Saturday, January 16, 2010

Artemisia

An extremely large genus of drought tolerant trees, shrubs and perennials.
Many of the silvery species look great around a water feature or pool, especially during evening or night. Most are tolerant of heat and drought as well as salt, excessive winds and even fire. Healthy plants are rarely bothered by insect pests or disease. Many species can be divided during autumn or early spring.

* photo taken on May 16 2011 in Washington, D.C.


Artemisia abrotanum ( Southernwood )
An erect, bushy, rounded, semi-evergreen, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 6 x 7 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to southern and eastern Europe. Some records include: 10 years - 5.5 feet.
It is not invasive but will slowly spread to form a patch.
A very attractive foliage plant for the border.
The spicy fragrant, feathery, finely-divided leaves are up to 3.2 inches in length. The foliage is downy gray-green to bright green.
The tiny, yellow-green flowers are borne in clusters up to 12 inches in length, during early to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on rocky or sandy well drained soil. Heat and drought tolerant. Cut back hard during early spring then clip during mid summer to encourage bushiness.
Propagation is from semi-ripe cuttings taken during summmer.

* photo taken on June 30 2013 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC


'Guizho'
Deep green foliage contrasts nicely with deep mahogany-red stems.
The flowers are creamy-white.

Artemisia absinthium ( Wormwood )
A fast growing to invasive, subshrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 5.5 x 5 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native to grasslands from eastern Europe to western Siberia. It is locally naturalized in eastern North America to as far north as southern Saskatchewan, Thunder Bay and Haliburton, Ontario.
The aromatic leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are silvery-gray.
The small flowers are borne on heads up to 0.2 inches wide.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on just about and dry, well drained soil. Extremely cold tolerant; it thrives in the southern half of Alberta. Tolerant of poor soil and is very drought tolerant, even thriving on pure sand. Prune back after flowering. This plant is best cut back to 6 inches in height during early spring to encourage fresh vigorous growth. Wormwood is NOT eaten by deer. Propagation is easy from root division and seed.
The roots of Wormwood release a natural herbicide that inhibits growth of many types of plants within a few feet. This chemical is destroyed by fire.
This is the Wormwood that is the famous ingredient in an Absinthe, an alcoholic beverage which is said to leave the mind alert and clear yet also cause hullucinations in many. Despite being illegal in many countries, Absinthe is no more toxic than other high alcoholic content beverages. Absinthe was very much loved by artists such as Van Gogh and Picasso. Absinthe is made by softening or breaking Absinthe into pieces using a liquid, along with Calamus, Fennel and Angelica as well as a few other herbs.

* photos taken on May 21 2014 @ Hampton Historical Site, Towson, MD


'Huntington'
Forms a loose upright bush, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet.
The silvery-gray foliage is very similar to that of Artemisia 'Powis Castle' but is double the size.

'Lambrook Silver'
Reaches up to 3 feet in height with intense silvery foliage.

Artemisia alba
A semi-evergreen, spreading perennial, reaching up to 2.5 feet in height, that is native to central & southern Europe and northern Africa. The foliage is bright green.
The tiny yellow flower heads are borne during late summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. Propagation is from division during early spring or mid-autumn or cuttings taken during summer.

'Canescens'
Similar but lower ( to 1.5 x 6 feet ) with very finely-cut, silvery-white foliage.
It is great for use as edging or on tops of walls.

Artemisia arborescens ( Shrub Wormwood )
An erect, rounded, evergreen shrub, reaching up to 5 x 5 feet in 10 years though averaging closer to 4 x 2.5 feet. It is native to Mediterranean parts of Europe.
The aromatic, filagree leaves are silvery-white.
The bright yellow flowers are borne on rounded panicles during summer into early autumn.
Some records include: largest on record - 7 x 8 feet
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on well drained to dry soil, preferring a warm site protected from excessive wind. Tolerant of salt wind and drought, thriving in coastal areas. Deer and rabbit resistant.
Propagate from softwood or semi-ripe cuttings taken during summer.

'Beth Chatto'
Like 'Powis Castle' but shorter, only reaching up to 1.5 feet in height with silver foliage.

'Powis Castle'
An upright, shrubby perennial reaching around 4 x 6 feet. Some records include: 1 st year from quart size container - 3 x 3 feet; largest on record - 6 x 10 + feet.
Can be trained as a standard or also clipped as a low hedge. It does NOT spread invasivly.
The feathery foliage is silvery-gray. Does not usually flower.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 ( herbaceous perennial on protected sites zones 4 and 5 ). Very drought tolerant.
It is recommended to cut this plant back to 6 inches from the base in early spring to encourage vigorous fresh new growth.

* photos of unknown internet source




* photo taken on Sep 5 2013 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on May 7 2014 in Elkridge, MD

* photo taken on Aug 15 2014 at Maryland Zoo, Baltimore, MD

* photo taken @ Smithsonian Inst, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014

* photos taken @ U.S. Botanical Garden, Wash., DC on Aug 25 2014


Artemisia brachyloba
A sy hrubbperennial, forming a dense foliage clump, up to 2 x 6 ( rarely over 1 ) feet in size, that is native to acid grassland and desert in Mongolia and far northwest China.
The aromatic foliage is finely-cut and silvery.
The small yellow flowers are borne on stems up to 4 inches high.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil. It does not enjoy winter wetness.

Artemisia californica ( California Sagebrush )
A fast growing, rounded to domed, evergreen shrub, reaching a maximum size of 13 x 7 feet, that is native to California and the Baja Peninsula.
The leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are divided into 2 to 4 thread-like lobes up to 2 inches long. The hairy foliage can be either bright green or silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 10 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It prefers a mediterranean climate with little or no summer rainfall. Tolerant of alkaline soil, salt and clay. It requires an average yearly rainfall of just 12 + inches.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Canyon Gray'
A very attractive, fast growing, low, spreading groundcover form, reaching a maximum size of 20 inches x 13 feet.
The foliage is intensely silver-gray.
Hardy zones 7 to 10.

Artemisia cana ( Plains Sage )
A fast growing, deeply-rooted, rhizomatous shrub, reaching a maximum size of 6.5 x 5 ( usually under 3 ) feet, that is native to western and central North America ( from British Columbia to Red Deer, Alberta to Saskathewan to Manitoba; south to central California to northern Arizona to central New Mexico to western Nebraska to western Minnesota ). It is usually found on hilly prairies in the wild.
The aromatic, linear to lance-shaped leaves, up to 4 x 0.4 inches in size, are silvery-gray.
The tiny, yellow flowers are borne during late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on very well drained soil. Tolerant of extreme drought, salt, alkaline soil and also temporary flooding.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Artemisia caucasica
Also called Artemisia lanata.An excellent groundcover shrubbby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1.5 x 6 feet, that is native from southern Spain to the Ukraine.
The slightly aromatic, deeply-cut leaves, up to 1 inch in length, are hairy and silvery.
The small yellowish-green flowers are borne in rounded clusters, up to 3 inches wide, during summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil. Very tolerant of heat and cold, it hates winter wetness.

Artemisia chinensis 'Rosenschleir'
A perennial, similar to Artemisia lactiflora, reaching a maximum size of 5 x 2 feet.
The stems are deep black and the foliage is deep green. The flowers are soft pink.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun.

Artemisia dracunculus 'Sativa' ( French Tarragon )
Also called Dragon Wormwood. A rhizome spreading, perennial herb, reaching up to 6.5 x 3.5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet. It has been found in the wild around Kenora, Ontario and has been grown as far north as Edmonton in Alberta.
The very aromatic, linear leaves, up to 1 inch long, are glossy deep green.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 ( mulch during winter north of zone 6 ) in full sun. It requires a distinct cold season and does not enjoy the long hot humid summers of the southeastern U.S. Propagation is from division or cuttings.

Artemisia frigida ( Fringed Sage )
A low, bushy, woody-based perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 3 feet, that is native to western and central North America ( from far northern Alaska to far southwest Northwest Territories to Grande Prairie, Alberta to Edmonton, Alberta to southern Saskatchewan to Dauphin, Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario to central Wisconsin; south to central Arizona to northwest Texas ). Deciduous in cold regions, it becomes evergreen in mild climates. It is found on dry prairies in the wild.
The aromatic, soft appearing but leathery foliage is silvery-gray.
The flowers appear during early summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun, it is very drought tolerant due to its deep taproot. It is not tolerant of wet soil where it may be prone to rot. Fringed Sage is resistant to rabbits but not deer. Cut back after flowering to keep plants dense and vigorous.

* photos taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Artemisia genipi
A low, bushy perennial, forming flat cushions, up to 8 x 33 inches in size, that is native to high elevations of the high Alps in central Europe.
The finely-cut, pinnately-lobed foliage is intensely silvery-gray.
The tiny yellow flowers are borne on spikes during mid-summer to early autumn.
Hardy zones 3b to 7 in full sun on very well drained soil. It does not like hot humid summers.

Artemisia 'Huntingdon'
An upright, shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 7 x 6 ( rarely over 4 ) feet. The silvery foliage is similar to that of 'Powis Castle'.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. It is highly drought tolerant. Cut back to a height of 6 inches during early spring.

Artemisia lactiflora ( White Sage )
Also called White Mugwort. An erect, large, clumping perennial, reaching up to 6.5 x 4 ( rarely over 4 ) feet, that is native from India to western China; south into southeast Asia.
The coarsely-toothed leaves, up to 10 inches in length, are gray-green.
The creamy-white flowers are borne in pyramidal sprays, up to 2 feet in length, from mid summer to mid autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun on moist, light soil.

'Guizho'
A stunning plant, reaching up to 6 x 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet, with ferny blackish-green foliage contrasting with mahogany-red stems. Creamy-white flowers are borne in erect sprays during summer. The foliage contrasts very well with the flowers.

Artemisia ludoviciana ( Silver Sage )
A rapid spreading, rhizomatous, bushy, upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 4 x 4+ feet, that is native to western and central North America ( from Mackenzie, British Columbia to Dawson Creek, B.C. to Slave Lake, Alberta to Vermilion, Alberta to Dauphin, Manitoba to Kenora, Ontario to Thunder Bay, Ontario to Tobermory, Ontario to Haliburton, Ontario, south to Mexico to Arkansas ). It may become invasive and often forms large colonies. It is found on dry sandy open woods and dunes in the wild. This plant and its cultivars look great with deep purple bold foliaged plants.
The aromatic, narrow, lance-shaped leaves, up to 6 x 0.6 ( rarely over 4.5 ) inches in size, are intense silvery-gray.
The attractive foliage is bold rather than ferny, it remains attractive all season.
The very small grayish-white flowers are borne in sprays during mid summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 3 for Alberta seed source ) in full sun on well drained soil ( may be too fast growing on sandy soil ). Extremely drought and heat tolerant. Prune back hard in autumn.
Propagation is easy from division while dormant and cuttings.

* photo taken on Apr 24 2016 @ U.S. National Arboretum, DC

* photo taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Albula'
Reaches a maximum size of 4 x 2 ( rarely over 2 ) feet, with aromatic, dense, finely-cut foliage.

'Silver Frost'
Reaches up to 2 x 3 feet with very narrow, silvery foliage that give a feathery appearance.

'Silver King'
Vigorous in habit, reaching up to 4 x 4+ ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet with intense grayish-white foliage, up to 5 inches in length. The tiny silvery-white flowers give a misty appearance.
Hardy zones 2 to 9

'Silver Queen'
A rapid spreading perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3.2 x 5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet.
The silvery-gray foliage ( up to 6 inches in length ) is topped by profuse tiny white "buttons" during late summer.

* photo taken on Oct 2 2014 in Ellicott City, MD


'Valerie Finnis'
A fast growing to invasive spreading perennial forming a clump, up to 3 x 5 ( rarely over 2 ) feet.
The broad, barely serrated leaves, up to 4 inches in length, are silvery-white.
Very attractive used as a groundcover.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 in full sun.

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ U.S. Botanical Gardens, Washington, DC


Artemisia maritima ( Sea Wormwood )
A shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2 feet, that is native to Europe and much of western and central Asia. It is usually found in salt marshes and sandy shorelines in the wild.
The aromatic, dainty, very finely-cut leaves, up to 3.2 inches in length, are woolly and silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 8. Cut back hard during early spring.

Artemisia pontica ( Roman Wormwood )
A very attractive, rhizomatous, shrubby, groundcover perennial reaching a maximum size of 4 x 3.5+ ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet. It is native to grassy hills from Germany to the Black Sea region of eastern Europe.
The beautiful, highly fragrant, finely divided, silvery leaves are up to 2 x 0.8 inches in size.
The inconspicuous flowers are borne mid-summer to mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( 2 & 3 on protected sites ) in full sun to partial shade on well drained soil. Very drought tolerant. It may be invasive on sandy soil.
Clip 1 or 2 times per season for density, the Roman Wormwood looks best with flowering stems cut back.

Artemisia purshiana
Reaches up to 50 inches in height, and is spreading in habit.
The foliage is silvery.
Hardy zones 5 to 8

Artemisia pycnocephala ( Beach Sagebrush )
A deeply-rooted, woody-based, bushy, domed, evergreen perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 3.3 feet, that is native to coastal sand dunes from southern Oregon to central Califoria.
The finely-textured, soft foliage is intensely silvery-gray.
The tiny flowers are yellow.
Hardy zones 7 to 9 in full sun to partial shade on very well drained soil. It is tolerant of salt and pure sand. Cut back hard every few years for renovation.

'David's Choice'
Very attractive, dense and fast growing, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet with erect stems bearing hairy, grayish-green to grayish-white foliage.
It is hardier than regular Artemisia pycnocephala north to zone 6. More tolerant of clay than Artemisia schmidtiana 'Silver Mound'. Despite its coastal origins, it is very heat tolerant.

Artemisia schmidtiana ( Satiny Wormwood )
A dome-shaped perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2 x 3 feet, with aromatic, finely-cut, silvery foliage, that is native to shore dunes in far eastern Russia, Sakhalin as well as northern & central Japan. In central Japan, it is restricted to high mountains.
The foliage is silvery-white.
The small yellowish flowers are borne on 0.3 inch heads during autumn.
Hardy zones 1 to 8 in full sun on sandy or light, well drained soil. Very drought and heat tolerant.
This plant is NOT eaten by deer.

'Silver Mound'
Forms a compact dome, up to 1 x 3 feet of silvery foliage.
It is excellent for edging and in the rock garden.
Plants should be cut back hard to a 2 inch stump in early summer as they begin to bloom - they will resprout vigorously in about 2 weeks. Plants that are not cut back during early summer often become leggy and flop over late in the summer.
Hardy zones 1 to 8

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on May 14 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photo of unknown internet source

* photo taken on Aug 2 2013 in Goderich, Ontario

* photo taken on Sep 9 2014 in Columbia, MD


Artemisia sericea
A rhizomatous, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 2.5 x 3.3 feet, that is native from eastern Europe to central Asia.
The elliptic leaves, up to 2 x 1.6 inches in size, are finely pinnately-lobed. The foliage is gray-green.
The tiny flowers are borne during early autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil.

Artemisia stelleriana ( Beach Wormwood )
A low spreading, evergreen, shrubby perennial, reaching up to 32 inches x 6 feet ( usually closer to 2.5 x 3 feet ), that is native to the sandy sea coasts of northeastern Asia including Sakhalin, Kamchatka, Kurile Islands and northern Japan. Excellent for planting on the seashore.
The aromatic, deeply-lobed, oblong leaves, up to 4 x 2 inches in size, are heavily felted and silvery-white.
The tiny, yellow flowers are borne in sprays during late summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7 in full sun to partial shade, tolerating as low as -50 F
Requires excellent drainage. Propagation from seed and semi-ripe heel cuttings.
Cut plants back while flowering to encourage new foliage growth.

* photos taken on Dec 4 2011 in Columbia, MD





'Silver Brockade'
A low shrubby perennial with attractive, serrate-edged, silvery-white foliage, up to 4 inches in length. Some records include: 5 years - 1 x 5 feet ( Calgary ).
It is excellent for edging and in the rock garden ( esp when mixed with pink, red, purple and blue ).
It is hardy north to zone 3 in full sun to partial shade preferring moist, well drained, acidic soil however it is very drought tolerant. It thrives even in Alberta.
Plants should be pruned back in early spring then again during mid summer to encourage vigorous fresh new growth.

* photo taken on May 15 2011 in Columbia, MD

* photos taken on Oct 21 2014 @ Smithsonian Inst., Washington, DC


Artemisia tridentata ( Big Sagebrush )
The largest of the Sages; it is native to dry valleys of the Rocky Mountains in western North America ( from Kamloops, British Columbia to southern Alberta to North Dakota; south to southern Nevada to southern Colorado ).
Fast growing, typically reaching up to 15 feet, some records include: largest on record - 35 x 30 feet with a trunk diameter of 1 foot. Some records include: 10 years - 10 x 10 feet. Can be thinned and trained as a tree.
Sagebrush is extremely valuable for shelter for wildlife in dry intermontane zones where few other woody plants grow.
The aromatic, wedge-shaped ( with 3 teeth at the tips ) leaves are up to 2 x 0.6 inches in size. The alternately arranged, late deciduous to evergreen leaves are silvery-gray. The sweet fragrance of the Big Sagebrush can be smalled after a desert rain.
The brownish flowers are borne in long narrow clusters.
The young shoots are dense gray felted.
The bark on older plants is shredded.
Hardy zones 3 to 8, tolerating as low as -43 F. Big Sagebrush prefers full sun on deep, well drained soil. It is very drought tolerant but does not like saline conditions. It is not known to grow in the humid east.
Propgation is from fresh seed sown on moist soil, though germination isn't always reliable.
The roots of Big Sagebrush releases a natural herbicide into the soil which prevents the growth of many other plants by as much as 6 feet away. This natural herbicide is destroyed by fire.
It is not generally eaten by livestock and thus often outcompetes forageable plants on rangelands.
The plants are sometimes dried and burned on barbecues for flavoring.
Big Sagebrush has also been used to flavor tea and alcoholic beverages.
The leaves can be burned in campfires to repel insects. They are also useful for repelling insect when stored with food.
The aromatic leaves were burned in sweat lodges by some native tribes.

* photo of unknown internet source

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by A.C. Hull @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database

* photo taken by Albert Everett Wieslander and the Marian Koshland Bioscience and Natural Resources Library


Artemisia valesiaca ( Valais Wormwood )
A shrubby perennial, reaching a maximum size of 20 x inches x 3 feet, that is native to central Asia as well as a relic steppe in Switzerland.
The aromatic, very finely-cut foliage is silvery-blue to nearly white.
The tiny white flowers are borne on slender, arching sprays, up to 8 inches in length, during late summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 6 to 8 in full sun on very well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant.

Artemisia versicolor
An upright, spreading, semi-evergreen shrubby perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 2 feet.
The finely cut foliage is intensely silvery-gray.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on just about any well drained soil. It is extremely drought tolerant. Remove old flower stalks after blooming to encourage compact habit.

'Sea Foam' ( Curlicue Sage )
A very attractive, vigorous, low-mounding, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 1.5 x 2.5 feet.
Very finely textured silvery-white foliage forms foamy curls.
Hardy zones 4 to 9 in full sun on well drained soil. Very heat and drought tolerant. Deer and rabbit resistant.

* photos taken @ National Zoo, Wash., DC on Aug 3 2014


Artemisia vulgaris ( Mugwort )
An invasive rhizome spreading perennial reaching up to 8 x 6 ( rarely over 5 ) feet, that is native to Europe. It has become an invasive weed in much of North America to as far north as Winnipeg in Manitoba; Minaki, Sault Ste Marie, Wiarton and Haliburton, Ontario.
The obovate leaves are up to 5 x 2.8 ( usually much smaller ) in size.
The greenish flowers are borne mid-summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 3 to 8. Prone to rot in wet soil.

* photo taken on Sep 14 2013 in Columbia, MD

* photo taken on Oct 22 2013 in Towson, MD

* photo taken by Doug Goldman @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Oriental Limelight'
Forms a clump, up to 3 x 6 feet, with green and yellow variegated foliage.

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