth-edged, oblong leaves are up to 6 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is smooth glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath; turning to golden-yellow during autumn.
The gray flower catkins, up to 3 inches in length, appear during early spring before the foliage emerges.
The bark on young trees and branches is gray-brown. On older trees the bark is dark brown, thick and ridged.
Hardy zones 5 to 10 in full sun on wet soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


* photo taken by T.P. Lukens @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Salix lemmonii ( Lemmon's Willow )

* photos taken by Jean Pawek @ CalPhotos


Salix lucida ( Shiny Willow )
A medium-size tree reaching up to 40 feet that is native to northeastern North America ( from Bethel, Alaska to Fairbanks, Alaska to Great Bear Lake Northwest Territories to far northwest Saskatchewan to York Factory, Manitoba to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Oregon to Idaho to central Iowa to northern Ohio to northern Maryland...it is also found in the Black Hills of South Dakota ). It is endangered in Alberta, South Dakota, Iowa, West Virginia and Virginia; extinct in the wild in Maryland. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was occurred sporadically in the Canard River Valley, around Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It also occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan during that time. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 72 x 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.3 feet. The Shiny Willow is closely related to Salix pentandra of Europe. It is found in swamps, marshes and riverbanks in the wild.
The pointed, slender ovate leaves are up to 7 x 2 ( rarely over 5.5 x 1.5 ) inches in size. The leathery foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The abundant yellow flower catkins, up to 3 inches in length, appear with the emerging spring foliage.
The twigs are glossy yellowish brown and the bark is red-brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 7 in full sun on wet to swampy sites though it is adaptable to upland sites.

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos of unknown internet source



* historic archive photos


Salix lutea ( Yellow Willow )
A thicket-forming, large shrub, reaching up to 23 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 0.5 feet, that is found on wet meadows and riverbanks in the wild. It is native from the central Northwest Territories to central Manitoba to the north shore of Lake Superior; south to southern California to central Colorado to southwest Missouri. It is absent from British Columbia, Washington and the Great Lakes.
The lance-shaped to narrow-elliptic leaves are up to 4.5 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is bright yellowish-green at first, turning to deep green above, pale green beneath. An excellent photo link can be found on this site ( http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?search=Salix+lutea )
The greenish-yellow flower catkins, up to 2 inches in length, appear with the emerging foliage during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun. It is tolerant of temporary drought.

* photos taken by Sheri Hagwood @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Salix magnifica
A very spectacular tree reaching around 30 x 15 feet, that is native to northwestern Sichuan Province in China where it is endangered. Some records include: largest on record - 46 x 40 feet.
The blunt-tipped, oval leaves, up to 10 x 5.3 inches in size resemble that of the Magnolia rather than a Willow. The bold foliage is deep blue green with yellow-green midrib and veining above, lighter below.
The flower catkins appear in spring with the emerging foliage. The female catkins are up to 12 inches in length.
The stems are smooth are red for the first 2 years. The buds are also red.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Salix 'Mark Postill'
A low spreading shrub reaching a maximum size of 4 x 6 feet.
The rounded, broad leaves are up to 3 inches in length. The dense foliage is glossy deep green in color.
A female clone; the flower catkins are erect and greenish-white, up to 3 inches in length and are borne in early spring before and with the emerging foliage.
Hardy zones 6 to 9

Salix matsudana ( Pekin Willow )
Also known as Salix babylonica subsp 'Matsudana'. It is a medium-sized, upright ( often pyramidal ) tree to 50 feet or more, that is native to northern China including Manchuria as well as Korea. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 7 feet; 4 years - 25 feet; 10 years - 60 feet; 52 years - trunk diameter of 4.2 feet; 75 x 67 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet. The Pekin Willow resembles Salix babylonica but is not weeping and may also be it's wild ancester.
The leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage appears early in spring ( often as early as early March ) and is bright green turning to yellow in autumn.
Hardy zones 1 to 7, tolerating as low as -76 F. Young trees should be pruned for structural soundness which included spacing limbs.

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


'Golden Curls'
Similar to 'Tortuosa' but with golden yellow stems.

* photo taken on Nov 4 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Navajo' ( Globe Willow )
An exceptionally well-shaped, rounded-canopy form that becomes a large tree. It originated in New Mexico where it thrives.

'Scarlet Curls'
Similar to 'Tortuosa' but with scarlet red stems and only hardy north to zone 4

'Snake'
Similar to 'Tortuosa' with attractively twisted branches but is free of canker disease.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2014 @ National Zoo, Wash., DC

* photos taken on May 13 2015 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on Nov 4 2016 in Pikesville, MD

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Tortuosa' ( Corkscrew Willow )
Similar with attractively twisted branches.

* photo taken on Jun 1993 in Niagara Falls, Ontario

* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Birnam Woods Arboretum, Stratford, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on June 27 2017 in Ellicott City, MD

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo taken on Aug 13 2017 in Columbia, MD


Salix maximowiczii
A medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum height of 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet. It is native to far eastern Russia; south to northeastern China and Korea.
The ovate leaves, up to 5 x 1.4 inches in size, are deep green above, bright green beneath.
The bark is brownish-gray. The wood is harvested for timber within its native range.
The grayish-green twigs turn yellowish during winter.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

Salix missouriensis ( Missouri Willow )
Also called Salix eriocephala. A medium-size tree to 50 feet with slightly spreading branches that is native from Nebraska and Iowa, south to Missouri to Kentucky. Some records include: largest on record - 60 feet.
The toothed, oblong leaves are up to 7 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is silky and reddish at first later turning to dull green above, bluish-white beneath. During autumn, the foliage turns to bright yellow with pink leafstalks.
The flower catkins up to 4 inches in length, appear during spring just before the foliage.
The twigs are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 8.

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* historic archive photo


'Green USA'
Extremely vigorous with shiny handsome foliage.

Salix miyabeana ( Miyabe Willow )
A very attractive, very fast growing, deciduous, graceful, small tree, native to most of north and eastern Mongolia, the Ussuri region of eastern Russia and northern Japan, It is closely related to Salix purpurea. Some records include: 3 years - 25 x 5 feet; 20 years - 25 x 36 feet; largest on record - 50 x 36 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is bright green above, bluish-white beneath.
The showy grayish-white catkins are borne on the bare stems during early spring.
The stems are glossy brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, it is very insect and disease resistant.

Salix monticola ( Serviceberry Willow )
A large shrub to small tree to a maximum height of 20 feet that is native to Northern North America ( from central Alaska to Attawapiskat, Ontario to central Quebec; also in Montana, Idaho, western Wyoming, eastern Utah and western Colorado ). It is particularly common around Candle Lake in northern Saskatchewan.
The small, obovate, leathery leaves are up to 2.6 x 1.2 inches in size. The foliage is deep green above, pale beneath.
The branches are yellowish and flexible.
Hardy zones 1 to 4.

Salix moupinensis ( Moupin Willow )
A very ornamental large shrub reaching a maximum height of 20 feet that is native to China.
The leaves are oval, up to 8 x 2.5 inches in size.
The foliage is red at first, turning to glossy bright green with a yellow midrib above and yellowish-green and wrinkled beneath.
The young shoots are smooth, reddish-brown as are the buds which are up to 0.5 inches in length.
The thin flower catkins are up to 6 inches in length.
Hardy zones 6 to 10

Salix mucronata ( Cape Willow )
An evergreen tree native to South Africa that reaches a maximum height of 50 feet with slightly drooping branches forming a graceful open crown. The leaves are deep glossy green above and light green beneath.
The flower catkins, up to 2 inches in length, are yellow.
Hardy north to zone 9, tolerating as low as 20 F and is drought tolerant.

Salix myrsinifolia ( Dark-Leaved Willow )
Also called Salix nigricans and Myrsine-Leaf Willow. A rounded, deciduous, large shrub to small tree, reaching up to 26 x 13 ( rarely over 15 ) feet, that is a widespread native to swampy sites from the British Isles to western Siberia. It makes a great informal hedge or screen. Some records include: 5 years - 7 feet.
The ovate, elliptical or rounded leaves are up to 3.2 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, blueish-white beneath.
The yellowish-white flower catkins, up to 1 inch in length, appear with the emerging foliage during mid-spring.
The young shoots are downy white, they later turn glossy purplish-black.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. It is tolerant of seashore conditions.

Salix myricoides ( Bayberry Willow )
A shrub, reaching a maximum height of 20 ( rarely over 10 ) feet, that is native to dunes and sandy shorelines in James Bay, the Great Lakes, the Canadian Maritimes ( incl. eastern Quebec and Newfoundland ) and northern Maine. It is also found inland along much of the length of the Attawapiskat River in far northern Ontario. It is near endangered in Maine with all known sites along the Aroostook and St. John Rivers. In the Great Lakes, it is found from northeast Wisconsin to the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario; south to central Illinois to Ohio and western Pennsylvania ). It is very local in occurance and may be endangered throughout its entire range. Many areas where it may have occured in the past are now lost due to beachfront development. One of the best places to see it is in the Bruce Peninsula of Ontario at the sand dues at Sauble Beach. It also continues along the western shore to the northern tip of the Bruce Pen. It is common on Great Duck Island southwest of Manitoulin Island.
The toothed, ovate leaves are up to 5 x 2.3 inches in size. The attractive thick foliage is glossy deep green above and is similar to that of S. cordata except for being chalky-white beneath. Paired stipes up to 0.3 inches long appear at the base of the leafstalks. The leaves are closely spaced along the stems.
The narrow yellowish flower catkins appear before the foliage emerges ( earlier than similar looking S. cordata preventing possible hybridization.
The twigs are reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

* recommended link
http://www.willowsvermont.com/myric.html

Salix nakamurana yezoalpina
A slow growing dwarf shrub native to Japan that forms a mound of stout arching stems up to a maximum size of 1 x 10 feet. Some records include: 10 years - 1 x 5 feet. It looks great trailing over the sides of a large planter.
The heavily-veined, nearly round leaves, up to 3 inches in length are luxuriant bright green and covered in silver hairs. The leathery foliage turns to yellow during autumn.
The upright flower catkins, up to 2 inches in length, are silvery as well. They appear mid-spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Salix neowilsonii
A very fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to central Sichuan Province in central China.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 5.5 x 1.5 inches in size, are dull deep green above, whitish beneath.
The bark is brownish-gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( est. ).

Salix nigra ( Black Willow )
A large tree reaching up to 80 feet or more, that is native to much of North America ( from southeast Colorado to central Nebraska to northern Minnesota to Sault Ste Marie to Renfrew, Ontario to far southeast Quebec & New Brunswick; south to most of Texas and northern Florida ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally common around Amherstburg, Point Pelee, the Lake Erie islands and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. Some records include: first year - 4 + feet; fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; 5 years - 32 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 inches; 10 years - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches; 20 years - 72 feet with a trunk diameter of 8 inches; 40 years - 101 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches; largest on record - 180 x 110 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.7 feet; longest lived - 152 years. It often has multiple trunks and an irregular crown. Not often planted as an ornamental however large trees are often preserved along river banks.
The narrow, pointed, finely serrate margined leaves are up to 6 x 1 in size though as much as 10 x 4 inches have been recorded on exceptionally vigorous shoots.
The foliage is bright green in color.
The flower catkins up to 3 inches in length are borne on short downy shoots in mid spring with the emerging foliage.
The twigs are gray-brown to reddish and the bark is rough, heavily ridged and dark brown. The wood is 26 pounds per square foot.
Hardy zones 2 to 9

* photo taken on August 3 2010 @ University of Guelph Arboretum, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source


* photo taken on August 1995 in Goderich, Ontario

* photos taken on Aug 4 2013 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON

* photo taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA

* historical archive photos


Salix pedicellaris ( Bog Willow )
A colony-forming shrub, reaching a maximum height of 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, that is native to northern North America ( from the Yukon Territories to Belcher Islands in Nunuvat to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to Washington State to northern Idaho to central Minnesota to northern Illinois to central Ohio to northern New Jersey ). It is found in bogs and black spruce bogs in the wild. It is endangered in Idaho, North Dakota, Iowa, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts. It is abundant along the Hudson Bay of northern Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County during the 1800s.
The oblanceolate to oblong leaves are up to 2.5 x 0.8 inches in size. The attractive foliage is often reddish at first, turning to powdery-blue on both sides. The foliage somewhat resembles Myrica gale from a distance.
Hardy zones 1 to 6.

Salix pedicellata ( Mediterranean Willow )
A rounded, decidous, small tree, reaching a maximum size of 33 x 33 feet, that is native to streamsides in the mediterranean regions of southern Europe as well as far northern Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria in Africa. It is very rare in Spain and Italy.
The deeply-veined, minutely crenately-toothed, oblong leaves are up to 4 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy mid-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The showy, yellowish-white flower catkins are up to 2.3 x 0.6 inches in size.
The bark is gray.
Hardy zones 9 to 10.

Salix pellita ( Satiny Willow )
A large shrub reaching a maximum height of 20 feet, that is native to sand dunes and sandy floodplains in northeastern North America ( from central Saskatchewan to extreme northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to northern Minnesota to northern Michigan to Petawawa, Ontario to northern Vermont to central Maine ). It is endangered in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, New Hampshire and Vermont.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy blue-green above, white silky-hairy beneath.
The flower catkins, up to 1.6 inches in length, are borne during late spring.
Hardy zones 2 to 5.

* photos taken in Bayfield, Ontario

* excellent photo link
http://www.arkive.org/satiny-willow/salix-pellita/

Salix pentandra ( Bay Willow )
Also called Laurel Willow. A dense, rounded, medium-size tree, to 50 feet or more, that is native to most of Europe and is often found growing wild in eastern U.S. as well as around Juneau, Alaska; southeast Quebec and Nova Scotia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; 5 years - 12 + x 13 feet; 20 years - 50 x 33 feet; largest on record - 80 x 54 feet with a trunk diameter of 44 inches; longest lived - 100 years.
The strikingly beautiful, glossy very deep green ( glaucous green below ) foliage resembles that of the Bay ( Laurus nobilis ) in appearance and is also aromatic when crushed. The leathery, elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 3 inches in size. The foliage is bright green at first during spring, turning to glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath.
The bright yellow flower catkins, up to 3 x 0.5 inches, appear in spring with the emerging foliage. The male and female flowers are borne on separate plants.
The twigs are shiny brown-green and the buds are yellow.
The bark is light brown with shallow fissures.
Hardy zone 2 to 7, thriving even in central Alaska, Alberta and Newfoundland. Prefers wet acidic soil. This tree is not for regions with hot humid summers where leaf spot fungus can defoliate a tree by August.

* photo taken on Aug 3 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photo taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photos taken by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Herman, D.E., et al. 1996. North Dakota tree handbook

* historical archive photos


'Aberdeen Selection'

* Photo courtesy of USDA NRCS.


'Prairie Reflection'
Rounded canopied form with attractive shiny deep green foliage.

Salix petiolaris ( Meadow Willow )
A small, deciduous tree, reaching a maximum size of 34 x 18 ( rarely over 20 ) feet, that is native to northern North America ( from far northern British Columbia to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to extreme northeast Alberta to Lansdowne House, Ontario to Matagami, Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to Washington State to central Alberta to North Dakota to northern Illinois to central New Jersey ). It is endangered in Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Jersey; extinct in the wild in Connecticut. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County during the 1800s. It occurred sporadically at Detroit, Michigan as well as locally on the Ohio shore during that time. It is common in marshes and shrubby swamps in much of its range. It is often found as a shrub on less than ideal sites.
The finely-toothed, very narrow elliptical leaves are up to 6 x 1.2 ( rarely over 4.5 x 0.8 ) inches in size. The attractive foliage is bronze at first, turning to glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The yellowish flower catkins appear during mid-spring just before the foliage emerges.
The long purplish-red twigs are attractive during winter.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ) in full sun to partial shade on moist to permanently wet, acidic soil. It is tolerant of temporary drought.

* photo taken on July 16 2016 in Bayfield, ON


Salix phylicifolia ( Tea Willow )
A large shrub native from Europe to western Siberia that reaches a maximum height of 20 feet. The largest tree on record has a trunk diameter of 26 inches.
The conspicuously veined leaves are elliptical, up to 3 x 2 inches in size.
The foliage is deep green above and bluish beneath.
The flower catkins up to 1.5 x 1 inch in size appear in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The stems are bright red-brown and the bark is gray and lightly furrowed.
Hardy zones 4 to 8

* photo of unknown internet source



Salix pierotii ( Peirot's Willow )
Also called Salix subfragilis. A deciduous, small tree, reaching up to 33 feet, that is native to riverbanks in Ussuri region of Russia, Sakhalin, northern China, Korea and much of Japan. Some records include: largest on record - 66 feet.
The lance-shaped to oblong leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy deep green above, bluish-white to pure white beneath.
The yellow flower catkins, up to 1 inch in length, appear during mid-spring before or with the new foliage.
The stems are grayish-yellow.
The flaky and vertically-ridged bark is gray-brown.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 ( possibly 2 ) in full sun on just about any moist to wet soil.

Salix planifolia ( Diamond-Leaf Willow )
A shrub to small tree, reaching up to 30 feet, that is native to northern North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwestern Northwest Territories to western Nunavut to far northern Ontario to northern Quebec to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to central Alberta to northern Saskatchewan to northern Minnesota to the north shore of Lake Superior to Haliburton, Ontario to central Quebec. It is also found in the subalpine zone throughout the Rocky Mountains in the western U.S. It is abundant near Hudson Bay in northern Ontario. South of the Arctic, it is mostly found in bogs and boreal meadows in the east.
The narrowly-elliptic to obovate leaves are up to 3 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is glossy deep green above, bright green beneath.
The flower catkins appear during late spring after the foliage has emerged.
Hardy zones 1 to 4.
* photo taken by Robert H. Mohlenbrock @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Salix 'Prairie Cascade' ( Prairie Cascade Weeping Willow )
A medium-size weeping tree reaching a maximum size of 50 x 50 feet with a growth rate averaging over 3 feet and up to 6 feet per year. It is a hybrid between Salix pentandra & Salix alba, developed at Morden Research Station on the prairie in Manitoba, Canada
The foliage is very glossy, mid-green, turning to yellow in autumn.
There are no flower catkins.
The very showy weeping stems are golden-yellow to yellowish-brown.
The bark is furrowed and brown. It is stronger branched than most other Weeping Willows.
Hardy zones 2 to 6, it even thrives in the harsh climate of Alberta once fully established, plants will become much more hardy after dieback the first few winters. Very disease resistant in colder climates, prone to leaf rust where summers are hot and humid.

Salix purpurea ( Purple Osier Willow )
A fast growing, graceful, large shrub or small tree to 30 feet or more, that is native to a huge area from Europe to central Asia and Japan, south to northern Africa. Some records include: 4 years - 20 x 13 feet; largest on record - 82 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet. It can reach as much as 9 feet tall in just a single season after coppicing.
The foliage is glossy deep blue-green. The narrowly-oblong leaves are up to 4 inches in length.
The flower catkins appear in spring before the foliage and are red later turning to purple-black.
The shoots are deep purple and arching.
Hardy zones 2 to 7, some forms may be prone to leaf rust.

* photos taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photos taken on July 25 2015 @ Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 18 2016 @ Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, MD


'Gracilis'

* photo taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photo taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


'Nana' ( Arctic Blue Willow )
A compact bushy cultivar reaching 6 x 4 feet in 2 years. 6.5 x 17 feet in 30 years and a maximum size of 10 x 17 feet. It has thin shoots bearing gray-green to blue foliage. Can be kept dense by clipping and can be used as a hedge. It is often cut back hard during late winter when used as a foliage shrub, reaching up to 5 feet each season.

'Pendula' ( Purple Weeping Willow )
Reaches a maximum size of 12 x 12 feet with a trunk diameter of 14 inches, with thin weeping branches. It is usually top grafted and basal and stem suckers MUST be removed.

'Streamco'
A male form selected by the USDA for protecting stream banks. It is dense but non-suckering in habit, rarely exceeding 12 feet at maturity.
The very attractive foliage is blue-green above, silvery-white beneath.
The stems are purple at first, later fading to gray.

* Photos courtesy of USDA NRCS.


Salix pyrifolia ( Balsam Willow )
A very striking, vigorous small tree native to northern North America ( from near Atlin, British Columbia to southeast Yukon to northwest Northwest Territories to southeast N.W.T. to far northern Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to southern British Columbia to central Alberta to northern Wisconsin to southern Ontario to Maine ). Some records include: largest on record - 30 x 8 feet. It is found in acid bogs and swampy woods in the wild. It is especially common and widespread in northern Ontario. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was locally abundant in Kent County and sporadic in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County during the 1800s.
The thick, oval or elliptic leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The attractive foliage is very glossy deep green above, blue-white beneath.
The grayish-white flower catkins appear with the foliage during mid-spring.
The bark is reddish-brown. The twigs are very glossy deep red and smooth. The winter buds are red.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ).

* historic archive photo


Salix pyrolifolia
A small tree that is native to riverbanks and forest edges from Finland through northern Russia; further south in the east to western & northern Mongolia, northwest China and far northern Manchuria.
The ovate to rounded leaves are up to 3.2 x 2.5 inches in size. The foliage is mid-green above, whitish beneath.
The yellow flower catkins appear during late spring.
The twigs are yellowish-brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 5,it has great landscape potential for harsh climates such as central Alaska.

Salix rehderiana
An ornamental small tree, reaching a maximum size of 30 x 40 feet, that is native to western & central China.
The lance-shaped to oblanceolate leaves, up to 5 x 1 inches in size, are glossy deep green above, downy white beneath.
The flower catkins appear during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 4 to 7.

Salix repens ( Creeping Willow )
A fast growing creeping shrub native to acid heaths and bogs from Europe into Siberia; south to Turkey and southwest Asia. Typically under 2 feet that largest on record is 5 x 8 feet.
The taper-pointed, narrowly-oval leaves, up to 2 x 1 inches are gray-green above and silver beneath.
The slender shoots are downy when young later turning brown and smooth.
The silvery-gray flower catkins up to 0.7 inches in length are borne during early spring before the foliage emerges.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 requiring full sun on cool, moist, well drained soil. Does not require regular pruning. Thrives in Alberta where it makes an excellent groudcover, even for parking lot islands ( salt and drought tolerant ).

'Argentea'
Similar except for foliage being silvery-gray above, silvery-white beneath. It is spectacular when mixed with darker foliaged plants.

'Fusca'
Taller, reaching a maximum height of 8 feet.

Salix reptans ( Arctic Creeping Willow )
A small prostrate shrub native to far northern Eurasia. Some records include: 5 years - 2.7 x 7 feet; largest on record - 8 x 8 feet.
The small hairy leaves, up to 2.3 x 2 1.5 inchesin size. The foliage is are wrinkled and green above and pale bluish below.
The erect red flower catkins in spring are an added ornamental feature.
The branches are reddish brown.
Hardy zones 1 to 8

Salix reticulata ( Net-Leafed Willow )
A very slow growing, dwarf creeping shrub reaching a maximum size of 1 x 3.3 feet that is a widespread native to northern Eurasia and North America ( from far northern Alaska to northern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to far northern Quebec and Labrador...it is not found in southern Canada or the Mainland U.S. ). In Ontario , it is mostly found near Hudson Bay.
The leaves are rounded, up to 2.3 x 2 ( rarely over 1.7 ) inches in size. The attractive, dense foliage is glossy deep green and wrinkled above; white below.
The erect, golden-yellow flower catkins up to 1.3 inches in length appear after the foliage emerges in spring.
Hardy zones 1 to 5

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Salix retusa
A low prostrate, mat-forming shrub native to the mountains of central Europe that reaches a maximum size of 8 inches x 3 feet. The stems root as they crawl.
The small, smooth, glossy, oblong leaves up to 1.3 inches in length are clustered near the branch tips.
The erect, grayish flower catkins up to 0.8 inches in length appear with the foliage in spring.
Hardy zones 1 to 6

Salix rigida ( Heart Leaved Willow )
A small tree to 30 feet that is native to North America, especially Canada. In Ontario it is found as far north as Kakabeka Falls to Kingfisher Lake and Fort Albany. Some records include: 6 years - 18 x 17 feet; largest on record - 50 x 20 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 inches. It was abundant at both Detroit, Michigan and the Ohio shore during the 1800s. It is found in wet meadows and open woods as well as riverbanks in the wild. It is closely related to Missouri Willow but is usually a shrub rather than a tree.
The minutely-toothed, lance-shaped to oblong leaves are up to 6 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is coppery-red at first, turning to glossy mid-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 2 inches in length.
The twigs are bright green at first, turning to yellow then reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on just about any moist to wet, well drained soil. It is tolerant of temporary flooding.

Salix rossica
A medium size tree native to most of Russia. Some records include: largest on record - 66 feet with a trunk diameter of 2 feet; longest lived - 70 years.
The narrow leaves are up to 8 x 1 inches in size.

Salix x rubens
A natural hybrid between Salix alba & Salix fragilis. It is a very large tree with the capability of reaching up to 165 x 115 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.6 ( possibly larger ) feet.
The leaves are lance shaped, to a maximum size of 10 x 2 inches and are bright green above, bluish below.
The twigs are olive with some red or yellow overtones.
The flower catkins are cylindrical and up to 2.5 inches in length.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

Salix rubra ( Red Osier )
The vigorous hybrid between Salix purpurea and Salix viminalis. It reaches a maximum height of 20 feet. Some records include: 6 years - 17 x 13 feet.
The linear to narrow lance-shaped leaves are bright green both above and beneath.
The stems are red.
Hardy zones 3+ ( est. ), it is fully hardy on the northern Great Plains.

Salix sachalinense ( Sakhalin Willow )
Also called Salix udensis. A fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree native to that is native from eastern Siberia, Sakhalin and Kamchatka; south to far eastern Mongolia, Manchuria, Korea and northern & central Japan. Some records include: 10 years - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 inches; largest on record - 100 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; longest lived - 50 years.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 7 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is glossy deep green above, greenish-white beneath.
The grayish-white flower catkins, up to 1.5 inches in length, appear during early spring before the foliage emerges.
The bark is glossy pale brownish-gray. The stems are glossy deep reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 4 to 7 ( 2 for eastern Mongolian seed source ).

* photos taken on July 26 2015 @ Niagara Parks Bot. Gardens, Niagara Falls, ON

* photos taken on July 27 2015 in Bayfield, ON


'Golden Sunshine'
Fast growing, reaching up to 22 x 17 feet, bearing bright golden-yellow foliage that turns to bright yellow during autumn.

* photos taken on June 28 2015 in Columbia, MD


'Sekka' ( Japanese Fantail Willow )
Stems flattened and twisted. The leaves are more narrow than the species, only 0.7 inches wide.

Salix salvaefolia ( Sage Willow )
A small tree reaching a maximum height of 26 feet, that is native to Spain and Portugal. The attractive foliage is lance shaped and the twigs are gray and hairy.
Hardy north to zone 7

Salix schwerinii ( Schwerin’s Willow )
Also called Salix kinuyanagi. A very fast growing, medium-sized tree, reaching up to 50 feet, that is native to eastern Russia, China and Japan. Coppiced trees can reach up to 16 feet during the same season. It is closely related to Salix viminalis.
The leaves are long and narrowly lance-shaped. The very attractive foliage is glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath; turning to intense golden-yellow during autumn.
The silvery flower catkins appear during early spring just before the foliage emerges.
The stems are downy and brown.
Hardy zones 4+ ?

* excellent article found on internet
http://www.willowsvermont.com/schwe.html

Salix scoulderiana ( Scoulder Willow )
A fast growing, medium-sized tree native to western North America ( from most of central Alaska to far northwestern Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to northeast Saskatchewan to central Manitoba; south into the southern Rockies in California and New Mexico ). There is a report further east in Kenogami Lake, Ontario. Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 80 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 feet.
It is one of the first trees to leaf out in spring with obovate leaves, up to 6.5 x 3.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is deep green above and silvery-white, hairy beneath.
It is a "Pussy Willow" with silky, furry flower catkins up to 2 inches in length in early spring before the foliage emerges.
The smooth bark is dark brown.
Hardy 2 to 8 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ).

* photo taken by A.W. Sampson @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Salix sericea ( Silky Willow )
A very elegant, rounded, deciduous shrub native to swamps and riverbanks in eastern North America ( from southeast Minnesota to central Michigan to southeast Quebec to Nova Scotia; south to northern Arkansas to northern Alabama to central South Carolina ) reaching a maximum height of 13 feet. It is endangered in Nova Scotia, Quebec, Minnesota and Wisconsin; extinct in the wild in Arkansas. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was common in the Great Swamp in northern Essex County as well as at Detroit, Michigan during the 1800s. It was found sporadically on the Ohio shore during that time. Some records include: largest on record - 32 x 36 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.8 feet. It makes an attractive screen.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 1 inches in size. The foliage is reddish at first, turning to dull deep green above and silky-white beneath.
The purple-tinged twigs are slender and the bark on older stems is gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist or wet soil, however it can tolerate moderate drought. Overgrown or older clumps loosing their vigor, can be cut to ground during late winter.

Salix sericocarpa ( Whitebark Willow )
A rounded, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 33 feet, that is native to the Himalayas ( from Afghanistan to southwest China; south to Pakistan to Nepal ).
The lance-shaped to elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.3 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green above, bluish-white beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 2 inches in length.
The bark on younger trees and upper branches is almost white on some trees.

Salix serpyllifolia ( Thyme Leafed Willow )
A creeping shrub native to the European Alps that reaches a maximum height of only 6 inches. The deep brown stems root as they spread.
The foliage is very dense and the oval leaves are only up to 0.5 inches in length.
The catkins are not showy, are small and develop after the foliage has already emerged.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, and excellent rock garden plant.

Salix serissima ( Autumn Willow )
A very beautiful small tree native to swampy sites in northern North America ( from Kitsault, British Columbia to Great Bear Lake, Northwest Territories to Great Slave Lake, N.W.T. to near Churchill, Manitoba to Winisk, Ontario to Labrador & Newfoundland; south to Montana to central Colorado to central Minnesota to northeast Illinois to northern Indiana to northern New Jersey ). Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 45 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. It is endangered in Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, South Dakota, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania,New Jersey, Connecticut and Vermont. It is widespread and moderately common on the Bruce Peninsula in Ontario. It is found on lakeshores, river banks, wet thickets, open conifer swamps and bogs in the wild.
The minutely-toothed, lance-shaped to narrowly-elliptical leaves are up to 5 x 1.5 inches in size. The foliage is very glossy mid-green.
The flower catkins, up to 1.5 inches in length, appear during early summer.
The stems are orange to reddish.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( possibly 1 for northeast Alberta seed source ).

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


Salix silicola ( Blanket-leaved Willow )
An upright shrub, reaching a maximum height of 10 feet. It is endangered in the wild with its only known natural range being Pelly Lake in the Keewatin District in the Northwest Territories and the Athabasca Sand Dunes of northwestern Saskatchewan. It is found on sand dunes.
The smooth-edged leaves are up to 2.5 x 1.5 inches in size.
The flower catkins appear during early spring.
The twigs are densely white felted.

'Polar Bear' ( Polar Bear Willow )
Attractive upright, columnar shrub wiht rounded, hairy, silvery-blue foliage.
Some records include: 4 years - 9 x 5 feet; 5 years - 11 x 5 feet.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, great for use in Alberta.

Salix sitchensis ( Sitka Willow )
A small tree native to the western North America ( from the Aleutian Islands to Fairbanks, Alaska to Atlin, British Columbia to Fort Nelson, B.C. to Slave Lake, Alberta; south to central California to northern Idaho and western Montana ). Some records include: largest on record - 36 x 29 feet with a trunk diameter of 7 inches. It is often found on river sandbars in the wild.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 5 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is dull deep green above, downy silvery-white beneath.
The flower catkins are up to 3 inches in length.
The bark is dark brown. The stems are deep reddish-brown.
Hardy north to zone 4 ( reports of 3a in Saskatchewan ).

* photo taken by http://www.nwplants.com


Salix 'Skyrise'
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 50 x 20 feet.

Salix songarica
A small tree native to river valleys in grassland and desert regions of central Asia ( from Kazakhstan to Xinjiang Province in China; south to Turkmenistan to Afghanistan ). Some records include: largest on record - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.5 feet; longest lived - 75 years.
The lance-shaped leaves are up to 3 x 0.5 inches in size.
Hardy at least north to zone 5.

Salix subopposita
A rhizomatous, deciduous shrub, reaching up to 1 foot tall, that is native to Quelpaert Island of South Korea as well as southern Japan. It is found in marshy areas or open swamp woods in the wild.
The smooth-edged, lance-shaped to oblong leaves are up to 1.2 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is silky hairy at first, turning to smooth blue-green above, downy yellowish-gray beneath.
The catkins, up to 1 inch long, appear before the foliage emerges during early spring.
Hardy at least north to zone 7a.

'Ginryu' ( Silver Dragon Willow )
Reaches up to 2 feet in height, bearing abundant showy, silvery-white catkins during early spring.

* photos taken on Mar 18 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Apr 23 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD

* photos taken on Aug 5 2017 @ Brookside Gardens, Wheaton, MD


Salix taxifolia ( Yewleaf Willow )
A beautiful rare broad open tree to around 40 feet with foliage resembling that of the Yew, that is native to the border regions from eastern Arizona to Texas; south into the Baja Peninsula and central Mexico. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.8 feet. The canopy is composed of erect branches that droop towards the tips.
The linear to lance shaped, smooth margined leaves are small to only 1.3 x 0.2 inches in size. The foliage is white and hairy at first in spring, later turning to bright green, then to orange in autumn.
Hardy north to zone 7 and grows is moderately drought tolerant unlike most Willows.

Salix tetrasperma ( Indian Willow )
A fast growing, drought-deciduous, medium-sized, spreading-crowned tree for subtropical climates. It is native from Pakistan to southern China; south to India to southeast Asia and the Phillipines. Some records include: fastest growth rate - trunk diameter increase of 1 inch; largest on record - 50 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.3 feet.
The lance-shaped leaves, up to 7 x 2 inches in size, are deep green above, gray beneath.
The greenish-yellow flower catkins, up to 5 inches in length, are very large for a Willow.
The bark is rough and deeply-fissured. .
Hardy zones 9 to 10 ( tolerating as low as 14 F ) on moist, fertile, sandy, well drained soil. Flood tolerant but prone to rust and powdery mildew. Indian Willow requires an average yearly rainfall exceeding 30 inches.

Salix triandra ( Almond Willow )
A very attractive, medium-size tree that is native to Eurasia ( from the British Isles east to Lake Baikal in Siberia; south to Spain to the Caucasus ). Some records include: 20 years - 40 feet; largest on record - 77 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 44 inches.
The oval leaves are up to 6 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive foliage is very glossy deep green above, bluish-white beneath.
The yellowish-green flower catkins, up to 3 inches in length, appear during mid-spring.
The bark is dark brown. The twigs are glossy purplish-black.
Hardy zones 2 to 8, it is tolerant of pure sand.

* photos taken on Jul 18 2017 @ Dominion Arboretum, Ottawa, ON

* photo of unknown internet source


subsp nipponica
Also called Salix nipponica. A subspecies that is native from far eastern Mongolia to far eastern Russia; south to much of northeastern China, Korea and Japan. It is very similar to Salix triandra. Very fast growing, a seeding can reach up to 8 feet just a year after planting.
The very attractive foliage is reddish at first, turning to very glossy deep green above, silvery-white beneath.

Salix uva-ursi ( Bearberry Willow )
A low, dense mat forming shrub reaching a maximum width of 5 feet that is native to Greenland and the North American arctic.
The small glossy leaves are only up to 1 x 0.5 inches in size and are blue-white below.
The red flower catkins appear with the foliage in spring.
Hardy zones 1 to 6, has been grown successfully as far south as Massachussetts.

Salix vestita ( Rock Willow )
A deciduous, erect, small shrub, reaching up to 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet in height, that is native to southern Siberia, Mongolia, far northwestern China & northern North America ( from Dawson Creek, British Columbia to Grande Cache, Alberta to far northeast Alberta to southern Nunavut to far northern Ontario to Labrador; south to Washington State to Montana to Manitoba to Fort Hope, Ontario to central Quebec to Gaspe and Newfoundland ). to central Ontario to Nova Scotia ). It may be endangered in Alberta and extinct in Washington State. It is usually found on alpine stream banks in non-arctic regions.
The smooth-edged, elliptical leaves are up to 2 x 1.5 inches in size. The attractive, deeply-veined foliage is glossy mid-green above, white beneath.
The white flower catkins, up to 0.8 inches long, appear during early summer.
The stems are light brown.

Salix viminalis ( Basket Willow )
A deciduous, upright large shrub to small tree, native to much of Europe through northeast Asia. The northeast Russian population is often referred to as Salix rossica. It is often cut back hard to produce rapid growth of 4 to 5 foot shoots that are used in basket making. Without regular hard pruning or coppicing, it eventually becomes slow growing. Some records include: 10 years - 17 feet; largest on record - 33 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 inches. It is
The wavy-edged, narrow lance-shaped leaves, up to 10 x 0.6 inches in size, are deep green above; silvery-gray downy beneath.
The yellowish-white flower catkins, up to 1.6 inches in length, appear during early spring before the foliage.
The fissured bark is gray.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 ( likely even 2 for seed source from western & central Mongolia ).

* photos taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD

* photos taken on May 27 2017 @ Meadowlark Botanical Gardens, Vienna, VA


Salix wilsonii ( Wilson's Willow )
A very fast growing, medium-sized, deciduous tree, reaching up to 43 feet, that is native to eastern China.
The oblong or elliptical leaves, up to 2.3 x 1.2 inches in size, are reddish at first.
The flower catkins appear during early spring.
The stems are dull brown.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 ( est ).

Salix xerophila
An upright, rounded, deciduous, large shrub to small tree, reaching a maximum height of 20 feet, that is native from Norway and northern Finland through much of Russia. It is found on riverbanks and in marshes in the wild.
The attractive, oblanceolate to obovate leaves, up to 2.8 x 1 inch in size, are deep gray-green above, woolly white beneath.
The yellowish-white flower catkins, up to 1.2 inches long, are borne during late spring with the foliage.
The twigs are white tomentose at first.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 ( est ). It is tolerant of coastal conditions.

var floderusii
Also called Salix floderusii. Very similar to the species; it is native from eastern Russia; south to northeast China and Korea.

Salix yezoalpina
A low, creeping groundcover Willow, reaching up to 3 inches x 6 feet in 10 years, that is native to high mountains in Japan.
The stems root as they touch the ground.
The elliptic to rounded leaves, up to 2 inches in length, are green.
The catkins, up to 1 inch in length, are white.
Hardy zones 6 to 7.

Other Future Enteries

Feltleaf Willow ( Salix alaxensis )
A small tree, reaching a maximum size of 36 x 24 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.1 feet, that is native to northern North America ( from northwest Alaska to the southern Northwest Territory islands to central Nunavut to Churchill, Manitoba to northwest Quebec. In Alberta; it is found in the northeast and central part of the province. Some records include: 5 years - 5 x 5.5 feet ( average ); fastest growth rate - 5 feet.
Endangered in Canada
The foliage is deep green above; silvery-white beneath. The twigs are covered in white bloom.

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