Saturday, January 16, 2010

Potentilla

Potentilla

Potentilla fruticosa ( Shrubby Cinquefoil )
Also called Dasiphora fruticosa. A dense bushy shrub to 5 x 6.5 feet that is native over wide parts of the Northern Hemisphere including some northern parts of the British Isles. In North America, it is found from northern Alaska to northwest Northwest Territories to far northern Ontario to Labrador and Newfoundland; south to central California to northern Arizona to western South Dakota to northern Minnesota to northern Illinois to central Ohio to northern New Jersey ). In Eurasia; it is native from eastern Europe to Kamchatka south to Mongolia to far northern Japan. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was only known from the Castalia Prairie on the Ohio shore where it was abundant during the 1800s. Some records include: 5 years - 6 feet; largest on record - 6 x 6.5 feet. In the wild; it is usually found on open, sandy or rocky areas.
The small, palmately-arranged leaves, up to 1.5 inches long, are divided into 5 or 7 oblong leaflets, up to 0.8 x 0.3 inches in size. The foliage is blue-green to mid-green.
The showy flowers, up to 1.2 inches wide, are borne during summer and fall. It is known to bloom to as late as October 10th in northern Ohio. They attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
Hardy zones 1 to 6 in sun to partial shade on fertile, well drained loam. The Shrubby Cinquefoil prefers soil with lots of lime. Use native seed source only in California as most named cultivars originate in cooler moister climates. Cultivars with orange, red or pink flowers will fade in intense sun and actually look better with some afternoon shade. The Shrubby Cinquefoil is resistant to heat, drought, fire, deer and salt. Can be cut nearly to ground in March to renovate and should be every 3 to 5 years. Even if not cut back to ground; cutting back by a third and removing weaker canes in March will still increase vigor.
Potentilla is sometimes prone to spider mites, esp on hot dry sites.
It is propagated from cuttings in summer or seed in autumn.

* photo taken on August 2 2010 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on August 4 2010 @ Stratford, Ontario

* photo of unknown internet source


* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Abbottswood'
Abundant white flowers from June to October on a bushy spreading shrub to 5 x 5.5 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3 x 4 feet.
The deep blue-green leaves are divided into 5 leaflets.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

* photos taken on Aug 2 2012 in Bayfield, Ontario

* photo taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Dakota Goldrush'
Reaches up to 3.5 x 5 feet with deep blue-green leaves all season.
The golden-yellow flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, are borne all summer into autumn.
Hardy north to zone 2b

'Dakota Sunspot'
Reaches up to 3 x 5 feet with deep golden-yellow flowers, up to an inch across.
Hardy north to zone 2b but also very heat tolerant.

'Daydawn'
Flowers are yellow with orange-pink tinges from June to October on a slightly arching bushy shrub to 4 x 4 feet.
The medium green leaves are divided into 5 to 7 narrow oval leaflets.
Hardy zones 2 to 8

'Elizabeth'
A vigorous, dense, bushy, mounded shrub up to 6 x 5 ( rarely over 3 ) feet.
It bears abundant, large bright golden-yellow flowers, up to 1.7 inches wide, from May to October on
The soft gray-green leaves are divided into 5 narrowly oval leaflets.
Hardy zones 2 to 7. Prone to red spider mites and mildew.

'Farrer's White'
Abundant, large, single white flowers, up to 1 inch across, from June to October on a rounded, upright, bushy shrub to 4 x 4 feet.
The gray-green leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets.
Hardy zones 3 to 7.

'Freidrichsenii'
Large, abundant, single, bright yellow flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, from May to October on a very vigorous shrub up to 6.5 x 6 feet.
The gray-green leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets.
Hardy zones 3 to 7

'Gold Drop'
Abundant, golden-yellow flowers on a bushy shrub reaching up to 3 x 3 feet in 5 years, eventually 4 x 4 feet.
The foliage is bright green.
The flowers appear early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

'Goldfinger'
Bright yellow flowers up to 2 inches across on a shrub reaching up to 5 x 5 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3.3 x 4.3 feet.
The foliage is bright green, turning to very deep green.
The flowers appear early summer into mid-autumn. Hardy zones 2 to 6.

* photos taken on July 14 2016 in Tobermory, ON


'Goldstar'
Very large golden-yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, on a shrub up to 4 x 4 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3 feet.
The mildew-resistant foliage is silvery-green at first, turning to deep green.
The abundant flowers appear early summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 6

'Katherine Dykes'
Abundant bright yellow flowers, up to 1 inch wide, on a vigorous, rounded shrub up to 6.6 x 6 feet. Some records include: 9 years - 4.3 x 5 feet.
The foliage is gray-green.
Hardy north to zone 2.

'McKay's White'
Abundant, creamy-white flowers on a shrub reaching up to 4 x 6 feet in just 5 years.
The blue-green foliage turns to yellowish-green during autumn.
The flowers appear early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 6.

'Mango Tango'
A dwarf rounded form originating from the University of Manitoba, reaching an eventual maximum size of 3 x 3 feet, with deep orange-yellow flowers all summer. Some records include: 5 years - 2 x 2 feet.
The foliage is bright green.
Hardy zones 2 to 6. Highly recommended for the northern Great Plains including Alberta.

'Moonlight'
Soft creamy-yellow flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, on a vigorous shrub up to 5 x 8 feet.
The foliage is blue-green.

'Ochroleuca'
Lemony white flowers

'Pink Beauty'
A dense, arching shrub, reaching up to 3.3 x 6.5 feet in 5 years, eventually 4 x 6.5 feet.
The hairy bright green foliage turns to yellowish-green during autumn.
The very abundant, clear pink flowers appear early summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 6. Highly recommended on the Canadian Prairies including Alberta.

'Primrose Beauty'
Rich creamy-yellow flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, on a shrub up to 5 x 7 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3.3 x 4.6 feet.
The foliage is gray-green.

'Purdomii
Pale yellow flowers on a shrub reaching up to 6 x 7 feet.
The foliage is bright green.

'Red Ace'
Abundant, large, intense scarlet-red flowers from May to October on a low spreading shrub reaching up to 3 x 5 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 3 x 4 feet.
The deep green leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets. The foliage turns to yellowish-green during autumn.
The flowers often fade to yellow during the hottest part of summer.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

* photo taken by Milan Havlis, owner of central Europe's premier plant nursery


'Red Robin'
Brick-red flowers on a shrub reaching up to 2.5 x 3.5 feet in 5 years.
The foliage is mid-green.
Hardy north to zone 2a, highly recommended for the Canadian Prairies including Alberta.

'Sunset'
An arching, bushy shrub reaching up to 3 x 4 feet.
The glossy mid-green leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets.
The abundant, large, single orange flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, appear early summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

'Tangerine'
A mounding shrub reaching up to 4 x 4 feet in 5 years, eventually 4 x 5 feet.
The foliage is gray-green.
The mid-orange flowers, up to 1.3 inches across, appear early summer into mid-autumn.
Hardy zones 2 to 6, preferring partial shade.

'Vilmorineana'
Abundant, large, single, creamy-white with yellow center flowers, up to 1.5 inches across, on a vigorous, upright, bushy shrub to 7 x 7 feet. Some records include: 5 years - 4.3 feet.
The silvery-gray leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

'Yellow Gem'
Large, intense yellow flowers and hairy gray-green foliage on a spreading, low shrub reaching up to 26 inches x 5.5 feet in 5 years, rarely larger.
The flowers are borne late spring to mid autumn.
Highly recommended for the northern Great Plains including Alberta. Great for mass groundcover, edging and large containers.
Prune back slightly during the middle of summer for first 3 years to encourage dense habit.
Hardy zones 2 to 7

Similar species:

Potentilla arbuscula
A shrub reaching up to 4 x 5 feet that is native to northeast Asia.
The flowers are deep yellow and the foliage is silky and mid green.

Potentilla davurica
A shrub reaching up to 3.3 x 5 feet that is native to northeast Asia. The flowers are white and the foliage is deep glossy green. Hardy north to zone 1

subsp mandschurica
Pure white flowers from May to September on a dense, mounding shrub to 4 x 3.5 feet. The silvery-gray leaves are divided into 5 narrow oval leaflets.
The shoots are reddish-pink. Hardy zones 2 to 7

subsp. veitchii
White disk shaped flowers on a gracefully arching shrub up to 5 x 5 feet.
The foliage is hairy.

Potentilla parvifolia
Small deep yellow flowes on a shrub reaching up to 4 x 4 feet. It is native to eastern Asia.
The gray-green leaves are divided into very small and narrow leaflets.
Hardy north to zone 2

Potentilla salesoviana
An attractive deciduous shrub with upright purplish stems reaching up to 4 feet in height that is native to Siberia and Turkestan; south to the Himalayas and western China.
The large deep green pinnate leaves up to 4 inches in length are divided into 7 to 13 leaflets up to 1.5 x 0.7 inches in size.
The white flowers, up to 1.3 inches wide, are produced in terminal clusters in mid summer.
This very rare shrub is hardy zones 2 to 8 and requires sandy soil.
It typically dies back somewhat in winter and should be cut back hard in spring.

Perennial Species

Potentilla arguta ( Prairie Cinquefoil )
Also called Drymocallis arguta. An upright clumping perennial, reaching up to 3.3 x 1 feet in size, that is a widespread native of prairies and open woods in North America ( from Anchorage, Alaska to southern Yukon to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories to Fort McMurray, Alberta to Saskatoon, Saskatchewan to Kenora, Ontario around the north shore of Lake Superior to Quebec & New Brunswick; south to Oregon to northern Nevada to northeast Arizona to central Oklahoma to northern Arkansas to central Indiana to western Virginia to central Maryland ). In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was found on the Lake Erie islands as well as the Ohio shore during the 1800s.
The palmate leaves are composed of 5 to 11 toothed leaflets, each up to 3 x 2 inches in size. The foliage is covered in white hairs.
The creamy-yellow flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are borne on open terminal clusters.
Hardy zones 2 to 8 in full sun to partial shade on light, well drained soil. It often self seeds but not invasively so. Drought tolerant. It is rarely bothered by pests or disease.

* photo taken by Robert Tatina @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora

* photo of unknown internet source


Potentilla atrosanguinea ( Himalayan Cinquefoil )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3.5 feet, that is native to sandy riverbanks and open woods in the Himalayas from Pakistan to Tibet Province of China.
The foliage is silvery-green. The leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 5 elliptic or obovate leaflets that are up to 0.8 x 0.6 inches in size.
The deep red flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne early to mid summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Potentilla aurea
A moderate growing, dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 1 foot.
The compound leaves are made of 5 deeply-toothed, elliptical leaflets.
The semi-evergreen foliage is luxuriant, glossy bright green.
The pale yellow flowers are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Potentilla cinerea
Also called Potentilla tommasiniana. A low, mat-forming perennial.
The attractive foliage is silvery-gray.
The bright yellow flowers are borne during early summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

'Snowhite'
An improved form, reaching a maximum height of 4 inches.
The pure white flowers are borne profusely during late spring to early summer, then sporadically for the remainder of summer.

Potentilla crantzii
Also called Potentilla alpestris. A tufted, dwarf perennial, reaching a maximum size of 1 x 1 foot. It is native to the eastern regions of the Canadian Arctic, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia and high mountains in central Europe. It is found in tundra, alpine meadows and gravelly or sandy riverbanks in the wild. It is endangered in Ontario where it is found in Polar Bear Provincial Park east of Winisk.
The golden-yellow ( blotched orange at the base ) flowers are borne in loose clusters during spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade on moist, sandy or gravelly, well drained soil.

Potentilla cuneata
A slow rhizome spreading, groundcover herbaceous perennial, that is native to high elevations of Sikkim Prov. in India, Bhutan, Nepal and southwest China ( Yunnan, Tibet and Sichuan ). Typically reaching up to 1 foot in height, after a few decades a single plant can spread to over 6.5 feet.
The trifoliate leaves, composed of toothed, mid-green leaflets turn to orange and red during autumn.
The profuse, golden-yellow flowers are borne mid summer to early autumn then sporadically until mid autumn.
Hardy zones 5 to 9 in full sun on moist soil.

Potentilla fedtschenkoana
A perennial, reaching up to 20 inches in height, that is native to the Tien Shan Mountains in central Asia.
The palmate leaves are composed of 5 or 6 deeply-lobed leaflets. The very attractive, fuzzy foliage is glossy bright green above, silvery-white beneath.
The abundant, yellow flowers are borne during summer.
Hardy zones 4 to 6 ( est )

Potentilla fragiformis
Also called Potentilla megalantha. A moderate growing, rhizomatous, mat-forming perennial, reaching up to 1 foot x 16 inches, that is native to Kamchatka and Japan.
The compound leaves, up to 6 x 6 inches in size, are composed of toothed, 3 broad elliptical leaflets. The fuzzy, semi-evergreen foliage is luxuriant bright green to silvery-gray.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne over a 3 week period during early summer
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun on well drained soil.

Potentilla glandulosa ( Sticky Cinquefoil )
A herbaceous perennial, reaching up to 2 x 3 feet, that is native to meadows and open woods in western North America ( from British Columbia to Alberta to northeast Montana to western South Dakota; south to southern California to southwest New Mexico ).
The pinnate leaves are composed of 3 to 9 toothed, oval leaflets.
The creamy-yellow flowers are borne all summer long. They attract hummingbirds and butterflies.
The stems are red.
Hardy zones 6 to 10 ( hardiest seed source likely also 4 & 5 ) in full sun to partial shade on moist, well drained soil. It requires 28 + inches of yearly precip.

* photo taken by Bob Moseley @ USDA NRCS. 1992. Western wetland flora


Potentilla x hybrida
Semi-evergreen, clumping perennials, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3.3 feet.
They are a group of complex hybrids that frequently include Potentilla atrosanguinea and P. nepalensis.
The compound leaves, up to 8 inches in length, are composed of 3 deeply-toothed, oval to elliptical leaflets, up to 3 inches in length.
The foliage is deep green above, hairy whitish beneath.
The abundant flowers, up to 2 inches across, are borne late spring to late summer.
The flowers may range from yellow to orange, deep red and reddish-purple depending on cultivar.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.



'Flamenco'
Intense scarlet-red, single flowers.

'Gibson Scarlet'
Reaches a maximum size of 2 x 2 ( rarely over 1.5 ) feet, with green foliage and abundant, intense scarlet-red flowers.

'M Rouillard'
Very deep red, double flowers.

* photos of unknown internet source



'Wm. Rollison'
Semi-double flowers are orangish-red with a yellow reverse.

'Yellow Queen'
Reaches a maximum height of 1.5 feet, with silvery-green foliage and semi-double, bright yellow flowers that are borne early.
The foliage is gray-green.

Potentilla nepalensis ( Nepalese Cinquefoil )
A moderate growing, bushy, upright perennial, reaching a maximum size of 3 x 3 feet, that is native to mountain meadows of the western Himalayas. Cut back after flowering or they may be short-lived lasting only 3 or 4 years.
The palmate leaves, up to 12 inches in length, are composed of 5 coarsely-toothed, obovate leaflets up to 5 inches in length. The hairy foliage is glossy deep green.
The abundant, rosy-red, single flowers, up to 1.6 inches across, are borne on branched sprays from late spring to late summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 8 in full sun.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Firedance'
Flowers are pinkish-orange deepening to scarlet-red in the center.

'Miss Wilmott'
Red flowers that are centered deeper red.

* photo of unknown internet source


'Ron McBeath'
Compact in habit, reaching up to 1 x 2 feet with deep red flowers borne late spring to mid summer.

Potentilla palustris ( Marsh Cinquefoil )
Also called Comarum palustre. A rhizomatous, woody-based perennial, reaching up to 1.6 x 6.5+ feet in size, that is a widespread of temperate Eurasia as well as North America ( from far northern Alaska to far northwest Northwest Territories to Nunavut to far northern Ontario to far northern Quebec to Labrador, Newfoundland & Greenland; south to northern California to North Dakota to northern Illinois to northern New Jersey ). It is found in marshes and shorelines in its natural range. In the Windsor/Essex County, Ontario region; it was abundant in marshland around Point Pelee during the 1800s.
The palmate leaves are composed of 5 or 7 toothed, lance-shaped leaflets, up to 1.6 x 0.6 inches in size. The foliage is glossy blue-green.
The flowers, up to 1 inch wide, are deep purplle.
Hardy zones 2 to 6 in full sun on wet soil.

* USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


Potentilla recta 'Warrenii' ( Sulfer Cinquefoil )
A perennial, reaching a maximum size of 32 inches x 2.5 feet, that is native from much of Europe to northwestern China. It has also naturalized in much of North America. It is usually found on dry sandy or gravelly roadsides, fields and open woods.
The leaves are composed of 9 toothed, oblong leaflets, up to 4 x 0.6 ( rarely over 2 ) inches in size. The foliage is mid-green.
The bright yellow flowers, up to 1 inch across, are borne on cymes all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun on sandy, well drained soil. Propagation is from division during autumn or early spring.

Potentilla tabernaemontana ( Spring Cinquefoil )
Also called Potentilla verna and P. neumanniana. A vigorous to invasive, mat-forming perennial, reaching a maximum size of 9 x 40 inches. The stems root as they touch the ground. It makes a great plant for the rock garden.
The abundant, golden-yellow flowers, up to 0.5 inches wide, are borne during mid-spring.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade. Very salt tolerant, it makes a great groundcover for parking lot islands.

Potentilla thurberi ( Scarlet Cinquefoil )
A perennial, up to 2.5 feet high, that is native to moist mountains in the southwestern U.S. ( from central Arizona to central New Mexico; south to northern Mexico ).
The palmate leaves are composed of 5 or 7 toothed leaflets, up to 2 inches in length.
The deep red flowers, up to 1 inch wide, appear during early summer.
Hardy zones 5 to 8 in full sun on well drained soil.

* photo taken by Patrick J. Alexander @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database


'Monarch's Velvet'
A long-lived, rounded, bushy perennial, reaching a maximum size of 2.8 x 3 ( rarely over 2.5 ) feet.
The deep pinkish-red ( with a deeper red center ) are borne all summer long.
Hardy zones 3 to 7 in full sun to partial shade.

Potentilla tonguei ( Staghorn Cinquefoil )
A fast growing, long-lived, evergreen, clumping perennial, reaching up to 1 x 1.3 feet in size.
The palmate leaved are composed of 3 or 5 obovate leaflets. The deep green foliage remains evergreen to about 15 F.
The orange ( centered red ) flowers are borne atop the foliage from early summer into early autumn.
Hardy zones 4 to 8 ( tolerating -30 F ) in full sun on sandy, well drained soil. Propagation is from division during autumn or early spring.

Potentilla tridentata ( Wine-Leaved Cinquefoil )
Also called Sibbaldia tridentata. A low, evergreen, groundcover perennial, reaching up to 6 inches in height, that is native to sandy or rocky areas in northern North America ( from Mackenzie region of Northwest Territories to far northern Ontario to Labrador, Newfoundland and Greenland; south to northeast North Dakota to northeast Iowa to Chicago, Illinois to central Michigan to Midland, Ontario to Perth, Ontario to northeast Pennsylvania...it is found further south in the Appalachian Mtns. to as far south as northern Georgia ). In Ontario, it is native to the entire northern 3/4ths to as far south as Parry Sound and Algonquin National Park. It is extinct in North Dakota, Iowa, Tennessee, Georgia, Pennsylvania and Connecticutt. It is endangered in Alberta, West Virginia and Virginia.
The trifoliate leaves are composed of 3 leaflets, each up to 1 inch long. The glossy mid-green foliage turns to deep red during winter.
The very small, white flowers, up to 0.6 inches wide, are borne in clusters from late spring to mid-summer.
Hardy zones 3 to 6 in full sun to partial shade on cool, sandy, acidic, well drained soil.

'Minima'
Very low growing, reaching only 3 inches in height.

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