Sunday, January 17, 2010

Figs and Banyans

Ficus

* written by horticulturalist / botanist Randolph Stewart

A very large, variable genus of close to 750 species of trees, vines and shrubs, native to tropical regions around the world. The ficus are part of the larger Moraceae family which includes the Mulberries of temperate regions.

* photos of unknown internet source





SAVE THE RAINFOREST - SPECIAL ADDITION FEATURE


Ficus abutifolia ( Large-Leafed Rock Fig )
A moderate growing, beautiful, broad spreading, evergreen tree, that is native to southern Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 50 feet.
The large, rounded ( with deep basal notch ) leaves, up to 8 x 7 inches, are bright green and prominently veined red.
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Ficus afghanistica ( Afghan Fig )
A deciduous large tree, reaching a maximum size of 90 feet, that is native to Afghanistan where it is rare. It is similar to Ficus carica with lobed leaves and very profuse but smaller fruits.
Hardy zones 8b to 10 ( tolerating as cold as 8 F or lower ). Drought tolerant. It thrives in the hot humid southeastern U.S north to Savannah, GA. or slightly further.

Ficus afzellii
A small tree, that is native to tropical Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 66 x 66 feet.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 20 x 10 inches, are green.
Hardy zones 11 to 12

Ficus altissima ( Lofty Fig )
A large tree, that is native to China and southeast Asia.
Some records include: 30 years - 50 x 120 feet; largest on record - 135 x 175 x 11 feet. Measurements as much as 30 feet across the widely buttesssed base have been reported. It thrives in southern Florida where it is an excellent shade tree.
The broad ovate leaves, up to 12 x 8 inches, are mid-green.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 in full sun to partial shade.

Ficus aspera ( Clown Fig )
A non-strangling, medium-size, evergreen tree, that is native to the islands of the south Pacific. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 33 feet
The extremely rough, sandpapery, elliptical leaves, up to 14 inches in length, are mid-green.
The figs, up to an inch in length, are red.
Hardy zones 9b to 12, tolerating as low as 20 F

'Canonii'
Foliage is deep purple above, red beneath.
The leafstalk and midrib is red.

'Parcellii'
Slow growing, reaching a maximum height of 30 feet with variegated foliage.

Ficus aurea ( Florida Strangler Fig )
A fast growing, very dense, rounded, broad spreading, large evergreen tree, that is native to southern Florida, the Bahamas, the Caribbean and southern Mexico to Panama. The trunk is buttressed with aerial roots. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 100 x 180 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.6 feet. A very large tree is known to have grown at Old Cutler Hammock in Florida. This is one of the banyans and has very strong supported branches.
The thick, leathery, oblong to elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are glossy green.
The stemless, fleshy, yellow to reddish-purple, rounded figs, up to 0.8 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils.
The bark is smooth and light gray on young trees, becoming scaly on very old trees.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in sun or shade, preferring sandy soil.

* photo of unknown internet source

* photos taken by W.D. Brush @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* historic archive photos


Ficus auriculata ( Roxburg Fig )
A medium-sized, spectacular foliage tree, that is native from the foothills of the Himalayas to southern China. Some records include: 1.5 years - 5.5 feet; 2 years - 7.5 feet; 3 years - 11 feet; 6 years - 15 feet; 8 years - 18 feet with a trunk diameter of 3.5 inches; largest on record - 60 x 60 feet.
The fleshy, leathery, broad heart-shaped leaves, up to 22 x 15 inches, are reddish turning to green.
The sweet, edible figs, up to 3 inches across, are borne in clusters and ripen to orangish-brown.
The branches are thick and the bark is light gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, tolerating as low as 25 F, preferring a site protected from excessive wind in full sun to partial shade.

Ficus benghalensis ( Indian Banyan )
A fast growing, huge, spreading tree, that is native to southern Asia, especially India. Some records include: 200 years - 430 feet; largest on record - 150 x 700 feet with a trunk diameter of 38 feet ( multiple trunks combined ). A single tree may be large enough to shade an entire village. In terms of mass, this is one of the worlds largest trees. A single tree was known to have covered 5.3 acres. A famous tree in Calcutta is known to cover 3.5 acres and has a canopy over 400 feet in width. The support from the sturdy aerial roots which turn to additional trunks, prevent breakage in storms and hurricanes.
The stiff, leathery, broadly-oval leaves, up to 12 x 8 inches, are bronze at first turning to glossy deep green ( with bright green veins ).
The stalkless orange figs are often produced abundantly.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 ( tolerating 25 F ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, fertile, well drained soil. Drought tolerant but does not tolerate Mediterranean climates. It tolerates temperatures as high as 115 F. In the U.S.; the Indian Banyan thrives in south Florida and around Brownsville, Texas. Moderately salt tolerant. Propagation of cultivars is from leaf-bud and stem-tip cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



* photo taken on Nov 2009 in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida

* historic archive photo


Ficus benjamina ( Weeping Fig )
A fast growing, broad spreading, rounded, very large, spreading, evergreen tree, that is native to tropical Asia from India to Malaysia. The outer and lower branches are gracefully weeping.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 140 x 200 feet with a trunk diameter of 15 feet. It is very popular as a shade tree in the tropics as well as for use as a house plant or tropical foliage in shopping malls and office buildings in colder climates.
The Weeping Fig is very commonly planted in south Florida.
The drooping, pointed, ovate leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are glossy bright green turning to deep green.
The figs, up to 0.5 inches across, are bright red to reddish-brown.
The smooth bark is whitish to beige.
Hardy zones 9b to 12, some clones may be slightly hardier as some trees have been reported to grow well in Orlando. Very drought and moderately salt tolerant, also tolerant of flooding. Thrives in full sun to partial shade. Propagation of cultivars is from leaf-bud and stem-tip cuttings taken during summer.

* photo taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



'Exotica'
Fine pointed, thinner leaves.

'Golden Princess'
Foliage is tinged bright yellow.

'Indigo'
The very thick glossy leaves are very deep green maturing to bluish-black.

subsp 'Nuda'
A broadly spreading tree however it is not weeping like regular Ficus benjamina is.
The leaves are more narrow pointed.

'Variegata'
The lustrous foliage is widely margined with white and mottled with gray-green.

Ficus binnendiji
A large evergreen tree, that is very similar to Ficus benjaminii except for having narrow, willowy leaves, up to 8 inches in length. The foliage is deep green and also less likely to shed than that of Ficus benjaminii.
Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus callosa
A very beautiful, fast growing, very large, evergreen tree, that is native from India to far southern China; south to Sri Lanka through southeast Asia. Some records include: fastest growth rate - 11 feet with a trunk diameter increase of 2 inches; 2 years - 23 feet with trunk diameter of 3 inches; 8 years - 47 feet with trunk diameter of 10 inches; largest on record - 120+ feet.
The oval leaves, up to 30 x 8 ( usually half on adult trees ) inches, are glossy mid green.
The bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus capensis
A heavy crowned, large tree, that is native to the Cape Islands and tropical Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet.
The leaves, up to 9 x 5 inches, are mid-green.
The tasty fruits, up to 1.6 inches wide, are borne in large clusters. They can be used in jellies.
Hardy zones 10 to 11

Ficus carica ( Common Fig )
A variable tree typically around 20 feet in height though sometimes much more, that is native to northeast Africa, Saudi Arabia to Afghanistan. It may also be nativeto Spain and the Balkan Peninsula of Europe though now naturalized over much of southern Europe. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 8 feet; 22 years - 30 x 34 feet with a trunk diameter of 1.4 feet; largest on record - 80 x 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet. The canopy casts dense shade.
The foliage is thick, hairy and palmately 3 or 5 lobed with wavy margins. The leaves are up to 9 x 9 ( rarely 14 x 14 ) inches. The leaves are borne on stalks up to 4 inches in length. The thick, leathery, deep green foliage turns to bright yellow during autumn.
Fruits are pear shaped and purplish, up to 3.3 inches in length. Most modern varieties of Ficus carica do not need a pollinator to produce fruits. In mild climates, vigorous plants can produce 2 crops of fruit in a years. Figs are best eaten fresh but can be kept a few days in the fridge ( recommend to place them singly on paper towels ). They can also be frozen in sealed plastic sandwich bags. Dethaw them 2 hours before serving them sliced on top of vanilla ice cream.
The twigs are very stout.
The bark is smooth and gray.
Hardy zones 8 to 11 in full sun on well drained soil of moderate fertility ( too much nitrogen fertilizer caused excessive growth and less fruit though potassium applications during summer will enhance fruiting ). Common Fig requires long hot summers and are very drought tolerant. In cool climates they should be planted against a south facing wall. In climates with humid summers, the foliage is prone to mildew.
Prune during winter to open up the canopy, suckers should be removed. Young trees should be watered regularly until established, then water deeply once every 2 to 4 weeks in dry climates. They are generally not prone to disease.
Propagation is easy from cuttings and suckers. Layering is also an option.

* photo taken on May 1 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.

* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.



* photos taken on June 28 2011 in Columbia, MD



* photo of unknown internet source


* historical archive photos


* a much more complete listing of cultivars will be available here March 1, 2011

'Black Genoa'
A large tree bearing heavy crops of very sweet dull purple fruit with deep red flesh.

'Brown Turkey'
Vigorous growing, reaching in excess of 20 x 20 feet. This cultivar bears heavy crops of large, sweet fruit that are brown skinned with pink flesh. It mild climates, it may produce 2 crops of fruit per year. It is a self pollinator and can produce up to 50 pounds of fruit per year.
Hardy zones 7 to 9. It is the hardiest of all Figs.

* photo taken on Sep 15 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on June 12 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on May 7 2014 @ London Town Gardens, Edgewater, MD

* photo taken on Nov 14 2016 in Columbia, MD


'Celeste'
Rounded in habit, reaching up to 15 x 15 feet.
The deeply-lobed foliage is deep green.
Produces tasty fruits twice year.
Hardy zones 7 to 9.

'Chicago Hardy'
Reported to be even hardier than 'Brown Turkey', surviving as a perennial even in zone 6 if mulched heavily during winter. It is very vigorous, reaching substantial size even if cut back by a severe winter. It may even survive as a permanent shrub / small tree within the Philadelphia urban heat island. The very tasty, medium-sized fruits are borne late summer into autumn.

* photos taken on Aug 12 2016 in Howard Co., MD


'Kadota'
Very sweet fruit that is skinned pale yellow-green. It is among the most commonly grown cultivars in the northwest U.S. The fruits are excellent for preserves and jam.

'Mission'
Also called 'Black Mission'. Black skinned fruits that are good eaten fresh and dried. Hardy zones 7 to 9.

* photos taken on June 8 2012 in Columbia, MD
'White Adriatic'
Also known as 'Verdone'. Large growing but is not recommended outside of warm climates. The tasty figs are light greenish-brown skinned with dark pink flesh.

Ficus celebensis ( Celebes Weeping Fig )
A very large tree, that is native to eastern Indonesia, that has gracefully pendulous outer branches. Some records include: largest on record - 140 x 200 feet.
It is every bit as attractive and easy to grow as an indoor plant as is the popular Ficus benjamina.
The willow-like leaves, up to 6 x 1 inches, are glossy green.
The figs are small and pale-yellow.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus citrifolia ( Shortleaf Fig )
A fast growing, briefly deciduous to evergreen, large spreading tree, that is native to south Florida. the Caribbean and Central America south into South America as far as Paraguay. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 11.8 feet. This is one of the Banyan Firs, it often begins life by taking over another tree.
The heart-shaped base, ovate to elliptical leaves, up to 10 x 5 inches, are glossy deep green.
The fruits, up to an inch across, are yellow to deep red. They are sweet tasting and are good eaten raw. The fruits are produced very abundantly and a single tree may produce as many as a million in a single year.
The pink to reddish-purple fruits are much larger than that of similar Ficus aurea ( up to 1.5 inches across ) and are borne on much longer stems.
The sap is milky. The bark is light gray to light brown.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 on just about any well drained soil though doesn't like pure sand. Tolerant of drought and alkaline soils but does not tolerate salt winds near the ocean which can burn the leaves.
Propagation is easy from seed. Smash figs on paper, letthem dry and then brush the small seeds onto the soil in a container. Do not cover seeds with soil. Start in light shade.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photos


Ficus clusiifolia ( Red Fig )
Also called Ficus americana. A very fast growing, spreading, evergreen tree, that is native to the Atlantic rainforest of southern Brazil. Some records include: 2 years - 6.5 feet; largest on record - 100 x 82+ feet
The leathery, elliptic leaves, up to 3.2 x 1.6 inches in size, are glossy bright green.
The tasty, edible fruits, up to 0.3 inches wide, are yellow, later ripening to red.
Hardy zones 10b to 12.

* excellent photo link
https://www.flickr.com/photos/22591100@N08/4068227139/?ytcheck=1

Ficus coronata ( Creek Sandpaper Fig )
A fast growing, irregular outlined tree, that is native to the east coast of Australia, south to eastern Victoria. Some records include: largest on record - 50 x 17 feet. The Creek Sandpaper Fig frequently suckers from the lower trunk.
The ovate to elliptic leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are hairy at first, turning to luxuriant green.
The sweet, edible, velvety figs, up to 0.7 inches across, are dull purple when ripened.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Shade tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source


Ficus cotinifolia
A massive, evergreen tree, that is native to central America. Some records include: largest on record - 66 x 100 feet with trunk diameter of 11 feet. It is a strangler fig, typically beginning its life by vining up another tree before finally overtaking it.
The oblong leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are bright green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

* excellent photo links
http://www.desertmuseum.org/programs/images/Ficcot03.jpg
http://www.canada.com/story.html?id=6127804

Ficus dammaropsis ( Dinner Plate Fig )
A most spectacular, vigorous, wide spreading, huge, evergreen tree, that is native to mountains of New Guinea. Some records include: largest on record - 45 x 30 feet.
The very thick, deeply-red-veined, strongly corrugated, huge leaves, up to 3 x 2 FEET ( smaller on mature plants ), are green.
The figs, up to 4 inches across, are borne from the leaf axils.
Hardy zones 9 to 11, prefers warm temperate climates.

* photos of unknown internet source



Ficus deltoidea ( Mistletoe Fig )
A slow growing, dense, bushy, evergreen, medium size shrub to small tree, that is native to Sumatra and Borneo. Some records include: largest on record - 25 x 10 feet. It typically does not exceed 6 feet in height, often even smaller when growing from cliffs or the forks of trees.
It is a great landscape plant for embankments and rock outcrops.
The leathery, oval leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are bright green above, reddish beneath.
The abundant, small figs are dull pink.
Hardy zones 10 to 12 in full sun to partial shade on moist well drained soil. Propagation is from seed sown in spring or stem tip cuttings taken in summer.

Ficus destruens ( Rusty Fig )
A large tree, that is native to the rainforests of far northeast Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 105 x 70 feet.
This is one of the strangler Figs.
The leathery leaves, up to 12 x 6 inches, are green above, rust felted beneath.
They are similar to that of Ficus macrophylla but more narrow.
The figs are hard and orange-brown.
The young twigs are rusty felted.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus elastica ( Indian Rubber Tree )
A fast growing, spreading, large, evergreen tree, that is native to tropical Asia from Nepal to Burma. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 32 years - 112 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet; largest on record - 230 x 200 feet with a trunk diameter of 10.8 feet. The branched often produce a profusion of draping aerial roots. A popular shade tree in the tropics, it is also frequently used as an architectural indoor plant in homes, office lobbies and shopping malls. The Indian Rubber Tree was tapped for its sap which is turned into rubber during the 1800s, however has now been largely replaced by Havea brasiliensis - the unrelated Brazilian Rubber Tree.
The leaves, up to 15 x 6 ( rarely 24 x 7 ) inches, are deep green.
Hardy zones 9b to 12, tolerating as low as 25 F, requiring climates with an abundance of heat and humidity. Thrives in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil with any PH. Its aggressive root system may damage concrete and asphalt if planted too closely. Very drought tolerant ( during winter ) but does not tolerate Mediterranean climates. Moderately salt tolerant and is rarely bothered by pests or disease. Propagation of cultivars is from leaf-bud and stem-tip cuttings taken during summer.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach, Florida

* historic archive photos


'Aureo-marginata'
Foliage is luxuriant green with yellow margins.

'Burgundy'
Rich deep burgundy-red foliage.


* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach, Florida




'Decora'
Foliage is very broad and bronzy-green turning to very deep green. The new growth buds are large and red.

'Doescheri'
The foliage is an irregular creamy-white margin with the center of the leaf having a pink midrib and gray marbling.

'Robusta'
A smaller foliaged form of Ficus elastica 'Decora'.

'Schryveriana'
Foliage is red flushed at first, turning to deep green.

'Tricolor'
The gray-green foliage is variegated with pink and creamy-white as well as a red midrib.


* photo taken on 4th of July 2010 @ U.S. National Arboretum, D.C.


'Variegata'
The foliage is deep green variegated with creamy-white.

Ficus glumosa ( Mountain Fig )
A slow growing, medium-sized, evergreen tree, that is native to South Africa.
Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 4.5 feet.
The oval leaves, up to 6 x 3 inches, are green.
Hardy zones 7 to 9

Ficus hispida ( Hairy Fig )
A small tree, that is native to southern China; southeast Asia and parts of northern Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 60 feet
The oblong leaves, up to 10 x 5 inches, are mid-green above, hairy gray beneath.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

* photo of unknown internet source


Ficus hookeri
A large tree, that is native to the Himalayas ( from far northeast India to southern China ). Some records include: largest on record - 82 feet with a trunk diameter of 20 inches.
The elliptical leaves are up to 12 x 6 inches in size.
The bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 11.

Ficus infectoria ( Cuvi White Fig )
A fast growing, large spreading evergreen tree, that is native to southern Asia. Some records include: largest on record - 80 x 80 feet with a trunk diameter of 15.3 feet.
The leathery, oblong leaves, up to 8.5 x 4 inches, are glossy mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

* historic archive photo


Ficus ingens ( Red-Leaved Fig )
A fast growing, large tree, that is native to southern Arabia and much of Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 80 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 6 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 8 x 4 inches, are bright red-brown at first, turning to glossy green.
Hardy zones 9b to 12

Ficus insipida
A very large, evergreen tree, reaching a maximum height of 133 feet, that is native from Mexico to Brazil.
The thick, leathery, elliptical leaves, up to 10 x 4.5 inches, are mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus jacquini
A large evergreen tree, that is native to Caribbean. Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 3 feet.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are mid-green
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Ficus lutea ( Zulu Fig )
Also called Vogel's Fig and Nekbudu. A handsome, fast growing, very broad, rounded crowned, large tree, that is native to Madagascar and most of Africa south of the Sahara Desert. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 150 feet. This is one of the strangler figs.
The leaves, up to 18 x 8 inches, are luxuriant deep green.
The small figs, crowded at the branch tips, are orange to red.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus lyrata ( Fiddle-Leaf Fig )
Also called Ficus pandurata. An erect, bushy, rounded crowned tree, reaching around 70 feet, that is native to rainforests of tropical west and central Africa. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 3 feet; 4 years - 15+ feet; largest on record - 140 x 140 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet.
The stiff, huge, violin-shaped leaves, up to 24 x 12 inches, are luxuriant deep green.
The figs, up to 1.5 inches across, are green.
Hardy zones 9 to 12 in full sun to partial shade on just about any well drained soil.
Prefers soil PH under 6.5 and strongly dislikes temperatures below 45 F.

* photo taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Ficus macrophylla ( Moreton Bay Fig )
A fast growing, large tree, that is native to rainforests of the east coast of Australia from northern Queensland, south to southern New South Wales. It is also native to Lord Howe Island. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 120 years - 60 x 130 feet with a trunk diameter of 11 feet; largest on record - 235 x 250 feet with a trunk diameter of 17.7 feet. It is one of the strangler figs.
The massive buttress of the trunk base, extends outwares with massive surface roots snaking out over the ground up to 40 feet away.
The elliptical to oblong leaves, up to 12 x 6 inches, are glossy mid-green.
Hardy zones 9 to 11. Drought tolerant. Soil compaction can easily damage the shallow root sytstem, trees are often fenced off beneath.

* photo taken on Jan 2007 in Valparaiso, Chile

* photos of unknown internet source

* Photo of extremely tall tree emerging over forest canopy in native range

* historic archive photos


Ficus maxima
A large tree, reaching around 100 feet, that is native to the Caribbean and from southern Mexico, south into South America as far south as Paraguay. Some records include: largest on record - 135 feet
The narrow to oval leaves, up to 9 x 5 inches, are mid-green.
F. maxima is only pollinated by the fig wasp Tetrapus americanus, which is also completely dependent on Ficus maxima. Each tree bears both male and female flowers.
The fruits, up to an inch across, are borne singly.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

* photo of unknown internet source


Ficus minahassa ( Ayumit Fig )
A small evergreen tree. Some records include: largest on record - 40 x 55 feet with a trunk diameter of 2.5 feet ( Flamingo Gardens in Florida )
The leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches, are mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus mysorensis
A fast growing, large, evergreen tree, reaching around 70 feet, that is native to Mysore Province in southern India. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 4 feet; largest on record - 105 x 133 feet with a trunk diameter of 11.7 feet. A very large tree grows in Fort Myers, Florida.
The leaves, up to 13 x 7.5 inches, are mid-green.
The purple to black fruits, up to 2.5 inches long, are edible. They are great for making jelly. Hardy zones 9 to 12. Salt tolerant.

Ficus natalensis ( Natal Fig )
A fast growing tree, that is native from tropical to southern Africa. Some records include: largest on record - 100 x 50 feet. This strangler fig often develops aerial roots.
The leathery, spatula-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, are mid-green and oppositely arranged.
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Ficus nerifolia ( Willowleaf Fig )
A small tree, that is native to the Himalayas.
Some records include: 1.5 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 50 feet
The lance-shaped to ovate leaves, up to 9 x 3 inches, are glossy mid-green.
The smooth bark is dark gray.
Hardy zones 9 to 10.

Ficus nymphaeifolia ( Lotus Fig )
A tree, that is native from Costa Rica to northern South America ( south into Brazil ). Some records include: largest on record - 120 feet
The thin, rounded leaves, up to 16 x 16 inches, are deep green above, white beneath.
Hardy zones 11 to 12

Ficus obliqua
A very large, evergreen tree with a massive buttressed trunk, that is native to the Pacific Islands. Some records include: largest on record - 200 x 200 feet with a trunk diameter of 17.3 feet. It forms a spectacular shade tree.
The leaves, up to 6 x 2.5 inches, are mid-green.
The paired fruits, up to 0.3 inches across, are yellow ripening to orange.
The smooth bark is light gray with lighter lenticels.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

* photos of unknown internet source



* historic archive photos


Ficus padifolia
A tree, that is native from Mexico south into South America as far south as Paraguay. Some records include: largest on record - 100 feet
The leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches, are
Hardy zones

Ficus palmeri ( Baja Fig )
A fast growing, spreading, large, evergreen tree, that is native to the Baja Peninsula in Mexico. Some records include: 2 years - 13 feet; largest on record - 100 x 90 feet. This Fig is a succulent and its swollen trunk base stores water to sustain it during drought.
The prominently-veined, leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches, are downy white hairy at first, turning to smooth blue-green.
The paired, small, white figs, are up to 0.5 inches across.
The bark is white to yellowish.
Hardy zones 9 to 12, tolerating as low as 28 F. Very drought tolerant.

Ficus petiolaris ( Rock Fig )
A huge trunked, small tree, that is native to Mexico ( from the Baja Peninsula to Sonora; south to Oaxkaca ). Some records include: largest on record - 90 x 4o ( rarely over 30 ) feet.
The leaves, up to 3 inches in length, are mid-green.
The fruits are up to 0.5 inches wide.
Hardy zones 9b to 12

Ficus platypoda ( Rock Fig )
Also called Desert Fig. A very beautiful large evergreen tree, native from central Australia to southern Queensland.
Some records include: 122 years - 85 x 91 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.8 feet; largest on record - 100 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 6.8 feet.
The leathery leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The small figs are orangish-red. They are frequently consumed by bats and birds.
The smooth bark is light gray-brown.
Hardy zones 9b to 11. It is very drought tolerant and thrives in southern California.

subsp. 'minor'
Native to semiarid regions, is smaller growing with smaller leaves, only reaching up to 2 inches in length.

Ficus pleurocarpa ( Banyan Fig )
A dense, spreading, very large, evergreen tree, that is native to northeast Queensland in Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 115 x 115 feet
The oval leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are glossy deep green.
The banana-shaped fruits, up to 2 inches in length, are bright yellow.
The fruits are borne in clusters at the branch tips. The fruits generally ripen towards the end of the rainy season.
Hardy zones 9 to 12

Ficus pretoriae
A fast growing tree, that is native from Saudi Arabia, south to South Africa.
Some records include: largest on record - 75 x 165 feet. This tree can reach ages up to 1000 years.
The ovate leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus pseudopalma ( Dracaena Fig )
A multiple-stemmed, Palm-like tree, that is native to the Philippines.
Some records include: largest on record - 26 x 10 feet
The stiff, thick, long, narrow leaves, up to 40 x 6 inches, are mid-green.
The oblong figs, up to 1.5 inches in length, are green-purple.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus pumila ( Creeping Fig )
A fast growing, self-clinging, evergreen, that is native to most of southern China, Japan and northern Vietnam. Some records include: largest on record - 60 x 100 feet ( vining on wall ). A single plant can cover a 40 foot wall in 10 years. It is great for covering large surfaces such as highway walls.
The heart-shaped leaves, up to 5 x 2 inches in size ( foliage on older less vigorous growth is typically much smaller ), are luxuriant bright to mid green. Creeping Fig becomes deciduous at 10 F.
The barrel-shaped fruits, up to 1.6 inches long, are purplish-green.
Hardy zones 7b to 12 in sun or shade on just about any moist, well drained soil. Salt tolerant. Regular clipping is required to maintain its juvenile leaf habit.

* photo of unknown internet source


Ficus racemosa ( Cluster Fig )
Also called Ficus glomerata. A tree, that is native from Pakistan to southern China; south to Sri Lanka to southeast Asia and far northern Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 17 feet.
The elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 3.5 inches, are mid to deep green above, bright green below.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus religiosa ( Sacred Fig )
Also called Bo Tree. A fast growing, dense canopied, broad spreading, deciduous to semi-evergreen, very large tree, that is native from the Himalayan foothills in India to mountains of southeast Asia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 10 feet; largest on record - 130 x 1000 feet with a trunk diameter of 12 + feet. In monsoon climates it becomes deciduous during the dry season.
This is one of the strangler figs that often begins its life within another tree which it eventually takes over.
The broadly-ovate leaves, up to 15 x 12 ( usually half that ) inches, are glossy mid-green.
The bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 9 to 12. Very drought and salt tolerant.

* photo of unknown internet source



Ficus retusa nitida ( Chinese Banyan )
Also called Indian Laurel. A fast growing, very dense, broad spreading, rounded, large evergreen tree, that is native to southeast Asia including Japan and southern China. It is also native to northeastern Australia. Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; 65 years - trunk diameter of 5.5 feet; largest on record - 105 x 200 feet with a trunk diameter of 30 feet ( multi-trunk combined measurement ). The Chinese Banyan produces abundant aerial roots from both the trunk and limbs. Very long-lived, it can live up to 800 years, maybe more.
The ovate leaves, up to 5 x 3.5 inches, are glossy deep green.
The figs, up to 0.5 inches across, are dull purple.
The smooth bark is pale gray.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, tolerating as low as 26 F, preferring full sun to partial shade on moist, sandy soil. Drought tolerant. The very invasive roots may damage concrete and asphalt if planted too closely. May be prone to thrips in some regions.

* photos taken on Jan 3 2011 @ Deerfield Beach Arboretum, Florida



'Green Gem'
Foliage is deeper green. Resistant to thrips.

var 'Hillii'
A very attractive, weeping, medium-sized, evergreen tree, that is native to Queensland, Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 66 x 50 feet.
Frequently planted in Australia.

var 'microcarpa'
The Chinese subspecies of Ficus retusa. It can be sheared and its dense foliage makes it useful as a tall hedge or screen.

Ficus roxburghii - See Ficus auriculata

Ficus rubiginosa ( Rusty Fig )
Also called Port Jackson Fig. A fast growing, broad, domed, large evergreen tree, that is native to Australia's east coast. Some records include: largest on record - 200 x 120 feet with a trunk diameter of 23 feet. This is one of the Banyan Figs.
The thick, leathery, oval leaves, up to 8 x 3 inches, are deep green above, olive-green to rusty brown beneath. There is also a rare cultivar with golden-yellow variegated foliage.
The warty, yellow-green figs, are borne in pairs, ripening during autumn.
The massive buttressed trunk has smooth gray bark. The Rusty Fig has abundant aerial roots.
Hardy zones 9 to 11 in full sun to partial shade on moist, sandy soil. Tolerant of salt winds.

* photo taken on Jan 2007 in Valparaiso, Chile

* photo of unknown internet source


'Australia'
Foliage is not rusty beneath.

Ficus salicifolia ( Wonderboom )
A massive, spreading, evergreen tree, that is native from tropical eastern Africa; south to South Africa. It can reach a maximum size of 73 x 170 feet with a trunk diameter of 5.7 feet. Very long lived, this tree can reach ages up to 1214 years.
The oblong leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are blue-green. The foliage is poisonous to cattle.
The yellowish-red fruits, up to 0.2 inches wide, are borne from the leaf axils.
Hardy zones 9 to 12.

Ficus superba ( Sea Fig )
Also called Cinnamon Fig. A fast growing, briefly deciduous tree, that is native to southeast Asia north to China and Japan ( also native to the Molucca Islands ).
Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 5 feet. It is an excellent shade tree.
The thick, oval to elliptical leaves, up to 10 x 5 inches, are pink at first, turning to glossy mid-green.
The figs, up to 1 inch across, are dull purple and clustered on short stalks. They are frequently fed upon by Flying Foxes.
The bark is gray to reddish-brown.
Hardy zones 9 to 11

var. henneana
Native to northern Australia and lower growing in habit.

Ficus sur ( Broom Cluster Fig )
A fast growing, broad rounded, semi-evergreen to evergreen tree, that is native to Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Cape Verde Islands.
Some records include: largest on record - 120 x 120 feet.
The roots are aggressive and may damage concrete and asphalt if planted too close.
The spirally arranged, oval leaves, up to 11 x 7 inches, are mid-green.
The edible figs, borne in clusters from old wood, are green turning to orange or red.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, tolerating as low as 28 F, requiring abundant water ( often found along riverbanks in its native range ).

Ficus sycamorus ( Sycamore Fig )
A massive-trunked, broad spreading, briefly deciduous, large tree, that is native to the Arabian Peninsula and north of Sudan in Africa.
Some records include: fastest recorded growth rate - 5 feet; largest on record - 150 x 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 13 feet. Very long lived, the Sycamore Fig can exceed 2000 years in age
The prominently-veined, sandpapery, rounded leaves, up to 8 x 6 inches, are deep green above, pale green beneath.
The edible, small, velvety, yellow to orange or red, rounded figs, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne on short branched up to 4 inches in length.
The bark is yellowish.
Hardy zones 10 to 12, tolerating as low as 30 F. Very drought tolerant, it thrives in climates with as little as 20 inches of rainfall per year.

* photo of unknown internet source

* historic archive photo


Ficus thonningi
A fast growing, large, evergreen tree, that is native to the Cape Verde Islands.
Some records include: largest on record - 80 x 100 feet with a trunk diameter of 4 feet. It is one of the strangler figs and often begins life as a vine.
The elliptical leaves, up to 7 x 3 inches, are deep green.
Hardy zones 7 to 11

Ficus tomentella
A huge, massive tree, that is native to Brazil. It can reach up to 65 x 70 feet with a trunk up to 7 feet across.
The ovate leaves are glossy mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12.

Ficus utilis ( Zulu Fig )
A very largetree, reaching a maximum size of 80 x 120 feet, that is native to tropical Africa. This Fig does produce aerial roots.
The leaves, up to 18 x 8 inches, are mid-green.
Hardy zones 10 to 12

Ficus virens ( Spotted Fig )
Also called Ficus wightiana. A fast growing, massive-limbed, spreading, briefly deciduous tree, that is native from Pakistan & India to southern China to Japan to the Solomon Islands; south to northern Australia. Some records include: largest on record - 131 x 131 feet with a trunk diameter of 19.8 feet. The outer branches gracefully droop and like the Banyan, it has many aerial and piller roots. It is commonly planted in New Delhi. Very long-lived, this tree can persist as long as 1200 years.
The prominently-veined, ovate to elliptical leaves, up to 8 x 5 inches, are scarlet-red, turning to deep green.
The finely-hairy figs, borne in pairs from the leaf axils, are green turning to white with red dots.
The bark is vertically furrowed.
Hardy zones 9b to 12 ( supposedly native to S Shaanxi Province which is zone 8b so hardiest seed source deserves further testing )

* historic archive photo


Ficus watkinsoniana ( Watkins Fig )
A fast growing, large tree, that is native to eastern Australia.
Some records include: largest on record - 200 x 150 feet with a trunk diameter of 11.4 feet.
The leaves, up to 12 x 5 inches, are mid-green.
The fruits are dark purple and spotted black.
Hardy zones 8 to 11

1 comment:

  1. Hi I took a picture of a ficus auriculata during my last trekking in nepal. I've been helped by a nepali lady to find the name of this tree. Never seen before, it has round green fruit directly attached to the tree, without leaves.
    bye
    Luna

    ReplyDelete